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Study sets matching "bio biology 101 chapter 9"

72 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 9
Angiosperms
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms structural features (2)
Vegetative organs (3)
Flowering Plants
Non-flowering plants
root system & shoot system
Root, Stems, & Leaves
Angiosperms
Flowering Plants
Gymnosperms
Non-flowering plants
50 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9 photosynthesis
redox reactions
phosphates
oxidization
reduction
electron transfer reactions
ATP's usable energy is located in bonds between its
loss of electrons (and, in biology, H's )
gain of electrons (and, in biology, H's )
redox reactions
electron transfer reactions
phosphates
ATP's usable energy is located in bonds between its
21 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 9
fermentation
aerobic respiration
anerobic respiration
redox reaction
partial degradation of of sugars or other organic fuel that o…
catabolic pathway in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant a…
catabolic pathway in which substances other than oxygen are u…
a chemical reaction involving the complete or partial transfe…
fermentation
partial degradation of of sugars or other organic fuel that o…
aerobic respiration
catabolic pathway in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant a…
72 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 9
Angiosperms
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms structural features (2)
Vegetative organs (3)
Flowering Plants
Non-flowering plants
root system & shoot system
Root, Stems, & Leaves
Angiosperms
Flowering Plants
Gymnosperms
Non-flowering plants
21 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 9
Cellular Respiration
Catabolic Pathway
Fermentation
Anaerobic Respiration
Occurs in mitochondria. ... Generates ATP. ... Is a exergonic react…
Breaks down complex molecules. Exergonic.
Make limited amount of ATP. ... 2 ATP produced... No ETC present... Si…
Produces energy without oxygen. No oxygen present, so uses ot…
Cellular Respiration
Occurs in mitochondria. ... Generates ATP. ... Is a exergonic react…
Catabolic Pathway
Breaks down complex molecules. Exergonic.
17 terms
bio 101 chapter 9
asexual reproduction
sexual reproduction
gametes
3 types of sexual life cycle
organisms that reproduce by mitotic division , do not involve…
organisms that produce gametes as a result of meiotic divisio…
sex cells
protist (haploid )... animal (diploid)... plant (both)
asexual reproduction
organisms that reproduce by mitotic division , do not involve…
sexual reproduction
organisms that produce gametes as a result of meiotic divisio…
35 terms
Bio 101 - Chapter 9
Cell
Cell Cycle
Genome
DNA molecules
division is the reproduction of cells
is the "life cycle" of a cell
is all the DNA in a cell
come in the form of chromosomes
Cell
division is the reproduction of cells
Cell Cycle
is the "life cycle" of a cell
25 terms
bio 101 chapter 9
mitochondria
glucose metabolism
oxidation - reduction reactions
NAD+ coenzyme
catabolic processes... -fermentation... -cellular respiration... >…
transfer of electrons = transfer of energy ... >electrons repre…
-electron carrier used to harvest energy as glucose is oxidiz…
mitochondria
glucose metabolism
catabolic processes... -fermentation... -cellular respiration... >…
19 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
What are Gametes?
What is a Zygote?
What is the fusion of gametes called?
What is meiosis?
The reproductive cells (eggs and sperm) that contain half the…
When gametes fuse to form a new cell containing two complete…
Fertilization or syngamy
A process of reduction division in forming gametes. This ensu…
What are Gametes?
The reproductive cells (eggs and sperm) that contain half the…
What is a Zygote?
