Study sets matching "biochemistry 2"

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Study sets matching "biochemistry 2"

10 terms
Biochemistry #2
Hydro (prefix)
Mono (prefix)
Neutral
Poly (prefix)
Water
One
Neither an acid nor a base. A solution with a pH of 7.
Many
Hydro (prefix)
Water
Mono (prefix)
One
36 terms
Biochemistry - 2
biomolecule
hydrolysis
biochemistry
dehydration synthesis (also known as c…
organic compound found in all living organisms
chemical reaction in which a water molecule is added to break…
study of chemicals that make up living things
chemical reaction in which water is released to join monomers…
biomolecule
organic compound found in all living organisms
hydrolysis
chemical reaction in which a water molecule is added to break…
Biochemistry 2
Respiratory quotient
Cytoplasm metabolic process
ER and Golgi metabolic process
Lysosome metabolic process
carb = 1... fat = .7... protein = .8
anabolic and catabolic... -store glycogen and fat
synthesis and process protein and membrane lipids
macromolecule degradation (hydrolytic)
Respiratory quotient
carb = 1... fat = .7... protein = .8
Cytoplasm metabolic process
anabolic and catabolic... -store glycogen and fat
126 terms
Biochemistry 2
In an oxidation reduction reaction, wh…
In the absence of iron, the iron respo…
Fragile X disease is characteristic of…
A frame shift mutation where two nucle…
The oxidized compound will lose electrons
Translational regulation
Southern blot
Shifting of the reading frame such that all amino acids downs…
In an oxidation reduction reaction, wh…
The oxidized compound will lose electrons
In the absence of iron, the iron respo…
Translational regulation
408 terms
Biochemistry #2
Complex I
Complex II
Complex III
Complex IV
NADH-Q oxidoreductase/NADH dehydrogenase; supplies NAD+ to TC…
Succinate-Q reductase/succinate dehydrogenase; peripheral pro…
Cytochrome b-c1; pumps 4H+ from matrix to IMS; Cu2+ and Fe3+…
Cytochrome oxidase; pumps 2H+ from matrix to IMS
Complex I
NADH-Q oxidoreductase/NADH dehydrogenase; supplies NAD+ to TC…
Complex II
Succinate-Q reductase/succinate dehydrogenase; peripheral pro…
33 terms
Biochemistry 2
molecular formula
ATP
DNA
covalent bond
A chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms i…
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use fo…
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that ma…
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons bet…
molecular formula
A chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms i…
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use fo…
106 terms
Biochemistry 2
Dynamic steady state
Bioenergetics
Is Equilibrium the same as steady state?
The human body is an _______ system
aka homeostasis; the tendency of the body to maintain a net c…
(1) The overall flow and transformation of energy in an organ…
No - living systems are at dynamic system, existing at the lo…
open - exchanges mass and energy with the environment
Dynamic steady state
aka homeostasis; the tendency of the body to maintain a net c…
Bioenergetics
(1) The overall flow and transformation of energy in an organ…
Biochemistry #2
metab
aer
an
peri
change
the air
without;not
around
metab
change
aer
the air
Biochemistry (2)
What are the 4 classes of macro-molecu…
What are the 4 monomers for carbs, pro…
What are the four covalent bonds in ca…
Why are monomers, polymers and covalen…
The things living things are made of... 1)Carbs... 2)Proteins... 3)Nuc…
Carbs: Monosaccharides (simple sugars)... Proteins: Amino Acids…
Carbs: Glycosidic Linkage... Proteins: Peptide Bonds... Nucleic Aci…
Lipids are made of Triglycerides which consists of a glycerol…
What are the 4 classes of macro-molecu…
The things living things are made of... 1)Carbs... 2)Proteins... 3)Nuc…
What are the 4 monomers for carbs, pro…
Carbs: Monosaccharides (simple sugars)... Proteins: Amino Acids…
20 terms
Biochemistry chapter 1.2
secondary metabolites
metabolome
macromolecules
oligomers
compounds that are not essential for basic cellular structure…
The complete set of metabolic intermediates and other small m…
Four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrate…
Short polymer chains that consist of just a few monomers, cre…
secondary metabolites
compounds that are not essential for basic cellular structure…
metabolome
The complete set of metabolic intermediates and other small m…
32 terms
Biochemistry 2
polarity
hydrogen bonds
cohesion
surface tension
the unequal distribution of charges on a molecule
weak bonds between polar molecules such as water
the attraction of like molecules such as the attraction of wa…
water molecules at the surface of a body of water cling tight…
polarity
the unequal distribution of charges on a molecule
hydrogen bonds
weak bonds between polar molecules such as water
26 terms
Unit 2 Biochemistry
substrate
c) catalyze chemical reactions... d) tran…
nucleotide
basic
What is the name of the substance on which an enzyme acts?
