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Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Variable

Types of Variables

Allows us to summarize or describe a set of numbers.... (Buildin…

Allows us to make generalizations from the known to the unkno…

Any characteristic that can vary or take on different values.

1. Continuous Variable... 2. Discrete (Categorical) Variable

Descriptive Statistics

Allows us to summarize or describe a set of numbers.... (Buildin…

Inferential Statistics

Allows us to make generalizations from the known to the unkno…

Population

Sample

Statistics

Parameter

Complete collection or set of events in which you are interes…

Set of actual observations; subset of a population

Numerical value summarizing sample data. Identifies patterns…

Numerical value summarizing population data.

Population

Complete collection or set of events in which you are interes…

Sample

Set of actual observations; subset of a population

Dependent Samples T-Test

One Way ANOVA

Independent Samples T-Test

Factorial ANOVA

*More than one time point... Dependent Variable: 1, Continous or…

Dependent Variable:1, Continuos or Ratio... Independent Variable…

Dependent Variable: 1,Continuos or Ratio... Independent Variable…

Dependent Variable: 1, Continuous or Ratio... Independent Variab…

Dependent Samples T-Test

*More than one time point... Dependent Variable: 1, Continous or…

One Way ANOVA

Dependent Variable:1, Continuos or Ratio... Independent Variable…

Descriptive statistics

inferential

probability

Population

describes data you have

when you try and make generalizations to population

bridge to both descriptive and inferential statistics

entire group you are interested in

Descriptive statistics

describes data you have

inferential

when you try and make generalizations to population

Nominal Scale

Ordinal Scale

"High Ordinal" Scale

Interval Scale

Reporting Descriptive Statistics:... Categories are used. The va…

Reporting Descriptive Statistics:... Categories are used, but ar…

Reporting Descriptive Statistics:... There is no guarantee that…

Reporting Descriptive Statistics:... The difference between "1"…

Nominal Scale

Reporting Descriptive Statistics:... Categories are used. The va…

Ordinal Scale

Reporting Descriptive Statistics:... Categories are used, but ar…

Goal of correlational studies

How data is collected in correlational…

Strengths of correlational studies

Weaknesses of correlational studies

To establish the degree of relationship that exists between/a…

Survey instruments and/or interviews

- Large amount of info... - Short time period... - Easily generaliz…

- Cannot determine causal relationships... - Survey/interview qu…

Goal of correlational studies

To establish the degree of relationship that exists between/a…

How data is collected in correlational…

Survey instruments and/or interviews

Cross-sectional study... ----- design

What does a cross-sectional study meas…

Case-control study

What does a case-control study measure?

