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Study sets matching "biochemistry chapter 6"

Biochemistry chapter 6
Enzymes are
How do enzyme enhance reaction rates?
Lock and key model
Induced fit model
Biological catalysts
Provide an alternative reaction pathway that requires less en…
The structure of the enzymes active site in the substrate tra…
Protein molecule is assumed to be flexible
Enzymes are
Biological catalysts
How do enzyme enhance reaction rates?
Provide an alternative reaction pathway that requires less en…
24 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
Cell membrane function (7)
Components of cell membrane
types of lipids in cell membrane
Composition of cell membrane
provides shape to cell... regulates exchange... cell communication…
lipids, proteins, carbohydrates
single tailed (conical) form miscelles... double tailed (cylindr…
outer layer (more positive)... - phosphatidyl ethanolamine (majo…
Cell membrane function (7)
provides shape to cell... regulates exchange... cell communication…
Components of cell membrane
lipids, proteins, carbohydrates
5 terms
Chapter 6 terms Biochemistry
Cofactors
Apoenzyme
Haloenzyme
Prosthetic groups
Small molecules that many enzymes depends on for catalytical…
An enzyme without its cofactor
The complete, catalytically active enzyme
(Prosthetic=Helper) tightly found coenzyme
Cofactors
Small molecules that many enzymes depends on for catalytical…
Apoenzyme
An enzyme without its cofactor
142 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
amino acid sequence and location of S-…
interaction of amino acids close to ea…
3d structure of polypeptide
arrangement of multiple fodled protein…
primary structure of proteins
secondary structure of proteins
teritary structure
quaternary structure
amino acid sequence and location of S-…
primary structure of proteins
interaction of amino acids close to ea…
secondary structure of proteins
46 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
Nucleoside v Nucleotide
Ribose v Deoxyribose
Charge of DNA/RNA
Adenine structure
Nucleoside: Five carbon sugar covalently linked to a nitrogen…
Phosphates carry a negative charge, so DNA and RNA strands ha…
Purine
Nucleoside v Nucleotide
Nucleoside: Five carbon sugar covalently linked to a nitrogen…
Ribose v Deoxyribose
19 terms
Biochemistry - Chapter 6
activation energy (Ea)/ free energy of…
enzymes
activation energy/ transition state
active site
A chemical reaction occurs when colliding molecules possess a…
? are undoubtedly the most important molecular machines... To pr…
Catalysts increase reaction rate by lowering ?... The free energ…
Each enzyme has a specific ? to bind the substrate... The ? also…
activation energy (Ea)/ free energy of…
A chemical reaction occurs when colliding molecules possess a…
enzymes
? are undoubtedly the most important molecular machines... To pr…
23 terms
biochemistry chapter 6:
Cleave polypeptide chains with endopep…
Cleave polypeptide chains with endopep…
Cleave polypeptide chains with endopep…
Protein Structure
-source pancreas... -cleaves peptide bonds on the C side of the…
-CLEAVES on the C side of bulky hydrophobic resides PHE, TRP,…
-cleaves on the C side of the small neutral residues ALA, GLY…
- Proteins are at the center of action in biological processe…
Cleave polypeptide chains with endopep…
-source pancreas... -cleaves peptide bonds on the C side of the…
Cleave polypeptide chains with endopep…
-CLEAVES on the C side of bulky hydrophobic resides PHE, TRP,…
10 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
Yes
derived from a common ancestor
homologs within one species
homologs in different species
If two proteins in two different species have two similiar 3-…
Define homology
Define paralogs
Define orthologs
Yes
If two proteins in two different species have two similiar 3-…
derived from a common ancestor
Define homology
21 terms
Biochemistry chapter 6
Three ways to increase rate of Chemica…
What are Enzymes?
How are enzymes normally named?
What are the 6 major classifications o…
-Increasing temperature ... -Increase concentration of reacting…
-Enzymes are Catalysts... -Usually proteins that speed up the re…
-normally after the reaction they catalyze... -Example: pyruvate…
1. Oxidoreductases... 2. Transferases... 3. Hydrolases... 4. Lyases... 5.…
Three ways to increase rate of Chemica…
-Increasing temperature ... -Increase concentration of reacting…
What are Enzymes?