Which three below are functions of proteins?... a) provide insul…
Solutions with a pH above 7 are considered to be ________ sol…
substrate
What is the name of the substance on which an enzyme acts?
c) catalyze chemical reactions... d) tran…
Which three below are functions of proteins?... a) provide insul…
30 terms
2) Biochemistry
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Sugars
Disaccharides
Contain C, H, O... Supply source of cellular food... Sugars-artifi…
Carbohydrate... Simple sugars ... Glucose, fructose, galactose, deo…
Carbohydrate... Artificial (don't derive calories from them or m…
Carbohydrate... Double sugars... Glucose+Fructose=Sucrose (table/ca…
Carbohydrates
Contain C, H, O... Supply source of cellular food... Sugars-artifi…
Monosaccharides
Carbohydrate... Simple sugars ... Glucose, fructose, galactose, deo…
14 terms
Biochemistry2
Atom
Element
Compound
Covalent Bond
The smallest unit of matter
Any of the more than 100 known types of atoms
A substance formed by the chemical union of two or more eleme…
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons bet…
Atom
The smallest unit of matter
Element
Any of the more than 100 known types of atoms
19 terms
Biochemistry 2
linear chain hydrogen
branched chain hydrogen
ring chain hydrogen
hydroxyl
shape of hydrogen
shape of hydrogen
shape of hydrogen
-OH
linear chain hydrogen
shape of hydrogen
branched chain hydrogen
shape of hydrogen
20 terms
Biochemistry 2
Oxygen tends to accept ... ______ to form…
Radical (free radical)
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
Oxidative stress
single electrons ... reactive oxygen species (ros)
A reactive atom or group of atoms that contains one or more u…
Highly reactive radicals derived from oxygen
ROS and RNOS production outweighs cell defenses (antioxidents…
Oxygen tends to accept ... ______ to form…
single electrons ... reactive oxygen species (ros)
Radical (free radical)
A reactive atom or group of atoms that contains one or more u…
63 terms
biochemistry 2
main source of energy in living things
some carbohydrates are used to store e…
plants and fungi also use___ for struc…
made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen m…
carbohydrates
carbohydrates
carbohydrates
carbohydrates
main source of energy in living things
carbohydrates
some carbohydrates are used to store e…
carbohydrates
131 terms
Biochemistry 2
First Law of Thermodynamics
Chemistry Definition of WORK
Physics Definition of WORK
Isolated System
Energy cannot be created or destroyed. ... Common Definitions:…
Work done on the system is +, work done by the system is -.
Force and Displacement in the same direction means Work = +;…
system in which NEITHER MASS nor ENERGY can be exchanged with…
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed. ... Common Definitions:…
Chemistry Definition of WORK
Work done on the system is +, work done by the system is -.
