Study sets matching "biochemistry exam ii science"

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Study sets matching "biochemistry exam ii science"

Science test 2: Biochemistry
biochemistry
atom
particles that make up atoms
nucleus
study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurrin…
basic unit of matter, do not have a charge
protons, neutrons, electrons
center of the atom (made of protons and neutrons)
biochemistry
study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurrin…
atom
basic unit of matter, do not have a charge
Chapter 2: Biochemistry- Science
Anabolic
Catabolic
Endergonic
Exergonic
chemical reactions in which simpler substances are combined t…
release energy that is used to drive chemical reactions
requiring energy
liberating energy
Anabolic
chemical reactions in which simpler substances are combined t…
Catabolic
release energy that is used to drive chemical reactions
23 terms
Science Unit 2 - Biochemistry
Elements
Atoms
Nucleus
Neutrons
A substance that can be identified by its physical traits.
The smallest unit of an element that still has all of the pro…
In the middle
No charge (N)
Elements
A substance that can be identified by its physical traits.
Atoms
The smallest unit of an element that still has all of the pro…
45 terms
Science Biochemistry Part 2
Organic Chemistry
Organic Compounds
Essential Inorganic Compounds -> Requi…
Carbon Chemistry
associated with living things, reactions necessary to maintai…
always have Carbon, but at least 5 C atoms... very large in size…
H2O... O2... CO2... Minerals
has 4 valence electrons= form 4 covalent bonds... allows C to fo…
Organic Chemistry
associated with living things, reactions necessary to maintai…
Organic Compounds
always have Carbon, but at least 5 C atoms... very large in size…
69 terms
Metabolism & Biochemistry (Exam 2)
glycolysis
ATP-Cp
Elements of Organic Molecules
Polar
splitting of a glucose molecule to form 2 net ATP in anaerobi…
anaerobic System that inlcludes creatine phosphate broken dow…
C, H, & O
charged, will dissolve in H20
glycolysis
splitting of a glucose molecule to form 2 net ATP in anaerobi…
ATP-Cp
anaerobic System that inlcludes creatine phosphate broken dow…
Survey of Biochemistry Exam 2
Enzyme
10^20 factor rate of reaction increase
sterioisomer
Family of reactions
a reusable biological catalyst that is a protein except for s…
What is the maximum effect an enzyme can have on reaction rate
Enzymes that are very specific can get all the way down to a...
More general enzymes will catalyze a...
Enzyme
a reusable biological catalyst that is a protein except for s…
10^20 factor rate of reaction increase
What is the maximum effect an enzyme can have on reaction rate
107 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
What are enzymes?
Anselme Payne
How do enzymes work?
Key Features of Catalysis Mechanisms
Proteins (or RNA) that catalyze the making and breaking of co…
Discovered enzymes in a brewery. Breweries were king back in…
They work by lowering the activation energy, which stabilizes…
Proximity- structures are close together.... Orientation- substr…
What are enzymes?
Proteins (or RNA) that catalyze the making and breaking of co…
Anselme Payne
Discovered enzymes in a brewery. Breweries were king back in…
177 terms
Elementary Biochemistry Exam 2
all standard amino acids contain funct…
all amino acids are __ isomers, except…
amino acids can be broadly classified…
neutral amino acids can be subdivided…
-COOH, -NH2
L, glycine
acidic, basic, neutral
hydroxyl, sulfur containing, or none
all standard amino acids contain funct…
-COOH, -NH2
all amino acids are __ isomers, except…
L, glycine
Biochemistry Exam 2
enzymes
Non-enzymatic 1/2 life
catalytic rate
carbonic anhydrase
molecules that speed up a reaction, they act as catalysts. ... A…
how long the reaction will take without a catalyst. in some c…
how long the reaction takes with an enzyme.
converts CO2 + H2O into H2CO3- in 5 seconds without the enzym…
enzymes
molecules that speed up a reaction, they act as catalysts. ... A…
Non-enzymatic 1/2 life
how long the reaction will take without a catalyst. in some c…
105 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
Water geometry and hybridization
Bent geometry
Hydrogen bond
Colinear
tetrahedral bent, sp3 hybridized
a lot more cloud space squeezes the bond (e- dense)
covalent bond in which the hydrogen is unequally shared by tw…
in a line (vs skewed); stronger than skewed reactions
Water geometry and hybridization
tetrahedral bent, sp3 hybridized
Bent geometry
a lot more cloud space squeezes the bond (e- dense)
Biochemistry Exam 2
Monosaccaride
Oligosaccaride
Disaccaride
Polysaccaride
The simplest saccaride
...
...
...
Monosaccaride
The simplest saccaride
Oligosaccaride
...
