# Study sets matching "behavioral statistics"

Study sets

Diagrams

Classes

Users

Inferential Statistics

Null Hypothesis testing

Statistically Significant

Type I error

Draw conclusions about populations and relationship using samp…

The hypothesis that that there is no effect in the population…

Reject the null hypothesis

False positive, rejecting when we shouldn't.

Inferential Statistics

Draw conclusions about populations and relationship using samp…

Null Hypothesis testing

The hypothesis that that there is no effect in the population…

One Sample t-Test

Dependent Samples t-Test

Independent Samples t-Test

One Way ANOVA

1 DV -- DV = continuous/ratio; ... 0 IV... Assumptions: outcome is…

1 DV -- DV= continuous/ratio... 1 (or 0) IV -- IV = binary (or no…

1 DV -- DV = continuous/ratio... 1 IV -- IV = binary ... Assumption…

1 DV -- DV = continuous/ratio... 1 IV -- IV = categorical ... Assum…

One Sample t-Test

1 DV -- DV = continuous/ratio; ... 0 IV... Assumptions: outcome is…

Dependent Samples t-Test

1 DV -- DV= continuous/ratio... 1 (or 0) IV -- IV = binary (or no…

correlation

correlation coefficient

no relationship

direct relationship

a single number & one of the most common useful stats that des…

main result of a correlation or "r" which ranges from +1.0 to…

when "r" is too close to 0

as A increases, so does B... as A decreases, so does B... positive c…

correlation

a single number & one of the most common useful stats that des…

correlation coefficient

main result of a correlation or "r" which ranges from +1.0 to…

Population

Sample

Random Sampling

Sampling Error

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or s…

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being inc…

The naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists bet…

Population

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

Sample

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or s…

Type One Error

Type Two Error

Hypothesis Testing

Null Hypothesis

Probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when, in the real…

Probability of failing to reject the null hypothesis when, in…

An inferential procedure which uses data from samples to estab…

USUALLY means that the samples selected from the same distribu…

Type One Error

Probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when, in the real…

Type Two Error

Probability of failing to reject the null hypothesis when, in…

Levels of Measurement: Questions we ask…

Categorical level of measurement

Ordinal level of measurement

Continuous Level of Measurement

1) are there at least two... 2) are there more than two? ... 3) can…

- think of categories you place people into... -if there's only t…

-can categories be ranked? ... -the quantitative differences betw…

-distances are equidistant... -0 does not imply absence of trait…

Levels of Measurement: Questions we ask…

1) are there at least two... 2) are there more than two? ... 3) can…

Categorical level of measurement

- think of categories you place people into... -if there's only t…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Variable

Types of Variables

Allows us to summarize or describe a set of numbers.... (Building…

Allows us to make generalizations from the known to the unknow…

Any characteristic that can vary or take on different values.

1. Continuous Variable... 2. Discrete (Categorical) Variable

Descriptive Statistics

Allows us to summarize or describe a set of numbers.... (Building…

Inferential Statistics

Allows us to make generalizations from the known to the unknow…

True of false. You can't use sum of squ…

Range formula

What is the goal of variability?

Which of the following sets of scores h…

True

High score - low score + 1

To obtain a measure of how spread out the scores are in a dist…

2, 3, 7, 12

True of false. You can't use sum of squ…

True

Range formula

High score - low score + 1

Categorical scales... Naming, labeling, id…

Order or ranking... Position in a series... M…

Provides information about differences…

Single unit differences always have exa…

Nominal Scales

Ordinal Scales

Interval Scales

Ratio Scales

Categorical scales... Naming, labeling, id…

Nominal Scales

Order or ranking... Position in a series... M…

Ordinal Scales

Population

Sample

Statistics

Parameter

Complete collection or set of events in which you are interest…

Set of actual observations; subset of a population

Numerical value summarizing sample data. Identifies patterns a…

Numerical value summarizing population data.

