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40 terms
Chapter 2: Biochemistry
Atom
Nucleus
Electron
Element
Basic unit of matter
A region that is located at the center of an atom and contain…
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
Atom
Basic unit of matter
Nucleus
A region that is located at the center of an atom and contain…
45 terms
Biochemistry - Chapter 2
The step scientists begin their inquiry
The reason why science differs from ot…
Criteria for a controlled experiment
3 subatomic particles
Making careful observations
Science relies on testing explanations
Isolate and test a single variable
protons, neutrons, electrons
The step scientists begin their inquiry
Making careful observations
The reason why science differs from ot…
Science relies on testing explanations
28 terms
Chapter 2: Biochemistry
Matter
Energy
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
anything that takes up space; it can be solid, liquid, or gas
massless and does not take up space; measured by its effect o…
energy that does work
inactive or stored energy
Matter
anything that takes up space; it can be solid, liquid, or gas
Energy
massless and does not take up space; measured by its effect o…
37 terms
Biochemistry: Chapter 2
Enzymes alter ____ and do not alter __…
What are key features of enzymes
Oxioreductase
Transferase
Kinetics... Thermodynamics
- Lower the activation energy... - Inc rate of rxn... - No effect o…
- Catalyze oxidation and reduction rxn's.... - Referred to as de…
- Catalyze a group transfer... - Kinases are apart of this group
Enzymes alter ____ and do not alter __…
Kinetics... Thermodynamics
What are key features of enzymes
- Lower the activation energy... - Inc rate of rxn... - No effect o…
33 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
Oxidoreductases
Transferase
Hydrolases
Lyases
-Transfer of electrons ... -Ex. Dehydrogenase or reductase... -Oxyg…
-Movement of a functional group from one molecule to another…
-Breaking of a compound using the addition of water... -Ex. phos…
-Cleave a single molecule into two without the use of water... -…
Oxidoreductases
-Transfer of electrons ... -Ex. Dehydrogenase or reductase... -Oxyg…
Transferase
-Movement of a functional group from one molecule to another…
38 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
Glycine
Alanine
Valine
Leucine
amino acid with an aliphatic side chain; achiral; single H at…
amino acid with an aliphatic side chain; methyl side chain; h…
amino acid with an aliphatic side chain; hydrocarbon side cha…
amino acid with an aliphatic side chain; hydrocarbon side cha…
Glycine
amino acid with an aliphatic side chain; achiral; single H at…
Alanine
amino acid with an aliphatic side chain; methyl side chain; h…
26 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
Electronegativity
London dispersion
Hydrogen bond
Ionic bond
The ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a co…
Noncovalent interaction resulting from random fluctuation in…
Noncovalent interaction between a lone-pair on an electronega…
Noncovalent interaction between two atoms with opposite forma…
Electronegativity
The ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a co…
London dispersion
Noncovalent interaction resulting from random fluctuation in…
22 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
what is the structure of water?
what helps to make water polar?
participation in hydrogen bonding by H…
what are some characteristics of ice?
bent
the bent structure; this structure also helps to make H2O bot…
mutual reinforcement
hydrogen atoms lie on a direct line (this gives linearity and…
what is the structure of water?
bent
what helps to make water polar?
the bent structure; this structure also helps to make H2O bot…
61 terms
MCAT Biochemistry Chapter 2
Catalysts
Enzyme specificity
Oxidoreductases
Transferases
Molecules which do not impact the thermodynamics of a biologi…
Property by which a given enzyme will only catalyze a single…
Enzymes which catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, the tra…
Enzymes that catalyze the movement of a functional group from…
Catalysts
Molecules which do not impact the thermodynamics of a biologi…
Enzyme specificity
Property by which a given enzyme will only catalyze a single…
14 terms
Chapter 2-Biochemistry
Carbohydrate
Simple Sugar
Complex Sugar
Lipid
A compound that is the bodies main source of energy. Sugar is…
Single carbohydrate like table sugar. It is used for quick en…
A chain of simple sugars like starches. It is used for short…
Used to store energy and make up cell membranes. Lipids inclu…
Carbohydrate
A compound that is the bodies main source of energy. Sugar is…
Simple Sugar
Single carbohydrate like table sugar. It is used for quick en…
32 terms
Chapter 2 Biochemistry: Enzymes
Key features of enzymes
Enzyme specificity
Oxidoreductases
Transferases
-Lower the activation energy ... -Increase the rate of the react…
A given enzyme will only catalyze a single reaction or class…
Catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions; the transfer of elect…
Catalyze the movement of a functional group from one molecule…
Key features of enzymes
-Lower the activation energy ... -Increase the rate of the react…
Enzyme specificity
A given enzyme will only catalyze a single reaction or class…
25 terms
Chapter 2 - Biochemistry
What type of molecule is water?