Collects data from a group of people to assess frequency of d…

disease prevalence... Can show risk factor association with dis…

Compares a group of people with disease to a group without di…

Odds ratio (OR)... "Patients with COPD had higher odds of a his…

Cross-sectional study... ----- design

Collects data from a group of people to assess frequency of d…

What does a cross-sectional study meas…

disease prevalence... Can show risk factor association with dis…

Categorical scales... Naming, labeling, i…

Order or ranking... Position in a series…

Provides information about differences…

Single unit differences always have ex…

Nominal Scales

Ordinal Scales

Interval Scales

Ratio Scales

Categorical scales... Naming, labeling, i…

Nominal Scales

Order or ranking... Position in a series…

Ordinal Scales

statistics

population

sample

variable

mathematical procedure of organizing, summarizing, and interp…

set of individuals of interest in a particular study

a set of individuals selected from a population, usually inte…

a characteristics or condition that changes or has different…

statistics

mathematical procedure of organizing, summarizing, and interp…

population

set of individuals of interest in a particular study

Characteristics of Normal Curve

Properties of a Theoritical normal curve

3 Standard deviations about the mean

Mean of z score distribution

1.Many variables in BSS are approximately normally distribute…

1. Mean median and mode have the same numerical value... 2.Bell-…

99.74%

Always equal 0

Characteristics of Normal Curve

1.Many variables in BSS are approximately normally distribute…

Properties of a Theoritical normal curve

1. Mean median and mode have the same numerical value... 2.Bell-…

Independent Measures

When to use Independent t-test

Assumptions Underlying Independent-Mea…

Homogeneity of variance

•Known as between-subjects ... •difference between two populatio…

• mean or population is unknown... •Test mean difference between…

•Observations within each sample must be independent ... •The tw…

Assumption that the two populations from which the two sample…

Independent Measures

•Known as between-subjects ... •difference between two populatio…

When to use Independent t-test

• mean or population is unknown... •Test mean difference between…

What are the 3 most important componen…

What are the three measures of central…

What is central tendency?

Describe the mean (M)

1. Center of a distribution (measures of central tendency)... 2.…

mean, median, mode

a single score that is the most typical, common, or frequentl…

- Arithmetic average... - Add all scores and divide by the numbe…

What are the 3 most important componen…

1. Center of a distribution (measures of central tendency)... 2.…

What are the three measures of central…

mean, median, mode

Parameter

Population

Sample

Random Sample

Quantity calculated from a population

The set of all objects we are interested in researching

A subset of the population

When each member of a population has an equal likelihood of b…

Parameter

Quantity calculated from a population

Population

The set of all objects we are interested in researching

Distribution of sample means

Two requirements that must be satisfie…

Standard Error

Type I error

Set of sample means obtained from all possible random samples…

1. All individuals must have an equal opportunity to be chose…

The value that measures the average size of the difference be…

Exists when a researcher rejects a null hypothesis that is ac…

Distribution of sample means

Set of sample means obtained from all possible random samples…

Two requirements that must be satisfie…

1. All individuals must have an equal opportunity to be chose…

Statistics

Parameter

Nominal Scale of Measurement

Ordinal Scale of Measurement

It is a field of study concerned with summarizing data, inter…

A value calculated in a population. For example, the mean of…

One of the levels of measurment that uses one class or anothe…

Ordered values, but there is no set distance between each value

Statistics

It is a field of study concerned with summarizing data, inter…

Parameter

A value calculated in a population. For example, the mean of…

What are the three measures of variabi…

Variability

Range

Range Formula: for Continuous Data

The range, the variance, and the standard deviation

The extent to which scores vary within a dataset

The distance between the smallest and largest score in a data…

URL, Xmax - LRL, Xmin

What are the three measures of variabi…

The range, the variance, and the standard deviation

Variability

The extent to which scores vary within a dataset

frequency - (f)

How do you find frequency - (f) ?

N

distribution

the number of times a score occurs

count the number of times a particular score occurs

the total number of scores in the data, listed as a total of…

any organized set of data

frequency - (f)

the number of times a score occurs

How do you find frequency - (f) ?

count the number of times a particular score occurs

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Variable

Types of Variables

Allows us to summarize or describe a set of numbers.... (Buildin…

Allows us to make generalizations from the known to the unkno…

Any characteristic that can vary or take on different values.

1. Continuous Variable... 2. Discrete (Categorical) Variable

Descriptive Statistics

Allows us to summarize or describe a set of numbers.... (Buildin…

Inferential Statistics

Allows us to make generalizations from the known to the unkno…

Raw Scores

Frequency (f)

Frequency Distribution

Bar Graph

the scores initially measured in a study

the number of times each score occurs in a set of data; also…

a distribution showing the number of times each score occurs…

a graph showing a vertical bar over each X score, but adjacen…

Raw Scores

the scores initially measured in a study

Frequency (f)

the number of times each score occurs in a set of data; also…

statistics

population

sample

variable

a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing…

the set of all individuals of interest in a particular study

a set of individuals selected from a population, usually inte…

a characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…

statistics

a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing…

population

the set of all individuals of interest in a particular study

what question do cross-sectional studi…

what do cross-sectional studies measure

what do case-control studies look for

what question do case-control studies…

what is happening?

prevalence

prior exposure/risk factor in groups of people either with th…

what happened?