-Enzymes are Catalysts... -Usually proteins that speed up the re…
37 terms
Biochemistry: Chapter 6
Regarding the pentose sugar in DNA and…
DNA and RNA strands have what kind of…
Enzymes that replicated and transcribe…
4 rules of being aromatic
The C2 group on DNA is just H while on RNA its OH
Negative
5' ---> 3'
1. Compound is cyclic... 2. compound is planar... 3. compound is co…
Regarding the pentose sugar in DNA and…
The C2 group on DNA is just H while on RNA its OH
DNA and RNA strands have what kind of…
Negative
129 terms
Biochemistry CHAPTER 6
nucleic acids
DNA is found
nucleosides
nucleotides
DNA and RNA
chromosomes in nucleus of eukaryotes, mitochondria, and chlor…
five carbon sugar ... (pentose)+nitrogenous base by covalently…
building blocks of DNA... one or more phosphate group is attach…
nucleic acids
DNA and RNA
DNA is found
chromosomes in nucleus of eukaryotes, mitochondria, and chlor…
44 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
1) increasing the temperature - adding…
a substance that participates in the r…
a protein that acts as a catalyst to s…
noncovalent interactions, electrostati…
what are the three ways to increase the rate of a chemical re…
what is a catalyst?
what is an enzyme?
how do substrates bind to active sites?
1) increasing the temperature - adding…
what are the three ways to increase the rate of a chemical re…
a substance that participates in the r…
what is a catalyst?
61 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6: Enzymes/Kinetics
What are enzymes?
What determines the catalytic activity…
What is a cofactor?
What is a coenzyme?
Enzymes are catalysts that increase reaction rates without be…
The integrity of their native conformation.
One or more inorganic ions, such as Fe+2 and Mn+2, required b…
A complex organic or metalloorganic molecule required by some…
What are enzymes?
Enzymes are catalysts that increase reaction rates without be…
What determines the catalytic activity…
The integrity of their native conformation.
32 terms
Chapter 6 Biochemistry
One of the enzymes involved in glycoly…
Which one of the following is not amon…
Enzymes are potent catalysts because t…
The role of an enzyme in an enzyme-cat…
A) apoenzyme
D) polymerase
E) lower the activation energy for the reactions they catalyze
D) increase the rate at which substrate is converted into pro…
One of the enzymes involved in glycoly…
A) apoenzyme
Which one of the following is not amon…
D) polymerase
10 terms
chapter 6 biochemistry
atom
isotope
Covalent bond
molecule
Basic unit of matter
An atom with the same number of protons and a different numbe…
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons bet…
A group of atoms bonded together
atom
Basic unit of matter
isotope
An atom with the same number of protons and a different numbe…
11 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6: Lipids
Lipid Physiological Roles
Fatty Acids
Triacylglycerols (TG)
Why are fats better at storing energy…
1. Triglycerides (fat storage)... 2. Cellular membranes (phospho…
Long alkanes (14-18C, even #C) that end in a carboxylic acid.…
Storage of FAs.... Glycerol + 3FAs. Esterification.... Glycerol has…
Packing: Fats have less "water-of-solvation", can pack more c…
Lipid Physiological Roles
1. Triglycerides (fat storage)... 2. Cellular membranes (phospho…
Fatty Acids
Long alkanes (14-18C, even #C) that end in a carboxylic acid.…
127 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
Properties of Enzymes
most enzymes are which macromolecule
Enzymes are catalysts of...
E increase reaction velocity without...
high degree of specificity, accelerate chemical reactions, fu…
proteins (except for a small group of catalytic RNA molecules)
biochemical reactinos
being changed (may be changed during the reaction, but they w…
Properties of Enzymes
high degree of specificity, accelerate chemical reactions, fu…
most enzymes are which macromolecule
proteins (except for a small group of catalytic RNA molecules)
52 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
atom
protons; neutrons; electrons
proton
neutron
simplest unit of matter
the nucleus of an atom is made up of ______________ and _____…
positive charge
neutral or no charge
atom
simplest unit of matter
protons; neutrons; electrons
the nucleus of an atom is made up of ______________ and _____…
12 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
enzyme
substrate
cofactor
apoenzyme
protein that accelerates the rate of reactions
reactant to which an enzyme reacts with and is selective for
small molecules that usually need to be present in order for…
enzyme without a cofactor
enzyme
protein that accelerates the rate of reactions
substrate
reactant to which an enzyme reacts with and is selective for
30 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
__1__ increase reaction rate without b…
Co-factors are ________ moleucles that…
Co-enzymes
Prosthetic Group
Enzymes... globular proteins... catalytic RNA
inorganic, enzymes
complex molecules with FG that helps enzymes
Co-enzyme/metal tightly bound to an enzyme or protein
__1__ increase reaction rate without b…
Enzymes... globular proteins... catalytic RNA
Co-factors are ________ moleucles that…
inorganic, enzymes
15 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
5 ways that enzymes increase reaction…
proximity
superoxide dismutase
-orientation
1. proximity... 2. orientation... 3. induced fit... 4. transition stat…
-one way that enzymes increase reaction rates... -2 molecules ar…
-proximity example... -this enzyme removes the free radical (.…
-one way that enzymes increase reaction rates... -need to put th…
5 ways that enzymes increase reaction…
1. proximity... 2. orientation... 3. induced fit... 4. transition stat…
proximity
-one way that enzymes increase reaction rates... -2 molecules ar…
76 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
Primary Structure
Secondary Structure
Tertiary Structure
Quaternary Structure
amino acid sequence; ex. ...KEFTPPVQAAY...
