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Study sets matching "biochemistry 2"

10 terms
Biochemistry #2
Hydro (prefix)
Mono (prefix)
Neutral
Poly (prefix)
Water
One
Neither an acid nor a base. A solution with a pH of 7.
Many
Hydro (prefix)
Water
Mono (prefix)
One
36 terms
Biochemistry - 2
biomolecule
hydrolysis
biochemistry
dehydration synthesis (also known as c…
organic compound found in all living organisms
chemical reaction in which a water molecule is added to break…
study of chemicals that make up living things
chemical reaction in which water is released to join monomers…
biomolecule
organic compound found in all living organisms
hydrolysis
chemical reaction in which a water molecule is added to break…
33 terms
Biochemistry 2
molecular formula
ATP
DNA
covalent bond
A chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms i…
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use fo…
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that ma…
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons bet…
molecular formula
A chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms i…
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use fo…
221 terms
Biochemistry 2
Respiratory quotient
Cytoplasm metabolic process
ER and Golgi metabolic process
Lysosome metabolic process
carb = 1... fat = .7... protein = .8
anabolic and catabolic... -store glycogen and fat
synthesis and process protein and membrane lipids
macromolecule degradation (hydrolytic)
Respiratory quotient
carb = 1... fat = .7... protein = .8
Cytoplasm metabolic process
anabolic and catabolic... -store glycogen and fat
106 terms
Biochemistry 2
Dynamic steady state
Bioenergetics
Is Equilibrium the same as steady state?
The human body is an _______ system
aka homeostasis; the tendency of the body to maintain a net c…
(1) The overall flow and transformation of energy in an organ…
No - living systems are at dynamic system, existing at the lo…
open - exchanges mass and energy with the environment
Dynamic steady state
aka homeostasis; the tendency of the body to maintain a net c…
Bioenergetics
(1) The overall flow and transformation of energy in an organ…
22 terms
Biochemistry Review2
Enzyme
Monosaccharide
Disaccharide
Polysaccharide
An organic catalyst, speeds up reactions. Is specific and wil…
One sugar or a simple sugar ex. Glucose
2 sugar molecules bonded together ex. Maltose
Many sugar molecules bonded together ex. Starch
Enzyme
An organic catalyst, speeds up reactions. Is specific and wil…
Monosaccharide
One sugar or a simple sugar ex. Glucose
408 terms
Biochemistry #2
Complex I
Complex II
Complex III
Complex IV
NADH-Q oxidoreductase/NADH dehydrogenase; supplies NAD+ to TC…
Succinate-Q reductase/succinate dehydrogenase; peripheral pro…
Cytochrome b-c1; pumps 4H+ from matrix to IMS; Cu2+ and Fe3+…
Cytochrome oxidase; pumps 2H+ from matrix to IMS
Complex I
NADH-Q oxidoreductase/NADH dehydrogenase; supplies NAD+ to TC…
Complex II
Succinate-Q reductase/succinate dehydrogenase; peripheral pro…
10 terms
Biochemistry 2
What is normal blood pH?
Below what blood pH is death?
Acidosis?
Alkalosis
=7.4
<7.0
<7.3
>7.5
What is normal blood pH?
=7.4
Below what blood pH is death?
<7.0
26 terms
Unit 2 Biochemistry
substrate
c) catalyze chemical reactions... d) tran…
nucleotide
basic
What is the name of the substance on which an enzyme acts?
Which three below are functions of proteins?... a) provide insul…
Solutions with a pH above 7 are considered to be ________ sol…
substrate
What is the name of the substance on which an enzyme acts?