An attraction of DIFFERENT types of mo…
An attraction of the SAME type of mole…
Name of the scale that measures aids a…
polar
adhesion
cohesion
pH
What type of molecule is water?
polar
An attraction of DIFFERENT types of mo…
adhesion
40 terms
Chapter 2: Biochemistry
Atom
Nucleus
Electron
Element
Basic unit of matter
A region that is located at the center of an atom and contain…
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
Atom
Basic unit of matter
Nucleus
A region that is located at the center of an atom and contain…
57 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2: Enzymes
Enzymes effect on equilibrium constant
Oxidoreductase Enzymes
Reductant
Oxidant
no change
-catalyze oxidation/reduction reactions... -usually has a cofact…
oxidoreductase enzyme that is an electron donor
oxidoreductase enzyme that is an electron acceptor
Enzymes effect on equilibrium constant
no change
Oxidoreductase Enzymes
-catalyze oxidation/reduction reactions... -usually has a cofact…
10 terms
Chapter 2 Biochemistry
Hydrogen Band
Protein
Cohesion
Lipid
Attraction between slightly postive hydrogen and slightly neg…
Made of chains of amino aicds
Attraction of water molecules to other water molecules, cause…
Noncploar molecules that include oil and cholesterol, hydroph…
Hydrogen Band
Attraction between slightly postive hydrogen and slightly neg…
Protein
Made of chains of amino aicds
16 terms
Chapter 2 Biochemistry
atom
nucleus
electron
element
the basic unit of matter
the center of an atom, contains neutrons and protons
a negatively charged atom particle located outside the nucleu…
a pure substance made of only one type of atom
atom
the basic unit of matter
nucleus
the center of an atom, contains neutrons and protons
26 terms
Biochemistry chapter 2: Enzymes
Enzymes
6 classes of enzymes
Oxidoreductase
Transferases
lower activation energy, increase rate, do not change equilib…
Oxidoreductase, transferase, hydrolase, lyase, isomerase, lig…
Catalyzes redox reactions, often have cofactors as electron c…
Catalyze movement of one functional group to another molecule.
Enzymes
lower activation energy, increase rate, do not change equilib…
6 classes of enzymes
Oxidoreductase, transferase, hydrolase, lyase, isomerase, lig…
16 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
bond enthalpy
hydrogen bond
electrostatic interaction
electronegativity
energy required to break a chemical bond
electrostatic interaction between a lone pair on 1 electroneg…
interaction between partial/full charges
measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons to its…
bond enthalpy
energy required to break a chemical bond
hydrogen bond
electrostatic interaction between a lone pair on 1 electroneg…
17 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
Hydrogen Bonding
Amphipathic
Micelles
Four Types of Weak Interactions
a weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrost…
polar and non-polar part to molecule
A shell of hydrophobic molecules which are sequestered away f…
Hydrogen bonds, Ionic interactions, hydrophobic interactions,…
Hydrogen Bonding
a weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrost…
Amphipathic
polar and non-polar part to molecule
40 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
2/3rds
water
covalent, ionic interaction, hydrogen…
20
about ____ of the mass of the human body is water
____ is needed for transport within/between cells and most bi…
bond strength from strongest to weakest
what is the bond strength of hydrogen bonding
2/3rds
about ____ of the mass of the human body is water
water
____ is needed for transport within/between cells and most bi…
46 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
Atom
Electron
Proton
Nucleus
basic unit of matter
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
a stable subatomic particle occurring in all atomic nuclei, w…
the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutron…
Atom
basic unit of matter
Electron
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
44 terms
Chapter 2 - Biochemistry
main elements of the body
isotopes
radioisotopes