Biochemistry 2
covalent bond
acid
base
dehydration synthesis aka condensation…
a strong bond formed when electrons are shared
molecule with a pH less than 7
molecule with a pH greater than 7
a reaction in which water is removed to create a covalent bon…
covalent bond
a strong bond formed when electrons are shared
acid
molecule with a pH less than 7
2. biochemistry
element
atom
compound
molecule
substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an ele…
chemical combination, fixed ratio, two or more elements
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
element
substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
atom
smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an ele…
64 terms
Biochemistry 2
Actin
Active Transport
Amphipathic
Cell Wall
globular protein that forms microfilaments
when moving a substance requires energy input. Used to move a…
containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
a layer external to the plasma membrane that provides protect…
Actin
globular protein that forms microfilaments
Active Transport
when moving a substance requires energy input. Used to move a…
Biochemistry 2
The six types of protein
Elements of an amino acid
Basic structure of an amino acid
Functions of amino acids and how many
Structural proteins... Contractile proteins... Catalytic proteins... I…
Carbon (C)... Hydrogen (H)... Oxygen (O)... Nitrogen (N)-difference be…
20 amino acids... They are needed to make every protein in our b…
The six types of protein
Structural proteins... Contractile proteins... Catalytic proteins... I…
Elements of an amino acid
Carbon (C)... Hydrogen (H)... Oxygen (O)... Nitrogen (N)-difference be…
49 terms
biochemistry 2
organic molecule
hydrocarbons equations
hydrocarbons
alkane
made of carbon and hydrogen in a chain or ring... Ex) carbohydra…
2x+2
simplest form of organic molecules which is only mad up of hy…
nonpolar and hydrophobic hydrocarbons with only single c-c bo…
organic molecule
made of carbon and hydrogen in a chain or ring... Ex) carbohydra…
hydrocarbons equations
2x+2
13 terms
Biochemistry #2
metab
aer
an
peri
change
the air
without; not
around
metab
change
aer
the air
Biochemistry 2
advantages of enzymes to cells
∆G
enzyme-substrate binding
enzyme active sites
o Enhance rxn rate... o Rxns are able to occur at physiological…
- All reactions are characterized by free energy exchange: ∆G…
o Enzyme and substrate have complementary features that allow…
o Occupies a small part of total volume of enzyme... o 3D struct…
advantages of enzymes to cells
o Enhance rxn rate... o Rxns are able to occur at physiological…
∆G
- All reactions are characterized by free energy exchange: ∆G…
200 terms
Biochemistry 2
The lysosome functions at what ph?
Proteins destined to function in the l…
The receptor for m6p in the vesicle at…
There are also m6p receptors in the pl…
5.5
Mannose 6 phosphate
Ap3
The hydrolase is constitutively secreted
The lysosome functions at what ph?
5.5
Proteins destined to function in the l…
Mannose 6 phosphate
17 terms
Biochemistry #2
Monomers
Polymers
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharaides (Sugars)
Small repeating units that make up macromolecules.
A macromolecule formed when smaller repeating molecules are j…
are used by living organisms as their main source of energy,…
The monomer of carbohydrates and include glucose, galactose a…
Monomers
Small repeating units that make up macromolecules.
Polymers
A macromolecule formed when smaller repeating molecules are j…
40 terms
Chapter 2: Biochemistry
Atom
Nucleus
Electron
Element
Basic unit of matter
A region that is located at the center of an atom and contain…
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
Atom
Basic unit of matter
Nucleus
A region that is located at the center of an atom and contain…
9 terms
Biochemistry #2
bonds
isomers
mixture
heterogeneous mixture
a strong force of attraction holding atoms together in a mole…
Compounds with the same formula but different structures
Two or more substances mixed together but not at a molecular…
A mixture of substances where you can see the difference betw…
bonds
a strong force of attraction holding atoms together in a mole…
isomers
Compounds with the same formula but different structures
10 terms
Biochemistry 2
What is normal blood pH?
Below what blood pH is death?
Acidosis?
Alkalosis
=7.4
<7.0
<7.3
>7.5
What is normal blood pH?
=7.4
Below what blood pH is death?