c) catalyze chemical reactions... d) tran…
Which three below are functions of proteins?... a) provide insul…
126 terms
Biochemistry 2
In an oxidation reduction reaction, wh…
In the absence of iron, the iron respo…
Fragile X disease is characteristic of…
A frame shift mutation where two nucle…
The oxidized compound will lose electrons
Translational regulation
Southern blot
Shifting of the reading frame such that all amino acids downs…
In an oxidation reduction reaction, wh…
The oxidized compound will lose electrons
In the absence of iron, the iron respo…
Translational regulation
14 terms
Biochemistry2
Atom
Element
Compound
Covalent Bond
The smallest unit of matter
Any of the more than 100 known types of atoms
A substance formed by the chemical union of two or more eleme…
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons bet…
Atom
The smallest unit of matter
Element
Any of the more than 100 known types of atoms
47 terms
Ch. 2 Biochemistry
Atom
Element
RNA
DNA
basic unit of matter
pure substance, has only one type of atom, ex. Carbon
A nucleic acid present in all living cells and many viruses,…
(Biochemistry) deoxyribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that is…
Atom
basic unit of matter
Element
pure substance, has only one type of atom, ex. Carbon
26 terms
Biochemistry (2)
What are the 4 classes of macro-molecu…
What are the 4 monomers for carbs, pro…
What are the four covalent bonds in ca…
Why are monomers, polymers and covalen…
The things living things are made of... 1)Carbs... 2)Proteins... 3)Nuc…
Carbs: Monosaccharides (simple sugars)... Proteins: Amino Acids…
Carbs: Glycosidic Linkage... Proteins: Peptide Bonds... Nucleic Aci…
Lipids are made of Triglycerides which consists of a glycerol…
What are the 4 classes of macro-molecu…
The things living things are made of... 1)Carbs... 2)Proteins... 3)Nuc…
What are the 4 monomers for carbs, pro…
Carbs: Monosaccharides (simple sugars)... Proteins: Amino Acids…
19 terms
Biochemistry 2
linear chain hydrogen
branched chain hydrogen
ring chain hydrogen
hydroxyl
shape of hydrogen
shape of hydrogen
shape of hydrogen
-OH
linear chain hydrogen
shape of hydrogen
branched chain hydrogen
shape of hydrogen
37 terms
Biochemistry 2
Molecules composed of thousands of ato…
Chainlike molecules consisting of mono…
Make up polymers
Removing water to bond monomers togeth…
Macromolecules
Polymer
Monomer
Dehydration Synthesis
Molecules composed of thousands of ato…
Macromolecules
Chainlike molecules consisting of mono…
Polymer
40 terms
Chapter 2: Biochemistry
Atom
Nucleus
Electron
Element
Basic unit of matter
A region that is located at the center of an atom and contain…
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
Atom
Basic unit of matter
Nucleus
A region that is located at the center of an atom and contain…
30 terms
2) Biochemistry
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Sugars
Disaccharides
Contain C, H, O... Supply source of cellular food... Sugars-artifi…
Carbohydrate... Simple sugars ... Glucose, fructose, galactose, deo…
Carbohydrate... Artificial (don't derive calories from them or m…
Carbohydrate... Double sugars... Glucose+Fructose=Sucrose (table/ca…
Carbohydrates
Contain C, H, O... Supply source of cellular food... Sugars-artifi…
Monosaccharides
Carbohydrate... Simple sugars ... Glucose, fructose, galactose, deo…
32 terms
Biochemistry 2
Molecules composed of thousands of ato…
Chainlike molecules consisting of mono…
Make up polymers
Removing water to bond monomers togeth…
Macromolecules
Polymer
Monomer
Dehydration Synthesis
Molecules composed of thousands of ato…
Macromolecules
Chainlike molecules consisting of mono…
Polymer
32 terms
Biochemistry 2
polarity
hydrogen bonds
cohesion
surface tension
the unequal distribution of charges on a molecule
weak bonds between polar molecules such as water
the attraction of like molecules such as the attraction of wa…
water molecules at the surface of a body of water cling tight…
polarity
the unequal distribution of charges on a molecule
hydrogen bonds
weak bonds between polar molecules such as water
20 terms
2. biochemistry
element
atom
compound
molecule
substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an ele…
chemical combination, fixed ratio, two or more elements
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
element
substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
atom
smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an ele…
64 terms
Biochemistry 2
Actin
Active Transport
Amphipathic
Cell Wall
globular protein that forms microfilaments
when moving a substance requires energy input. Used to move a…
containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
a layer external to the plasma membrane that provides protect…
Actin
globular protein that forms microfilaments
Active Transport
when moving a substance requires energy input. Used to move a…
34 terms
Biochemistry 2
The six types of protein
Elements of an amino acid
Basic structure of an amino acid
Functions of amino acids and how many
Structural proteins... Contractile proteins... Catalytic proteins... I…
Carbon (C)... Hydrogen (H)... Oxygen (O)... Nitrogen (N)-difference be…
20 amino acids... They are needed to make every protein in our b…
The six types of protein
Structural proteins... Contractile proteins... Catalytic proteins... I…
Elements of an amino acid
Carbon (C)... Hydrogen (H)... Oxygen (O)... Nitrogen (N)-difference be…
49 terms
biochemistry 2
organic molecule
hydrocarbons equations
hydrocarbons
alkane
made of carbon and hydrogen in a chain or ring... Ex) carbohydra…
2x+2
simplest form of organic molecules which is only mad up of hy…
nonpolar and hydrophobic hydrocarbons with only single c-c bo…
organic molecule
made of carbon and hydrogen in a chain or ring... Ex) carbohydra…
hydrocarbons equations
2x+2
63 terms
biochemistry 2
main source of energy in living things
some carbohydrates are used to store e…
plants and fungi also use___ for struc…
made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen m…
carbohydrates
carbohydrates
carbohydrates
carbohydrates
main source of energy in living things
carbohydrates
some carbohydrates are used to store e…
carbohydrates
131 terms
Biochemistry 2
First Law of Thermodynamics
Chemistry Definition of WORK
Physics Definition of WORK
Isolated System
Energy cannot be created or destroyed. ... Common Definitions:…
Work done on the system is +, work done by the system is -.