synthesis reaction
96% of the body is made of... carbon ... oxygen... hydrogen ... nitrogen
variants of a chemical element... different number of neutrons;…
heavier isotopes that are unstable and decompose ... used in med…
atoms/molecules combine... water is released... energy absorbed to…
main elements of the body
96% of the body is made of... carbon ... oxygen... hydrogen ... nitrogen
isotopes
variants of a chemical element... different number of neutrons;…
48 terms
Chapter 2: Biochemistry
Monomers of carbohydrates
Condensation reaction
Hydrolysis reaction
3 Types of Monosaccharides
monosaccharides
- a molecule of water is removed to create bonds between two…
- a molecule of water is added to break a molecule into its m…
- glucose (beta and alpha)... - galactose ... - fructose ... - ribose…
Monomers of carbohydrates
monosaccharides
Condensation reaction
- a molecule of water is removed to create bonds between two…
96 terms
Chapter 2 Biochemistry
The 4 most elements the body is compos…
Biochemistry
Organic Compounds
Inorganic Compounds
oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen
the study of chemical composition and reactions of living mat…
Always contain Carbon. Carbon is always covalently bonded
All other compounds include: Salt, Water, acids, bases
The 4 most elements the body is compos…
oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen
Biochemistry
the study of chemical composition and reactions of living mat…
38 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
catalysts... transportation... storage... immun…
structural elements such as cytoskelet…
amino group... COOH group... Side chain... Hydr…
S... L isomer
Give some functions of proteins
Rigid proteins are likely to have what type of functions
Give the 4 groups of an amino acid
What is the only form of chiral configuration for proteins?
catalysts... transportation... storage... immun…
Give some functions of proteins
structural elements such as cytoskelet…
Rigid proteins are likely to have what type of functions
113 terms
biochemistry chapter 2
properties
buffer
moderate
aqueous
n. 性能;道具,内容... characteristics used to describe an object
n. [计] 缓冲区;缓冲器,[车辆] 减震器... vt. 缓冲... 1.... vt【化学】把缓冲液加入(溶液)
adj. 稳健的,温和的;适度的,中等的;有节制的... vi. 变缓和,变弱... vt. 节制;减轻... 调节温度: moderate…
adj. 水的,水般的... aqueous solutions 水溶液
properties
n. 性能;道具,内容... characteristics used to describe an object
buffer
n. [计] 缓冲区;缓冲器,[车辆] 减震器... vt. 缓冲... 1.... vt【化学】把缓冲液加入(溶液)
11 terms
Medical Biochemistry Chapter 2
Carbohydrate
All carbohydrates contain:
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
-names end in "ose"... -have a formula of (CH2O)x where x is a n…
-a ketone or aldehyde group... -one or more hydroxyl groups... the…
-common single sugar groups ... -do not hydrolyze to simpler for…
-form when enzyme reactions occur at hydroxyl groups and new…
Carbohydrate
-names end in "ose"... -have a formula of (CH2O)x where x is a n…
All carbohydrates contain:
-a ketone or aldehyde group... -one or more hydroxyl groups... the…
39 terms
Biochemistry chapter 2
Atom
Nucleus
Electron
Element
The basic unit of matter
The center of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
The negatively charged particle located in the space surround…
A pure substance made of one type of atom
Atom
The basic unit of matter
Nucleus
The center of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
68 terms
biochemistry chapter 2 - water
unique properties of water
The four annoying A terms - what's the…
aliphatic
amphoteric
1. high boiling point (100 C) ... 2. High melting point (0 C) ... 3…
aliphatic - nonaromatic organic compound ... amphoteric - acid a…
nonaromatic organic compound ... ex. C2H6
a compound that is able to react both as a base and as an aci…
unique properties of water
1. high boiling point (100 C) ... 2. High melting point (0 C) ... 3…
The four annoying A terms - what's the…
aliphatic - nonaromatic organic compound ... amphoteric - acid a…
34 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2: Water
In water there is an electronegativity…
Water is not _____ in most interactions.