<7.0
33 terms
Biochemistry 2
The major lipid component of cell memb…
Cerebrosides and gangliosides are glyc…
Glucose absorbed by the epithelial cel…
What is the relationship between these…
glycerophospholipids
sphingosine
-8.8 kJ/mol
Epimers
The major lipid component of cell memb…
glycerophospholipids
Cerebrosides and gangliosides are glyc…
sphingosine
Biochemistry 2
chemical reactions occur when
metabolism
energy
work
bonds are formed or broken, causing substances to recombine i…
all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
the power to do work
a change in mass or distance
chemical reactions occur when
bonds are formed or broken, causing substances to recombine i…
metabolism
all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
Biochemistry 2
Isoelectric focusing
effect of low salt on protein solubility
effect of high salt on protein solubil…
least soluble point for proteins
technique of protein separation; uses protein's pI to separat…
ions surrond the protein and stabilize the charges and keep t…
salt forms hydrogen bonds with water instead of protein and m…
pI because they don't have a charge, so they don't interact w…
Isoelectric focusing
technique of protein separation; uses protein's pI to separat…
effect of low salt on protein solubility
ions surrond the protein and stabilize the charges and keep t…
65 terms
Biochemistry 2
Electron
Proton
Ionic Bond
Covalent Bond
negatively charged particle - circle around the nucleus
positively charged particle - inside the nucleus
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a…
Chemical bond that forms when electrons are shared, A molecul…
Electron
negatively charged particle - circle around the nucleus
Proton
positively charged particle - inside the nucleus
244 terms
Biochemistry 1-Exam #2
Monomer
Ampholytes (amphoteric electrolytes)
What is the net charge of an amino aci…
pI=
Unit of proteins
Can act as either a base or an acid.... --> Depends on predomin…
Zero
pKa1 + pka2/2... --> Alanine pI= 2.34 + 9.69 / 2 = 6.02
Monomer
Unit of proteins
Ampholytes (amphoteric electrolytes)
Can act as either a base or an acid.... --> Depends on predomin…
Biochemistry Review2
Enzyme
Monosaccharide
Disaccharide
Polysaccharide
An organic catalyst, speeds up reactions. Is specific and wil…
One sugar or a simple sugar ex. Glucose
2 sugar molecules bonded together ex. Maltose
Many sugar molecules bonded together ex. Starch
Enzyme
An organic catalyst, speeds up reactions. Is specific and wil…
Monosaccharide
One sugar or a simple sugar ex. Glucose
Unit 2: Biochemistry
Controlled experiment
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Theory
An experiment in which all factors remain the same except the…
The variable that you are testing (the one that you change on…
The responding variable (the one that you are measuring as a…
A scientific explanation for a natural phenomenon that has be…
Controlled experiment
An experiment in which all factors remain the same except the…
Independent variable
The variable that you are testing (the one that you change on…
38 terms
ALP 2 Applied Biochemistry
bile
digestion
hypoglycemia
pancreatic enzymes
mix of salts that breaks down fats
breaking down large molecules into smaller ones
having too little glucose in the blood
continue to break down fat after bile
bile
mix of salts that breaks down fats
digestion
breaking down large molecules into smaller ones
18 terms
Biology 2: Biochemistry
polar
ion
hydrogen bond
cohesion
describes a molecule in which the positive and negative charg…
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively cha…
an attraction between molecules of the same substance
polar
describes a molecule in which the positive and negative charg…
ion
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
106 terms
Biochemistry #2
Are lipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
Do lipids contain more oxygen for hydr…
What are the building blocks of lipids?
Name the four types of lipids.
Hydrophobic
Hydrogen
Glycerol and fatty acids the consist of a hydrogen chain
Waxes, Steroids, triglycerides, and phospholipids
Are lipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
Hydrophobic
Do lipids contain more oxygen for hydr…
Hydrogen
60 terms
Biochemistry Exam #2
Central Dogma of Biology
Primary structure of a polypeptide?