Force and Displacement in the same direction means Work = +;…
system in which NEITHER MASS nor ENERGY can be exchanged with…
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed. ... Common Definitions:…
Chemistry Definition of WORK
Work done on the system is +, work done by the system is -.
171 terms
Biochemistry 2
Adenosine is .....
Nucleobases
RibonucleoSIDES
DeoxyribonucleoSIDES
A ribonucleoside
Guanine... Thymine
Adenosine,... Uridine
Deoxyguanosine... Deoxyuridine
Adenosine is .....
A ribonucleoside
Nucleobases
Guanine... Thymine
47 terms
Biochemistry 2
covalent bond
acid
base
dehydration synthesis aka condensation…
a strong bond formed when electrons are shared
molecule with a pH less than 7
molecule with a pH greater than 7
a reaction in which water is removed to create a covalent bon…
covalent bond
a strong bond formed when electrons are shared
acid
molecule with a pH less than 7
20 terms
Biochemistry 2
Oxygen tends to accept ... ______ to form…
Radical (free radical)
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
Oxidative stress
single electrons ... reactive oxygen species (ros)
A reactive atom or group of atoms that contains one or more u…
Highly reactive radicals derived from oxygen
ROS and RNOS production outweighs cell defenses (antioxidents…
Oxygen tends to accept ... ______ to form…
single electrons ... reactive oxygen species (ros)
Radical (free radical)
A reactive atom or group of atoms that contains one or more u…
99 terms
Unit 2: Biochemistry
Controlled experiment
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Theory
An experiment in which all factors remain the same except the…
The variable that you are testing (the one that you change on…
The responding variable (the one that you are measuring as a…
A scientific explanation for a natural phenomenon that has be…
Controlled experiment
An experiment in which all factors remain the same except the…
Independent variable
The variable that you are testing (the one that you change on…
17 terms
Biochemistry #2
Monomers
Polymers
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharaides (Sugars)
Small repeating units that make up macromolecules.
A macromolecule formed when smaller repeating molecules are j…
are used by living organisms as their main source of energy,…
The monomer of carbohydrates and include glucose, galactose a…
Monomers
Small repeating units that make up macromolecules.
Polymers
A macromolecule formed when smaller repeating molecules are j…
20 terms
Biochemistry chapter 1.2
secondary metabolites
metabolome
macromolecules
oligomers
compounds that are not essential for basic cellular structure…
The complete set of metabolic intermediates and other small m…
Four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrate…
Short polymer chains that consist of just a few monomers, cre…
secondary metabolites
compounds that are not essential for basic cellular structure…
metabolome
The complete set of metabolic intermediates and other small m…
9 terms
Biochemistry #2
bonds
isomers
mixture
heterogeneous mixture
a strong force of attraction holding atoms together in a mole…
Compounds with the same formula but different structures
Two or more substances mixed together but not at a molecular…
A mixture of substances where you can see the difference betw…
bonds
a strong force of attraction holding atoms together in a mole…
isomers
Compounds with the same formula but different structures
204 terms
Biochemistry 2
Primary structure
Secondary structure
Tertiary structure
Quaternary structure
Amino acid sequence, the linear order of AA's. Above all else…
Local spatial alignment of amino acid backbone without regard…
The 3-dimensional structure of an entire peptide. Can reveal…
The manner in which the tertiary structures of two or more pe…
Primary structure
Amino acid sequence, the linear order of AA's. Above all else…
Secondary structure
Local spatial alignment of amino acid backbone without regard…
38 terms
ALP 2 Applied Biochemistry
bile
digestion
hypoglycemia
pancreatic enzymes
mix of salts that breaks down fats
breaking down large molecules into smaller ones
having too little glucose in the blood
continue to break down fat after bile
bile
mix of salts that breaks down fats
digestion
breaking down large molecules into smaller ones
18 terms
Biology 2: Biochemistry
polar
ion
hydrogen bond
cohesion
describes a molecule in which the positive and negative charg…
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively cha…
an attraction between molecules of the same substance
polar
describes a molecule in which the positive and negative charg…
ion
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
16 terms
Biochemistry 2- enzymes
enzymatic effects on reaction
Apoenzymes
Holoenzymes
Cofactors
No effect on thermodynamics--does not alter delta G or H of r…
Enzymes without cofactors
Enzymes containing cofactors
Inorganic molecules or metals
enzymatic effects on reaction
No effect on thermodynamics--does not alter delta G or H of r…
Apoenzymes
Enzymes without cofactors
65 terms
Biochemistry 2
Electron
Proton
Ionic Bond
Covalent Bond
negatively charged particle - circle around the nucleus
positively charged particle - inside the nucleus
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a…
Chemical bond that forms when electrons are shared, A molecul…
Electron
negatively charged particle - circle around the nucleus
Proton
positively charged particle - inside the nucleus
43 terms
Unit 2 Biochemistry
matter
element
compound
molecule
anything that has mass and takes up space.
A collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons.
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different element…
2 or more atoms of the same element held together by covalent…
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space.
element
A collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons.
9 terms
Biochemistry #2
Structural Formula of an Amino Acid. C…
What causes the secondary structure?
How many different kinds of amino acid…
Name the type of covalent bond that fo…
amino acid 1- amino acid 2 - AA3-AA4
20, the structure
peptide bond
Structural Formula of an Amino Acid. C…
What causes the secondary structure?
amino acid 1- amino acid 2 - AA3-AA4
13 terms
Biochemistry #2
metab
aer
an
peri
change
the air
without;not
around
metab
change
aer
the air
50 terms
biochemistry2-
solution
suspension
colloid
solvent
a homogeneous mixture
a solution in which the particles of the solute are large eno…
a special example of mixture somewhere between a suspension a…
dissolving medium in a solution
solution
a homogeneous mixture
suspension
a solution in which the particles of the solute are large eno…
49 terms
Biochemistry 2
biological catalysts that are unchange…
each enzyme catalyzes a __ reaction or…
the six types of enzymes
catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions…
enzyme
single... high
oxidoreductases... transferases... hydrolases... lyases... isomerases... lig…
oxidoreductases
biological catalysts that are unchange…
enzyme
each enzyme catalyzes a __ reaction or…
single... high
13 terms
biochemistry 2
metab
aer
an
peri
change
the air
without or not
around
metab
change
aer
the air
82 terms
Biochemistry 2
advantages of enzymes to cells
∆G
enzyme-substrate binding
enzyme active sites
o Enhance rxn rate... o Rxns are able to occur at physiological…
- All reactions are characterized by free energy exchange: ∆G…
o Enzyme and substrate have complementary features that allow…
o Occupies a small part of total volume of enzyme... o 3D struct…
advantages of enzymes to cells
o Enhance rxn rate... o Rxns are able to occur at physiological…
∆G
- All reactions are characterized by free energy exchange: ∆G…
13 terms
Biochemistry #2
metab
aer
an
peri
change
the air
without; not
around
metab
change
aer
the air
20 terms
Unit 2 Biochemistry Vocabulary
polymer
monomer
biomolecule
carbohydrate
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form p…
any macromolecule that is produced by a living organism; exam…
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Main source of ener…
polymer
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
monomer
A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form p…
203 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
epimer
OH and OR
OR and OR
open
two sugars that differ only in the configuration around one c…
hemiacetal has which two groups on it
an acetal has which two groups on it
a reducing sugar has what conformation
epimer
two sugars that differ only in the configuration around one c…
OH and OR
hemiacetal has which two groups on it
38 terms
Unit 2: Biochemistry
mono
poly
monomer
polymer
one
many
one part
many parts
mono
one
poly
many
12 terms
Biochemistry 2
What is Dynamic Steady State?
What is substrate level phosphorylation?
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
What problem does the Malate-Aspartate…
Dynamic Steady State refers to the body's ability to maintain…
Substrate level phosphorylation is the process of forming ATP…
Oxidative phosphorylation is the process of forming ATP from…
The Malate-Aspartate Shuttle helps NADH produced during glyco…
What is Dynamic Steady State?
Dynamic Steady State refers to the body's ability to maintain…
What is substrate level phosphorylation?
Substrate level phosphorylation is the process of forming ATP…
45 terms
Biochemistry - Chapter 2
The step scientists begin their inquiry
The reason why science differs from ot…
Criteria for a controlled experiment
3 subatomic particles
Making careful observations
Science relies on testing explanations
Isolate and test a single variable
protons, neutrons, electrons
The step scientists begin their inquiry
Making careful observations
The reason why science differs from ot…
Science relies on testing explanations
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