A molecule can be both a...
Due to tetrahedral geometry a single w…
Oxygen and Hydrogen (uneven distribution of charge)
Rigid
HB donor and acceptor
4
In water there is an electronegativity…
Oxygen and Hydrogen (uneven distribution of charge)
Water is not _____ in most interactions.
Rigid
24 terms
Chapter 2 Biochemistry vocabulary
Atom
Element
Molecule
Compound
the basic unit of a chemical element... ex:carbon
what matter is composed of ... ex:carbon
the smallest unit of a compound ... ex: water molecules
form when 2 or more elements combine... ex:water
Atom
the basic unit of a chemical element... ex:carbon
Element
what matter is composed of ... ex:carbon
68 terms
Chapter 2: Biochemistry
Atomic Structure
Isotopes
Radioisotopes
Bonding
-atoms are building blocks of all matter... -atoms consist of su…
-atoms of one element that vary only in the number of neutron…
-knowing the half-life of radioactive isotopes enables us to…
-bond is formed when two atomic nuclei attract the same elect…
Atomic Structure
-atoms are building blocks of all matter... -atoms consist of su…
Isotopes
-atoms of one element that vary only in the number of neutron…
33 terms
Biochemistry (chapter 2)
Ion
Ionic bond
Covalent bond
CO2
An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
Forms through the electrical force between oppositely charged…
Forms when atoms share a pair of electrons
Carbon dioxide
Ion
An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
Ionic bond
Forms through the electrical force between oppositely charged…
37 terms
Chapter 2: Biochemistry
Carbon
C.H.O.N.S.P.
Organic Compounds
Macromolecules
- Can make 4 covalent bonds at a time... - Can bond with itself…
The 6 elements most important to life:... C= Carbon... H= Hydrogen…
Compound that contains carbon bonded to carbon and/or carbon…
Big molecules (textbook)
Carbon
- Can make 4 covalent bonds at a time... - Can bond with itself…
C.H.O.N.S.P.
The 6 elements most important to life:... C= Carbon... H= Hydrogen…
65 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
What shape is water?
Water's ability to stick to itself mak…
Energy at which water forms hydrogen b…
H bonds are ___________
Planar
Cohesive
About 20 KJ/mol or 3-6 Kcal/mol
Directional (most stable in linear position)
What shape is water?
Planar
Water's ability to stick to itself mak…
Cohesive
39 terms
Chapter 2 Biochemistry
Which of these statements about hydrog…
A true statement about hydrophobic int…
Hydrophobic interactions make importan…
Dissolved solutes alter some physical…
D) Individual hydrogen bonds in liquid water exist for many s…
A) are the driving force in the formation of micelles of amph…
E) all of the above are true.
A) concentration of the water.
Which of these statements about hydrog…
D) Individual hydrogen bonds in liquid water exist for many s…
A true statement about hydrophobic int…
A) are the driving force in the formation of micelles of amph…
21 terms
chapter 2 biochemistry
Atom
Matter
Element
Elements H,O,N,C
the smallest unit of an element that still has all the proper…
anything that has mass and occupies space
substance that cannot be broken down into another substance b…
make up 96% of living matter
Atom
the smallest unit of an element that still has all the proper…
Matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
17 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
primary structure
secondary structure
tertiary structure
quaternary structure
amino acid sequence
hydrogen bonds between the atoms of the amino and carboxyl gr…
folding of the complete protein... -side chain interactions that…
overall folding of many polypeptide chains... -creates fixed dom…
primary structure
amino acid sequence
secondary structure
hydrogen bonds between the atoms of the amino and carboxyl gr…
49 terms
Biochemistry - Chapter 2
- water... - inorganic ions (Na+, Cl-, ph…
an aqueous environment.
H- bonding
The cellular environment contains what 4 nutrients for growth…
The structures of the molecules in which life is based (prote…
-positively charged H atoms on one molecule are attracted to…
- water... - inorganic ions (Na+, Cl-, ph…
The cellular environment contains what 4 nutrients for growth…
an aqueous environment.