Local folding of the backbone of a linear polymer to form a r…
Large-scale folding structure in a linear polymer that is at…
For a protein, the level of structure that results when separ…
Primary Structure
amino acid sequence; ex. ...KEFTPPVQAAY...
Secondary Structure
Local folding of the backbone of a linear polymer to form a r…
29 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6 Objectives
Six Classes of Enzymes
Enzyme Substrate
Active Site
Cofactor
1. Oxidoreductases - redox reactions (either H or O lost)... 2.…
The compound being acted on (converted in reaction)
The binding, or catalytic, domain
- a substance other than a substrate whose presence is essent…
Six Classes of Enzymes
1. Oxidoreductases - redox reactions (either H or O lost)... 2.…
Enzyme Substrate
The compound being acted on (converted in reaction)
59 terms
Chapter 6: Biochemistry
Element
Atom
Nucleus
Electron energy levels
a pure substance made up of only one kind of atom and can't b…
the smallest particle of an element that has the characterist…
the center of an atom, where the protons and neutrons are loc…
Found outside the nucleus, in a cloud formation, where the el…
Element
a pure substance made up of only one kind of atom and can't b…
Atom
the smallest particle of an element that has the characterist…
65 terms
Biochemistry - Chapter 6
side chains
hydrophobicity
1. hydrophobic... 2. hydrophilic
Primary Structure
The amino acid ______ have polar and nonpolar properties.
The relative ____ of the amino acid side chains is critical f…
The more [1] amino acids will be found on the interior of the…
-the amino acid sequence of the protein (coded for by the DNA…
side chains
The amino acid ______ have polar and nonpolar properties.
hydrophobicity
The relative ____ of the amino acid side chains is critical f…
15 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
Homolog
Paralog
Ortholog
Sequence alignment
Molecules that have evolved from a common ancestor. Also refe…
Homologous molecules that are present within one species. Par…
Homologous molecules that are present within different specie…
A means of determining the evolutionary relatedness of two pr…
Homolog
Molecules that have evolved from a common ancestor. Also refe…
Paralog
Homologous molecules that are present within one species. Par…
17 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
Side Chain Polarity
Side Chain Location in Protein
Interior location
Surface Location
influences location. enviroment is aqueous, nonpolar amino ac…
interior, surface, surface/interior
V, L, I, M, F (nonpolar)
R, H, K, D, E (charged polar)
Side Chain Polarity
influences location. enviroment is aqueous, nonpolar amino ac…
Side Chain Location in Protein
interior, surface, surface/interior
32 terms
Chapter 6 Biochemistry
One of the enzymes involved in glycoly…
Which one of the following is not amon…
Enzymes are potent catalysts because t…
The role of an enzyme in an enzyme-cat…
A) apoenzyme
D) polymerase
E) lower the activation energy for the reactions they catalyze
D) increase the rate at which substrate is converted into pro…
One of the enzymes involved in glycoly…
A) apoenzyme
Which one of the following is not amon…
D) polymerase
14 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
Homologs
paralogs
orthologs
gaps
can be divided into two classes
homologs present within ones species
homologs that are present within different species and have a…
yield a score of -25 while identities have a score of +10 each
Homologs
can be divided into two classes
paralogs
homologs present within ones species
17 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
homolog
paralog
ortholog
sequence alignment
molecules derived from a common ancestor
homologs in the same species; often have different functions
homologs in different species; often have the same function
a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to i…
homolog
molecules derived from a common ancestor
paralog
homologs in the same species; often have different functions
101 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6 (DNA and Biotechnology)
DNA
RNA
Nucleoside
Nucleotide
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Ribonucleic acid
- composed of a five carbon sugar (pentose) covalently bound…
- formed when one or more phosphate groups are attached to th…
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid
RNA
Ribonucleic acid
30 terms
Biochemistry, Chapter 6
Activation energy
Lock and Key Model
Induced fit model
Enzyme specificity