When gametes fuse to form a new cell containing two complete…
45 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9 mitosis
the cell cycle
interphase
G1
S
orderly set of stages that takes place b/w the time a eukaryo…
time when a cell performs its usual functions,
main checkpoint; "growth"
DNA synthesis or replication occurs; "growth & DNA replication"
the cell cycle
orderly set of stages that takes place b/w the time a eukaryo…
interphase
time when a cell performs its usual functions,
14 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
Chromosomes
Diploid Cell
Haploid Cell
Somatic Cells
DNA molecules with attached proteins
Any cell having 2 of each type of chromosomes
Egg and sperm. The contain half the chromosomes of a somatic…
All body cells except the egg and sperm. (diploid cells)
Chromosomes
DNA molecules with attached proteins
Diploid Cell
Any cell having 2 of each type of chromosomes
39 terms
BIO101 Chapter 9
Genome
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
Chromosomes
all the DNA in a cell
genomes organized into 1 chromosome
genomes organized into many chromosomes
made up of a complex of DNA and protein; every species has a…
Genome
all the DNA in a cell
Prokaryotes
genomes organized into 1 chromosome
41 terms
BIO 101 chapter 9
genes
transcription
assemble a strand of RNA
ribose
Information encoded within a chromosomes DNA sequence occurs…
the DNA sequence of a gene encodes an RNA or protein product,…
During transcription, enzymes use the genes DNA sequence as a…
An RNA nucleotide has three phosphate groups, a sugar, and on…
genes
Information encoded within a chromosomes DNA sequence occurs…
transcription
the DNA sequence of a gene encodes an RNA or protein product,…
65 terms
Bio 101: chapter 9
Function of the skull
extracellular matrix ECM
Fluid connective tissue
loose connective tissue
protects brain, muscle attachment, jaw
coating of non living material that hold cells together
cells suspended in liquid matrix ... ex. lymph and blood
soft matrix of loosely arranged proteins that hold organs int…
Function of the skull
protects brain, muscle attachment, jaw
extracellular matrix ECM
coating of non living material that hold cells together
17 terms
Bio 101: Chapter 9
gene expression
Transcription
translation
codons
process of DNA controls all activities in cell by making prot…
DNA-->mRNA: DNA opens at a gene and an enzyme transcribes the…
mRNA-->Protein: the code on the mRNA that tells the ribisome…
the 3 nucleotides on mRNA coding for amino acids
gene expression
process of DNA controls all activities in cell by making prot…
Transcription
DNA-->mRNA: DNA opens at a gene and an enzyme transcribes the…
18 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 9
Gene
Transcription
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
A part of a chromosome that encodes an RNA or protein product…
Process by which enzymes assemble an RNA using the nucleotide…
RNA that becomes part of ribosomes
RNA that delivers amino acids to a ribsome during translation
Gene
A part of a chromosome that encodes an RNA or protein product…
Transcription
Process by which enzymes assemble an RNA using the nucleotide…
21 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 9
fermentation
aerobic respiration
anerobic respiration
redox reaction
partial degradation of of sugars or other organic fuel that o…
catabolic pathway in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant a…
catabolic pathway in which substances other than oxygen are u…
a chemical reaction involving the complete or partial transfe…
fermentation
partial degradation of of sugars or other organic fuel that o…
aerobic respiration
catabolic pathway in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant a…
44 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 9
somatic cells
chromosome
chromatin
centromere
all cells except sex cells (46 chromosomes)
long DNA molecule with associated proteins (organized)
DNA-protein complex (unorganized)
the narrow waist of condensed chromosome
somatic cells
all cells except sex cells (46 chromosomes)
chromosome
long DNA molecule with associated proteins (organized)
17 terms
BIO 101 Chapter 9
Binary Fission
Cell cycle
Centrosome
Chromatid
The form of reproduction carried out by prokaryotic cells
The repeating pattern of growth, genetic duplication, and d…
-A cellular structure that acts as an organizing center for
One of the two identical strands of chromatin that make up…
Binary Fission
The form of reproduction carried out by prokaryotic cells
Cell cycle
The repeating pattern of growth, genetic duplication, and d…
35 terms
Biology 101, Chapter 9
cellular respiration
exergonic
fermentation
aerobic respiration
-includes both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, but is ofte…
breakdown of molecules
a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without oxygen
consumes organic molecules and oxygen and yields ATP
cellular respiration
-includes both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, but is ofte…
exergonic
breakdown of molecules
20 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
Respiration equation
Aerobic
Anaerobic
Fermentation
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy (ATP + heat)
consumes organic molecules and O2, yields ATP
Similar to aerobic, but consumes compounds other than O2
partial degradation of sugars that occurs without O2
Respiration equation
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy (ATP + heat)
Aerobic
consumes organic molecules and O2, yields ATP
32 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
Cell Cycle
Asexual Reproduction
Prokaryotic Fission
Interphase
When one cell divides into two, equal daughter cells
Reproduction from a single parent or single-celled organism;…
Asexual reproduction in prokaryotic cells; splitting of a par…
The acquisition of nutrients, growth, addition of proteins, a…
Cell Cycle
When one cell divides into two, equal daughter cells
Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction from a single parent or single-celled organism;…
17 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
Dominant
Genotype
Heterozygous
Homozygous
Refers to an allele that masks the effect of a recessive alle…
The particular set if alleles that is carried in an individua…
Having two different alleles of a gene
Having identical alleles of a gene
Dominant
Refers to an allele that masks the effect of a recessive alle…
Genotype
The particular set if alleles that is carried in an individua…
5 terms
BIO 101 Chapter 9
Genome
Chromosomes
Chromatin
Somatic Cell
The genetic material of an organism.