The structures of the molecules in which life is based (prote…
9 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
H Bond
Polar
NONPolar
Highest Solubility
About 20 kilojoules per mole; stronger when linear
Separation of charge (OH, NH3, COO); hydrophilic; soluble
little separation of charge (CH3, double bond); hydrophobic;…
Polar liquid & solid; polar gases
H Bond
About 20 kilojoules per mole; stronger when linear
Polar
Separation of charge (OH, NH3, COO); hydrophilic; soluble
65 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
What shape is water?
Water's ability to stick to itself mak…
Energy at which water forms hydrogen b…
H bonds are ___________
Planar
Cohesive
About 20 KJ/mol or 3-6 Kcal/mol
Directional (most stable in linear position)
What shape is water?
Planar
Water's ability to stick to itself mak…
Cohesive
26 terms
Chapter 2: Biochemistry
Protons (Charge & Location)
Neutrons (Charge & Location)
Electrons (Charge & Location)
Ion
Very small particle of matter that's part of the nucleus of a…
Neutrons are particles that have no charge and are about the…
Electrons are negatively charged particles, and in a neutral…
An atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative…
Protons (Charge & Location)
Very small particle of matter that's part of the nucleus of a…
Neutrons (Charge & Location)
Neutrons are particles that have no charge and are about the…
16 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
ionic interactions
dipole interactions
van der Waals interactions
hydrophobic effect
a non-covalent interaction; the strongest of the non-covalent…
a non covalent interaction... electrostatic interactions between…
weak interactions between all atoms in close proximity, regar…
is apparently a non-covalent interaction ... complex phenomenon…
ionic interactions
a non-covalent interaction; the strongest of the non-covalent…
dipole interactions
a non covalent interaction... electrostatic interactions between…
53 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
enzymatic catalysts
Protein
transport and storage
mechanical support
most chemical reactions in the cell are carried out by enzyme…
Linear, unbranched polymer of 50 or more amino acids. Amino a…
small molecules are moved throughout the cell by specific tra…
the high tensile strength of bone and skin is due to the pres…
enzymatic catalysts
most chemical reactions in the cell are carried out by enzyme…
Protein
Linear, unbranched polymer of 50 or more amino acids. Amino a…
96 terms
Chapter 2 and 3- Biochemistry
exdergonic reaction
endergonic reaction
enzyme
buffers
reactions that involve net release of free energy
reactions that involve net absorption of free energy
important catalysts in living things
chemical substances that neutralize small of amount of either…
exdergonic reaction
reactions that involve net release of free energy
endergonic reaction
reactions that involve net absorption of free energy
52 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
Glycine Shorthands
Alanine Shorthands
Proline Shorthands
Valine Shorthands
G Gly
A Ala
P Pro
V Val
Glycine Shorthands
G Gly
Alanine Shorthands
A Ala
35 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
dissolve in water; water loving
do not dissolve in water; water fearing
they have similar intermolecular forces
the phenomenon by which nonpolar molec…
what is hydrophilic?
what is hydrophobic?
what does it mean when like dissolve like?
what is the hydrophobic effect?
dissolve in water; water loving
what is hydrophilic?
do not dissolve in water; water fearing
what is hydrophobic?
32 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
Hydrogen bond
Bond dissociation energy
Hydrophilic
Hydrophobic
the attraction of an oxygen of one water molecule to a hydrog…
the energy required to break a bond
compounds that dissolve readily in water or polar substances
compounds that dissolve readily in nonpolar substances
Hydrogen bond
the attraction of an oxygen of one water molecule to a hydrog…
Bond dissociation energy
the energy required to break a bond
20 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2
Enzymes are
ATCC
AFM
H2O molecules
mostly proteins
American Type Cell Culture
Atomic force Microscope
3.4 vs. 4
Enzymes are
mostly proteins
ATCC
American Type Cell Culture
24 terms
Chapter 2 - Biochemistry Vocabulary
Biology
Macromolecules
Monomers
Polymers
The study of living things
Large compounds built by joining smaller ones together.
Smaller units (single) that join together to make larger mole…
Many smaller units joined together
Biology
The study of living things
Macromolecules
Large compounds built by joining smaller ones together.
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