Secondary structure of a polypeptide?
Tertiary structure of a polypeptide?
DNA (transcribed)→ RNA (translated)→ Protein
Precise sequence of amino acids bonded only by peptide bonds
Alpha-helix or B-sheet: resulting from H-bonding
How the chain folds into three dimensions - due to interactio…
Central Dogma of Biology
DNA (transcribed)→ RNA (translated)→ Protein
Primary structure of a polypeptide?
Precise sequence of amino acids bonded only by peptide bonds
16 terms
Biochemistry 2- enzymes
enzymatic effects on reaction
Apoenzymes
Holoenzymes
Cofactors
No effect on thermodynamics--does not alter delta G or H of r…
Enzymes without cofactors
Enzymes containing cofactors
Inorganic molecules or metals
enzymatic effects on reaction
No effect on thermodynamics--does not alter delta G or H of r…
Apoenzymes
Enzymes without cofactors
29 terms
Biochemistry #2
What is the sibunit of proteins
What is the subunit of carbohydrates
What is the subunit of lipids
What is the subunit of nucleic acid
Amino acids
Monosaccharides
Fatty acids
Nucleotides
What is the sibunit of proteins
Amino acids
What is the subunit of carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
75 terms
biochemistry2
hackneyed
caustic
erosion
erode
(adj) so commonplace as to be stale; not fresh or original
Corrosive adj.
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and c…
to wear away v.
hackneyed
(adj) so commonplace as to be stale; not fresh or original
caustic
Corrosive adj.
Biochemistry 2 Test 2
Circle the statement that is not true…
For gluconeogenesis:... a. In the first s…
Circle the statement that is not true…
Circle the statement that is not true…
d. Gluconeogenesis requires 10 ATP equivalents for one molecu…
a. Oxaloacetate... b. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate... c. glucose
a. Stimulates the enzyme fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
c. 2 molecules of ATP are produced
Circle the statement that is not true…
d. Gluconeogenesis requires 10 ATP equivalents for one molecu…
For gluconeogenesis:... a. In the first s…
a. Oxaloacetate... b. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate... c. glucose
Biochemistry 2
Molecules composed of thousands of ato…
Chainlike molecules consisting of mono…
Make up polymers
Removing water to bond monomers togeth…
Macromolecules
Polymer
Monomer
Dehydration Synthesis
Molecules composed of thousands of ato…
Macromolecules
Chainlike molecules consisting of mono…
Polymer
36 terms
Biochemistry #2
what are the two sub units of lipids
what are some examples of lipids
What are two types of lipids
what is the carboxyl group
glycerol and fatty acids
triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, waxes, and pigments
Saturated + unsaturated
hydrophilic (water loving)
what are the two sub units of lipids
glycerol and fatty acids
what are some examples of lipids
triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, waxes, and pigments
Biochemistry 2
Molecules composed of thousands of ato…
Chainlike molecules consisting of mono…
Make up polymers
Removing water to bond monomers togeth…
Macromolecules
Polymer
Monomer
Dehydration Synthesis
Molecules composed of thousands of ato…
Macromolecules
Chainlike molecules consisting of mono…
Polymer
35 terms
Biochemistry 2
carbohydrate
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
"Compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the appr…
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes,…
Are nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrog…
DNA, and RNA (CHONP)
carbohydrate
"Compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the appr…
Lipids
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes,…
12 terms
Biochemistry 2
What is Dynamic Steady State?
What is substrate level phosphorylation?
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
What problem does the Malate-Aspartate…
Dynamic Steady State refers to the body's ability to maintain…
Substrate level phosphorylation is the process of forming ATP…
Oxidative phosphorylation is the process of forming ATP from…
The Malate-Aspartate Shuttle helps NADH produced during glyco…
What is Dynamic Steady State?
Dynamic Steady State refers to the body's ability to maintain…
What is substrate level phosphorylation?
Substrate level phosphorylation is the process of forming ATP…
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