The amount of energy required to make a reaction proceed from…
This model for describing enzyme - substrate interaction stat…
This model for describing enzyme - substrate interaction stat…
This term describes how particular an enzyme is for its subst…
Activation energy
The amount of energy required to make a reaction proceed from…
Lock and Key Model
This model for describing enzyme - substrate interaction stat…
12 terms
Biology Chapter 6 - Biochemistry
atom
nucleus
proton
electron
smallest compete building block unit of matter
center of the atom, contains protons and neutrons
positively charged particle
negatively charged particle
atom
smallest compete building block unit of matter
nucleus
center of the atom, contains protons and neutrons
51 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
DNA is a:
DNA is orgacized according to the ____…
Huckels rule
Heterocycles
macromolecule that stores genetic information in all living o…
watson-crick
4n+2 pi electrons in aromatic compounds
are ring structures that contain at least two different eleme…
DNA is a:
macromolecule that stores genetic information in all living o…
DNA is orgacized according to the ____…
watson-crick
70 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
ribose
deoxyribose
charge of DNA and RNA
DNA and RNA double or single stranded?
the nucleic acid is RNA... has an OH on the bottom
nucleic acid is DNA... and just like the name suggests the botto…
overall negative charge
DNA - normally double stranded... RNA - single stranded
ribose
the nucleic acid is RNA... has an OH on the bottom
deoxyribose
nucleic acid is DNA... and just like the name suggests the botto…
59 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6: DNA and Biotechnology
nucleoside
nucleotide
ribose
deoxyribose
Five carbon sugar (pentose) bonded to a nitrogenous base that…
Five carbon sugar (pentose) bonded to a nitrogenous base that…
OH group at 2'
H group replaces OH group at 2'
nucleoside
Five carbon sugar (pentose) bonded to a nitrogenous base that…
nucleotide
Five carbon sugar (pentose) bonded to a nitrogenous base that…
Biochemistry - Chapter 6
1. Enzymes with [S] below Km are...... 2.…
1. Maximum velocity a rxn can attain?…
1. The lower the value of Km...... 1a. Km…
1. How are things such as Vmax, Km det…
1. Sensitive to change and not really active... 2. Are not sensi…
1. Vmax... 2. Kcat... 3. ν = (Vmax*[S]) / ([S] + Km)... 4. The specifi…
1. The greater the affinity of the enzyme for ES complex form…
1. Using the reciprocal of the Michaelis-Menten equation... 1a.…
1. Enzymes with [S] below Km are...... 2.…
1. Sensitive to change and not really active... 2. Are not sensi…
1. Maximum velocity a rxn can attain?…
1. Vmax... 2. Kcat... 3. ν = (Vmax*[S]) / ([S] + Km)... 4. The specifi…
120 terms
Chapter 6: Biochemistry
atoms
nucleus
proton
electron
building blocks of matter
where the protons and neutrons are centered in the center of…
positively charged particle
negatively charged particle
atoms
building blocks of matter
nucleus
where the protons and neutrons are centered in the center of…
42 terms
Biochemistry: Chapter 6
Name structure and properties of pepti…
Structure of Alpha Helix
Alpha Helix instability
Define: Molecular Chaperones
Structure: ... -planar due to resonance interactions (cannot ful…
-Secondary structure... - Left or right handed (R.handed more c…
• Electrostatic repulsion or attraction- charged R groups... •…
-AKA Heat Shock Proteins... -Prevent misfolding of proteins... -P…
Name structure and properties of pepti…
Structure: ... -planar due to resonance interactions (cannot ful…
Structure of Alpha Helix
-Secondary structure... - Left or right handed (R.handed more c…
9 terms
Chapter 6. Biochemistry
What is an example of a solution
What are the pH ranges of an acid and…
What are some characteristics of a nuc…
What are some characteristics of a lipid
Sugar water
• Acid >7... • Base<7... • Neutral 7
•Stores coded genetic information... • Forms Double-Helix struct…
• Makes up fats, oils, and waxes in biology... • Stores energy a…
What is an example of a solution
Sugar water
What are the pH ranges of an acid and…
• Acid >7... • Base<7... • Neutral 7
18 terms
Debbie: Biochemistry Chapter 6
Nucleoside
Nucleotide
Histone Proteins
Nucleosome
"has Sugar Side"... Base + Sugar... contain a 5-carbon sugar bonde…
"has an ATP" "has a Phosphate"... Nucleotides are nucleosides w…
A structural protein about which DNA is coiled in eukaryotic…
fundamental subunit of chromatin. Each nucleosome is made up…