what question do cross-sectional studi…

what is happening?

what do cross-sectional studies measure

prevalence

statistical notation

the order of operations

rounding

transformation

the standardized code for symbolizing the mathematical operat…

P.E.M.D.A.S - Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally, start with Pa…

Always carry out calculations with full figures, but round th…

use of a procedure to convert a set of scores into a differen…

statistical notation

the standardized code for symbolizing the mathematical operat…

the order of operations

P.E.M.D.A.S - Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally, start with Pa…

Two-Factor ANOVA

Factors

Fully Crossed design

Example of nested factors

compares the mean differences between groups that have been s…

independent variables, in T-F ANOVA must have 2+ levels... We in…

every combination of levels of factors

3 Public schools and 3 Private schools. All levels (schools)…

Two-Factor ANOVA

compares the mean differences between groups that have been s…

Factors

independent variables, in T-F ANOVA must have 2+ levels... We in…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Variable

Types of Variables

Allows us to summarize or describe a set of numbers.... (Buildin…

Allows us to make generalizations from the known to the unkno…

Any characteristic that can vary or take on different values.

1. Continuous Variable... 2. Discrete (Categorical) Variable

Descriptive Statistics

Allows us to summarize or describe a set of numbers.... (Buildin…

Inferential Statistics

Allows us to make generalizations from the known to the unkno…

In a sample of women, the number of ch…

Military ranks are an example of what…

Gender is an example of what level of…

In which of the following situations i…

Ratio

Ordinal

Nominal

The researcher has ordinal data

In a sample of women, the number of ch…

Ratio

Military ranks are an example of what…

Ordinal

population

sample

participants

random sample

the entire group of individuals to which a law of nature appl…

a relatively small subset of a population that is intended to…

also called subjects; the individuals studied and measured as…

the participants in our sample are randomly selected from the…

population

the entire group of individuals to which a law of nature appl…

sample

a relatively small subset of a population that is intended to…

Population

Sample

Random Sampling

Sampling Error

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being in…

The naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists be…

Population

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

Sample

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…

Quantitive Variable

Qualitative Variable

Relationships

Strength of a Relationship

A score that indicates the "amount" of a variable that is pre…

A score that classifies an individual on the basis of some ch…

Occurs when a change in one variable is accompanied by a cons…

The extent to which one value of Y is consistently associated…

Quantitive Variable

A score that indicates the "amount" of a variable that is pre…

Qualitative Variable

A score that classifies an individual on the basis of some ch…

Statistics

History

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

-The mathematics of the collection, organization, and interpr…

-State Numbers ... -Governments generate volumes of statistical…

Produces a number or a figure that summarizes or describe a s…

The arithmetic average

Statistics

-The mathematics of the collection, organization, and interpr…

History

-State Numbers ... -Governments generate volumes of statistical…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Validity

Central Tendency

class of techniques and measures used to explore and describe…

class of analytical methods used to determine the probability…

the strength or value of a descriptive or inferential statist…

also typicality. Reflects the best guess for future values

Descriptive Statistics

class of techniques and measures used to explore and describe…

Inferential Statistics

class of analytical methods used to determine the probability…

Degrees of Freedom

How many degrees of freedom are associ…

How many degrees of freedom are associ…

Alternative hypothesis

The number of scores that are free to vary

N

N-1

Claims that the difference in results between conditions is d…

Degrees of Freedom

The number of scores that are free to vary

How many degrees of freedom are associ…

N

X

ΣX

frequency = f

N

a score... Score___... X= 6.......... X= 5.......... X= 2.......

the sum of the scores (ΣX = X+X+X)... Score______________f... X= 6…

the number of times a score occurs

the total number of scores in the data; the total number of f…

X

a score... Score___... X= 6.......... X= 5.......... X= 2.......