Cellular structure consisting of 1 DNA molecule and associate…
The complex of DNA & proteins that makes up eukaryotic chrrom…
Any cell in a multicellular organism, except a sperm or egg.
Genome
The genetic material of an organism.
Chromosomes
Cellular structure consisting of 1 DNA molecule and associate…
29 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
Carbon Cycle
Cellular Respiration
Aerobic Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
Organisms need a constant influx of organic molecules to do t…
catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, whic…
is a catabolic pathway for organic molecules, using oxygen (O…
catabolic pathway in which inorganic molecules other than oxy…
Carbon Cycle
Organisms need a constant influx of organic molecules to do t…
Cellular Respiration
catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, whic…
29 terms
BIO 101 Chapter 9
interphase
mitosis
cytokinesis
interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
part of cell cycle where the cell has its normal function
division of the nucleus
division of the cytoplasm
3 parts to eukaryotic cell cycle
interphase
part of cell cycle where the cell has its normal function
mitosis
division of the nucleus
19 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
carbon cycle
cellular respiration
aerobic respiration
anaerobic respiration
-Producers use the energy from sunlight to turn CO2 into carb…
the catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration,…
a catabolic pathway for organic molecules, using oxygen (O2)…
a catabolic pathway in which inorganic molecules other than o…
carbon cycle
-Producers use the energy from sunlight to turn CO2 into carb…
cellular respiration
the catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration,…
31 terms
Bio 101: Chapter 9
cancer
taxol
cell division
embryonic cell development
disease of unregulated cell division: cells divide inappropri…
-highly effective chemotherapy agent extracted from the Pacif…
the process by which a cell reproduces itself
a fertilized egg and its daughter cells continue to divide to…
cancer
disease of unregulated cell division: cells divide inappropri…
taxol
-highly effective chemotherapy agent extracted from the Pacif…
107 terms
BIO 101 Chapter 9 Photosynthesis
light dependent rxns
photoautotrophs
heterotrophs
consumers
(1) light absorption ... (2) conversion of light energy into che…
Autotrophs that use light as the energy source to make organi…
Consumers and decomposers, which need a source of organic mol…
animals that live by eating plants or other animals
light dependent rxns
(1) light absorption ... (2) conversion of light energy into che…
photoautotrophs
Autotrophs that use light as the energy source to make organi…
34 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
Heredity
genetics
character
trait
transmission of traits from one generation to the next
scientific study of heredity
a heritable feature that varies among individuals
each variant for a character
Heredity
transmission of traits from one generation to the next
genetics
scientific study of heredity
9 terms
Chapter 9 Biology 101
Prostetic Group
Complex 1
Complex 2
Complex 3 & 4
A nonprotein component necessary for the function of an enzyme
FMN and iron and sly fire containing protein
Just iron and sulfur containing protein
Contain cytochromes
Prostetic Group
A nonprotein component necessary for the function of an enzyme
Complex 1
FMN and iron and sly fire containing protein
14 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
DNA -(1)->RNA-(2)->Protein
Genome
Chromatin
Chromosome
(1)-Transcription... (2)-Translation
All the genetic material in a cell
All genetic material plus proteins
discreet package of DNA (chapters of a cook book)
DNA -(1)->RNA-(2)->Protein
(1)-Transcription... (2)-Translation
Genome
All the genetic material in a cell
13 terms
Biology 101 - Chapter 9
Phosphofructokinase
G3P Glyceraldehyde
Phosphoglycerate kinase
Lactate Dehydrogenase
Changes Fructose 6 phosphate into fructose 1,6 biophosphate
3 phosphate dehydogenate adds an inoirganic phosphate to G#P…
Transfers phosphate group from 1,3 bisphoglycerate to ADP to…
Catalyzes conversion of lactate to pyruvic acid and back as i…
Phosphofructokinase
Changes Fructose 6 phosphate into fructose 1,6 biophosphate
G3P Glyceraldehyde
3 phosphate dehydogenate adds an inoirganic phosphate to G#P…