Nucleoside
"has Sugar Side"... Base + Sugar... contain a 5-carbon sugar bonde…
Nucleotide
"has an ATP" "has a Phosphate"... Nucleotides are nucleosides w…
143 terms
Biology and Biochemistry Chapter 6 Microbiology
How does a virus decrease genome size
the protein cast that surrounds the vi…
capsid shapes
T4 bacteriophage
overlapping reading frames
capsid
helical... polyhedral... complex
a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium (e.g.,…
How does a virus decrease genome size
overlapping reading frames
the protein cast that surrounds the vi…
capsid
49 terms
MCAT Biochemistry Chapter 6
Nucleosides
Nucleotides
Ribose and Deoxyribose
Purines
Are composed of a five-carbon sugar (pentose) bound to a nitr…
Are formed when one or more phosphate groups are attached to…
Contain two carbon rings in their structure, one five and one…
Nucleosides
Are composed of a five-carbon sugar (pentose) bound to a nitr…
Nucleotides
Are formed when one or more phosphate groups are attached to…
9 terms
Chapter 6. Biochemistry
What is an example of a solution
What are the pH ranges of an acid and…
What are some characteristics of a nuc…
What are some characteristics of a lipid
Sugar water
• Acid >7... • Base<7... • Neutral 7
•Stores coded genetic information... • Forms Double-Helix struct…
• Makes up fats, oils, and waxes in biology... • Stores energy a…
What is an example of a solution
Sugar water
What are the pH ranges of an acid and…
• Acid >7... • Base<7... • Neutral 7
82 terms
Biochemistry Exam: Chapter 6
rate law
rate order
overall rate order
increases
an equation that relates the reaction rate to the concentrati…
The power to which the concentration of a reactant is raised…
Sum of the powers to which the concentration of all the react…
A catalyst _____________ the rate of a reaction
rate law
an equation that relates the reaction rate to the concentrati…
rate order
The power to which the concentration of a reactant is raised…
47 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6: DNA and Biotechnology
Nucleoside
Nucleotide
DNA directionality
Purines vs pyrimidines
Composed of a five-carbon sugar bonded to a nitrogenous base.…
One or more phosphate groups are attached to C-5' of a nucleo…
5' to 3'. So 3' to 5' phosphodiester bonds. Five prime end ha…
Purines: Two rings. Adenine and guanine. ... Pyrimidines: one ri…
Nucleoside
Composed of a five-carbon sugar bonded to a nitrogenous base.…
Nucleotide
One or more phosphate groups are attached to C-5' of a nucleo…
27 terms
Biochemistry chapter 6.3
motifs
domain
interfaces
domain
supersecondary structures found in protein formation. commonl…
an independent folding region within a protein often associat…
areas between domains which provide crevices, grooves, and po…
is the fundamental unit of tertiary structure. contains an in…
motifs
supersecondary structures found in protein formation. commonl…
domain
an independent folding region within a protein often associat…
40 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 6
substrate
kinetically stable
rate constant
activation energy
- The reactant.... The molecule that undergoes chemical change w…
A molecule that has a large energy barrier separating it from…
A measure of the probability that a reaction will occur.... Dete…
Is reduced by an enzyme.... - The energy required for a reactant…
substrate
- The reactant.... The molecule that undergoes chemical change w…
kinetically stable
A molecule that has a large energy barrier separating it from…
133 terms
biochemistry - chapter 6 protein structures
How are the three-dimensional structur…
protein function depends on
Structure depends on:
what type of bonds dictate the amino a…
1. Function depends on structure.... 2. Structure depends both o…
structure
1. amino acid sequence... 2. weak, noncovalent forces
covalent bonds (peptide bonds)
How are the three-dimensional structur…
1. Function depends on structure.... 2. Structure depends both o…
protein function depends on
structure
63 terms
Klisavage- Chapter 6- Biochemistry
Polarity (Polar)
Solution
Suspension
Solvent
Waters most important property, meaning it has positive and n…
type of mixture that contains small particles
type of mixture that contains large particles that will settl…
a substance that dissolves the solute
Polarity (Polar)
Waters most important property, meaning it has positive and n…
Solution
type of mixture that contains small particles
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