Population

Complete collection or set of events in which you are interest…

Sample

Set of actual observations; subset of a population

Parameter

Population

Sample

Random Sample

Quantity calculated from a population

The set of all objects we are interested in researching

A subset of the population

When each member of a population has an equal likelihood of be…

Parameter

Quantity calculated from a population

Population

The set of all objects we are interested in researching

hypothesis test

null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis

level of significance or alpha level

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hy…

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change,…

(H1) states that there is a change, a difference, or a relatio…

is a probability value that is used to define the concept of "…

hypothesis test

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hy…

null hypothesis

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change,…

Statistics

Sample

Population

Parameters

a number that summarizes info about the sample, or a set of to…

actual observations the researcher makes (The TU students who…

The entire set of events/people in which the researcher is int…

numbers that summarize a whole population [GPA, age, majors of…

Statistics

a number that summarizes info about the sample, or a set of to…

Sample

actual observations the researcher makes (The TU students who…

Variability

Purpose of measuring variability

Range

Deviation

quantitative measure of the difference between scores in a dis…

1. Describes the distribution... 2. Describes how well an individ…

distance covered in the distribution from lowest to highest sc…

distance from the mean

Variability

quantitative measure of the difference between scores in a dis…

Purpose of measuring variability

1. Describes the distribution... 2. Describes how well an individ…

estimated standard error

t statistic

degrees of freedom (df)

t distribution

Estimate of the real standard error, when the population mean…

Is used to test hypothesis about an unknown population mean, w…

The number of individual scores that can vary without changing…

is the complete set of t values computed for every possible ra…

estimated standard error

Estimate of the real standard error, when the population mean…

t statistic

Is used to test hypothesis about an unknown population mean, w…

Population

Sample

Data

Data Set

a set of individuals in interest in a particular study

set of individuals selected from a population who are intended…

refers to the measurements of observations of things we want t…

refers to the entire collection of data within a study (sum of…

Population

a set of individuals in interest in a particular study

Sample

set of individuals selected from a population who are intended…

Hypothesis test

Four steps of a hypothesis test

Null hypothesis

Null hypothesis symbol

statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hypothe…

1. State the hypothesis... 2. Set the criteria for a decision... 3.…

states there is no change in the general population or the IV…

Hypothesis test

statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hypothe…

Four steps of a hypothesis test

1. State the hypothesis... 2. Set the criteria for a decision... 3.…

what question do cross-sectional studie…

what do cross-sectional studies measure

what do case-control studies look for

what question do case-control studies a…

what is happening?

prevalence

prior exposure/risk factor in groups of people either with the…

what happened?

what question do cross-sectional studie…

what is happening?

what do cross-sectional studies measure

prevalence

Frequency distribution

Proportion

Percentage

Grouped frequency distribution

an organized tabulation of the number of individuals located i…

p=f/N

p(100)=f/N(100)

Frequency distribution in which scores are grouped into interv…

Frequency distribution

an organized tabulation of the number of individuals located i…

Proportion

p=f/N

statistics use

goal of statistics

population

sample

-used to organize and summarize info... -used to determine what c…

-accurate and meaningful interpretation... -standardized procedur…

-set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study…

set of individuals selected FROM a population to REPRESENT a p…

statistics use

-used to organize and summarize info... -used to determine what c…

goal of statistics

-accurate and meaningful interpretation... -standardized procedur…

Statistics

Population

Sample

Constructs

A set of methods and rules for organizing, summarizing and int…

Is the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular…

Is a set of individuals selected from a population, usually in…

Are internal attributes of characteristics that cannot be dire…

Statistics

A set of methods and rules for organizing, summarizing and int…

Population

Is the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular…

Purpose for Frequency Distribution Tabl…

Histogram

The height of the bars represents:

Frequencies

Organize results and shows where all scores are located on sca…

Is a statistical figure consisting of vertical bars; a drawing…

Frequencies.

Are the counts of how many participants in a study have a part…

Purpose for Frequency Distribution Tabl…

Organize results and shows where all scores are located on sca…

Histogram

Is a statistical figure consisting of vertical bars; a drawing…

Central Tendency

Goal of Central Tendency

Mean

Mean of population

statistical measure to determine a single score that defines t…

to find the single score that is most typical or most represen…

sum of the scores in a distribution divided by the number of s…

Central Tendency

statistical measure to determine a single score that defines t…

Goal of Central Tendency

to find the single score that is most typical or most represen…

Correlation (Pearson Correlation)

positive correlation

negative correlation

Talks about relationships between two groups. Correlation does…

the data varies in the same way--if A goes up than B goes up o…

If A goes up than B goes down. If B goes up than A goes down.…

Correlation (Pearson Correlation)

Talks about relationships between two groups. Correlation does…

positive correlation

the data varies in the same way--if A goes up than B goes up o…