45 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
gene
transcription
sugar in RNA differs from DNA how
four nucelotide bases in RNA
a part of a chromosome that encodes an RNA or protein product…
process by which enzymes assemble an RNA using the nucleotide…
ribose, not deoxyribose like in DNA
adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil
gene
a part of a chromosome that encodes an RNA or protein product…
transcription
process by which enzymes assemble an RNA using the nucleotide…
17 terms
Chapter 9 BIO 101
Cancer Cell (characteristics)
Cell Cycle Steps
Apoptosis
Eukaryotic Chromosomes
Undergo genetic mutations and grow and divide out of control.…
Interphase: cell performs functions, (G1 stage): growth stage…
cell self-destruction if something is wrong (programmed cell…
wrapping of DNA, formation of 3-D zig-zag, loose coiling in r…
Cancer Cell (characteristics)
Undergo genetic mutations and grow and divide out of control.…
Cell Cycle Steps
Interphase: cell performs functions, (G1 stage): growth stage…
40 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
Cell Division
Daughter Cells
Chromosome
Genes
Way that cells reproduce.
Product of cell division.
Consists of DNA together with proteins that organize its thre…
Segments of DNA ranging from a few hundred to many thousands…
Cell Division
Way that cells reproduce.
Daughter Cells
Product of cell division.
19 terms
BIO 101 Chapter 9
Allele
Gene
Dominant allele
Recessive allele
different versions of a particular gene
stretches of DNA located on the chromosomes
the allele that exerts a controlling influence
an allele that has no effect on the phenotype
Allele
different versions of a particular gene
Gene
stretches of DNA located on the chromosomes
39 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
Photosynthesis generates what
List steps of photosynthesis cycle.
What two processes are central to cell…
Fermentation
o2 and organic molecules which are used in cellular respirati…
Light energy in chloroplast ->organic molecules + o2-> cellul…
catabolic pathways and electron transfer
partial degradation of sugars that occurs without o2
Photosynthesis generates what
o2 and organic molecules which are used in cellular respirati…
List steps of photosynthesis cycle.
Light energy in chloroplast ->organic molecules + o2-> cellul…
38 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
Alternative RNA Splicing
Codon
DNA Ligase
DNA Polymerase
a post- transcriptional gene regulation mechanism in eukaryot…
3 consecutive nucleotides in mRNA that specify the addition o…
the enzyme that catalyzes the joining of DNA fragments together
an enzyme that synthesizes a new strand of DNA complementary…
Alternative RNA Splicing
a post- transcriptional gene regulation mechanism in eukaryot…
Codon
3 consecutive nucleotides in mRNA that specify the addition o…
28 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 9
Carbon Cycle
Catabolic pathways
Fermentation
Aerobic Respiration
Cells need energy from outside sources to survive. Energy ent…
Oxidize organic fuels
partial degradation of sugars that occurs without oxygen
Consumes organic molecules and oxygen to yield ATP: most effe…
Carbon Cycle
Cells need energy from outside sources to survive. Energy ent…
Catabolic pathways
Oxidize organic fuels
44 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 9
somatic cells
chromosome
chromatin
centromere
all cells except sex cells (46 chromosomes)
long DNA molecule with associated proteins (organized)
DNA-protein complex (unorganized)
the narrow waist of condensed chromosome
somatic cells
all cells except sex cells (46 chromosomes)
chromosome
long DNA molecule with associated proteins (organized)
26 terms
BIO 101 Chapter 9
acetyl CoA
aerobic
alcohol fermentation
anaerobic
a molecule produced by oxidation of pyruvate in a reaction ca…
referring to any metabolic process, cell, or organism that us…
catabolic pathway in which pyruvate produced by glycolysis is…
referring to any metabolic process, cell, organism that uses…
acetyl CoA
a molecule produced by oxidation of pyruvate in a reaction ca…
aerobic
referring to any metabolic process, cell, or organism that us…
23 terms
Bio 101 - Chapter 9
Binary Fission
Step 1 of Binary Fission
Step 2 of Binary Fission
Step 3 of Binary Fission
Is asexual reproduction in bacteria and prokaryotes.