ΣX

the sum of the scores (ΣX = X+X+X)... Score______________f... X= 6…

hypothesis

hypothesis/significance testing

null hypothesis (H0)

alternative hypothesis

a statement or proposed explanation for an observation, a phe…

a method for testing a claim or hypothesis about a parameter…

statement about a population parameter, such as the populatio…

statement that directly contradicts a null hypothesis by stat…

hypothesis

a statement or proposed explanation for an observation, a phe…

hypothesis/significance testing

a method for testing a claim or hypothesis about a parameter…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

statistics

parameters

a type of statistic that describes a set of data

a type of statistic that uses statistics to infer parameters

measures on a sample

measures on a population

Descriptive Statistics

a type of statistic that describes a set of data

Inferential Statistics

a type of statistic that uses statistics to infer parameters

An SRS of 18 recent birth records at t…

Bags of a certain brand of tortilla ch…

Bags of a certain brand of tortilla ch…

The water diet requires one to drink t…

1.53

0.26

A stemplot of the data has a large outlier

we would not reject H0 at significance level 0.10.

An SRS of 18 recent birth records at t…

1.53

Bags of a certain brand of tortilla ch…

0.26

Statistics

population

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential statistics

Descriptive, inferential, correlation/prediction

all possible observations about which we'd like to know somet…

summarize numerical info

allow to draw conclusions about population from the sample da…

Statistics

Descriptive, inferential, correlation/prediction

population

all possible observations about which we'd like to know somet…

All of the other 3 choices are correct

Proportions in both tails are LESS tha…

0.4192

0.8413

Which of the following is a requirement for a random sample?

Which of the following accurately describes the proportions i…

What proportion of a normal distribution is located between t…

A vertical line drawn through a normal distibution at z = -1.…

All of the other 3 choices are correct

Which of the following is a requirement for a random sample?

Proportions in both tails are LESS tha…

Which of the following accurately describes the proportions i…

Data

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics

Statistics

Bits and pieces of information.

Using numbers to describe or condense a larger group of numbe…

Allow researchers to draw conclusions or make inferences abou…

Trying to understand data.

Data

Bits and pieces of information.

Descriptive statistics

Using numbers to describe or condense a larger group of numbe…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Correlation

Experiment

Organizing and summarizing data, looking for relationships

Tells us if data can be generalized beyond population

Measuring 2 things and seeing if there is a pattern. Nothing…

Groups are assigned randomly by researcher. MManipulates a va…

Descriptive Statistics

Organizing and summarizing data, looking for relationships

Inferential Statistics

Tells us if data can be generalized beyond population

Statistics

Population

Sample

Variable

A set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…

The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…

The set of individuals selected from a population, usually in…

A characteristic or condition that changes or has different v…

Statistics

A set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing,…

Population

The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular st…

In a sample of women, the number of ch…

Military ranks are an example of what…

Gender is an example of what level of…

In which of the following situations i…

Ratio

Ordinal

Nominal

The researcher has ordinal data

In a sample of women, the number of ch…

Ratio

Military ranks are an example of what…

Ordinal

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Population

Parameters

describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and c…

takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population

the entire group that you are interested in; usually large

the numbers that we calculate or measure from a population; n…

Descriptive Statistics

describe the data that you are looking at; for a sample and c…

Inferential Statistics

takes the numbers to make inferences to a big population

hypothesis test

null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis

level of significance or alpha level

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a h…

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change…

(H1) states that there is a change, a difference, or a relati…

is a probability value that is used to define the concept of…

hypothesis test

is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a h…

null hypothesis

(Ho) states that in the general population there is no change…

Absolute Zero Point

Categorization

Constant

Continuous Variable

A value that indicates nothing at all exists of the attribute…

Judgment that a person, object, or score fits into a category…

Quantity that does not change its value within a given contex…

A variable that theoretically can assume an infinite number o…

Absolute Zero Point

A value that indicates nothing at all exists of the attribute…

Categorization

Judgment that a person, object, or score fits into a category…

Population

Sample

Random Sampling

Sampling Error

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being in…

The naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists be…

Population

The entire group of individuals a researcher wishes to study

Sample

A subset of the population that is intended to represent, or…