Bacteria copies DNA to form two identical chromosomes.
Two chromosomes are attached to the inside of the cell membra…
Cell grows and pulls the two chromosomes apart.
Binary Fission
Is asexual reproduction in bacteria and prokaryotes.
Step 1 of Binary Fission
Bacteria copies DNA to form two identical chromosomes.
36 terms
Bio 101 chapter 9
Tragopogon mirus is a hybrid of T. dub…
A cell with one set of chromosomes wou…
A cell with two full sets of chromosom…
A diploid cell with 4 chromosomes woul…
b. 12 chromosomes from T. dubius and 12 chromosomes from T. p…
c. haploid
d. diploid
b. four genetically distinct types of haploid gametes
Tragopogon mirus is a hybrid of T. dub…
b. 12 chromosomes from T. dubius and 12 chromosomes from T. p…
A cell with one set of chromosomes wou…
c. haploid
9 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 9
Binary Fission
Mitosis
Meiosis
46
cellular reproduction in prokaryotic cells
cellular reproduction in eukaryotic cells; nuclear division (…
sexual reproduction
# chromosomes in human cells
Binary Fission
cellular reproduction in prokaryotic cells
Mitosis
cellular reproduction in eukaryotic cells; nuclear division (…
20 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 9
Producers
Consumers
Carbon Cycle
Catabolic Pathways
-Use energy from sunlight to turn Carbon Dioxide into Carbohy…
Need to continually eat in order to transform organic compoun…
-The cycle where producers use energy from sunlight to turn C…
-Yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels... -Release stored ener…
Producers
-Use energy from sunlight to turn Carbon Dioxide into Carbohy…
Consumers
Need to continually eat in order to transform organic compoun…
17 terms
Biology 101 - Chapter 9
interphase
g1
S
g2
Is the longest part of the cell cycle. No division occurs, nu…
interphase- where growth and development occurs.
interphase- where DNA replication occurs.
interphase- where protein in synthesized.
interphase
Is the longest part of the cell cycle. No division occurs, nu…
g1
interphase- where growth and development occurs.
51 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 9
translation
transcription
ribosomal RNA
transfer RNA
process by which a polypeptide chain is assembled from amino…
process by which enzymes assemble an RNA using the nucleotide…
RNA that becomes part of ribosomes
RNA that delivers amino acids to a ribosome during translation
translation
process by which a polypeptide chain is assembled from amino…
transcription
process by which enzymes assemble an RNA using the nucleotide…
43 terms
Biology 101 - Chapter 9
genetics
heredity
father of genetics
character
the scientific study of heredity
the transmission of traits from one generation to the next
Gregory Mendel
a heritable feature that varies among individuals, such as fl…
genetics
the scientific study of heredity
heredity
the transmission of traits from one generation to the next
31 terms
Bio 101 chapter 9
Weather
Climate
Several factors influence an areas wea…
Solar radiation (insolation)
Refers to atmosphereic conditions at a specific time and place
Refers to the typical weather patterns at a particular place…
Two most important are temperature and precipitation. ... Others…
Warms the earth and makes life possible
Weather
Refers to atmosphereic conditions at a specific time and place
Climate
Refers to the typical weather patterns at a particular place…
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