109 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
Primary Structure
Secondary Structure
Tertiary Structure
Quaternary Structure
Sequence of amino acid chain linked together by peptide bonds;
The second level of protein structure; the regular local patt…
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dime…
The fourth level of protein structure;... the shape resulting f…
Primary Structure
Sequence of amino acid chain linked together by peptide bonds;
Secondary Structure
The second level of protein structure; the regular local patt…
84 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
What is the optimal pH for lysosomal e…
What proteins does the mitochondrial g…
Which molecules can passively diffuse…
What is the Structure/Function of Cere…
pH = 5.5
Proteins for Oxidative phosphorylation
Small, non-polar substrates.
They are abundant in the brain.
What is the optimal pH for lysosomal e…
pH = 5.5
What proteins does the mitochondrial g…
Proteins for Oxidative phosphorylation
119 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
Transfer a-amino group from an a-amino…
What do aminotransferases form?
What is the typical receptor in reacti…
Cofactor of aminotransferases
Aminotransferase
Glutamate + a-ketoacid
a-ketoglutarate
PLP
Transfer a-amino group from an a-amino…
Aminotransferase
What do aminotransferases form?
Glutamate + a-ketoacid
46 terms
Biochemistry unit 2: science
matter
volume
element
compound
anything that takes up space and has mass to it
anything that takes up space
simplest form of a substance that cannot be broken apart and…
two or more elements bonded together resulting in new chemica…
matter
anything that takes up space and has mass to it
volume
anything that takes up space
Biochemistry exam 2
common monosachirides
common disachirides
common poly schachirides
enantiomores of sugars
glucose, fructose, galactose
sucrose, lactose, maltose
starch, glycogen, cellulose, semi cellulose
only one stereo isomer is present usually the D version in an…
common monosachirides
glucose, fructose, galactose
common disachirides
sucrose, lactose, maltose
Science biochemistry test 2
Adenine
Amino acid
Carbohydrate
Catalase
Pairs with thymine... In rna and dna
Monomer of a protein
Macro molecule
Enzyme that causes the reaction of hydrogen peroxide ... Polymer…
Adenine
Pairs with thymine... In rna and dna
Amino acid
Monomer of a protein
Biochemistry Exam 2 - Structure
Oxidation of lysines and hydroxylysines
Lysyl Oxidase
Absence of Ascorbic Acid
Scurvy Symptoms
Oxidation to reactive aldehydes by lysyl oxidase... Results in…
Oxidizes collagen into aldehydes that spontaneously react wit…
Cannot covert proline to hydroxyproline and lysine to hydroxy…
No vitamin C... Bone pain, skin and gum disease, poor wound hea…
Oxidation of lysines and hydroxylysines
Oxidation to reactive aldehydes by lysyl oxidase... Results in…
Lysyl Oxidase
Oxidizes collagen into aldehydes that spontaneously react wit…
145 terms
BIOCHEMISTRY ACS EXAM 2
Unfolds proteins and gives them unifor…
Reacts with the N-terminus of the prot…
Reduces disulfide bonds.
Adds carboxymethyl group on free -SH g…
SDS
FDNB
DTT
Iodoacetate
Unfolds proteins and gives them unifor…
SDS
Reacts with the N-terminus of the prot…
FDNB
119 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
De novo synthesis of a nucleotide star…
In de novo pyrimidine synthesis, what…
The committed step of de novo pyrimidi…
Salvage synthesis of a nucleotide star…
PRPP, amino acid, ATP, CO2, and sometimes more stuff
orate... (used NAD+ as cofactor)
carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate
PRPP, pre-formed base
De novo synthesis of a nucleotide star…
PRPP, amino acid, ATP, CO2, and sometimes more stuff
In de novo pyrimidine synthesis, what…
orate... (used NAD+ as cofactor)
185 terms
Biochemistry exam 2
What do Enzymes do?
How enzymes work?
What do catalysts do?
6 Major Classes of enzymes... (write on i…
Catalyzes thermodynamically favored reactions, causing them t…
1. Higher reaction rates... 2. Milder reaction conditions... 3. Gre…
1. Enhance rate of reaction... 2. Not consumed in reaction... 3. Us…
Oxidoreductase, Transferase, Hydrolase, Lyase, Isomerase, Lig…
What do Enzymes do?
Catalyzes thermodynamically favored reactions, causing them t…
How enzymes work?
1. Higher reaction rates... 2. Milder reaction conditions... 3. Gre…
Biochemistry Exam 2
Rate & Activation energy equation
MM eqn
MM curve
Lineweaver-Burk equation
k = kbT/h * e^-(Ea/RT)
vo = Vmax[S]/(Km+[S])
Vmax = asymptote... Km = [S] at 1/2 Vmax
1/v0 = (Km/Vmax) * (1/[S]) + 1/Vmax
Rate & Activation energy equation
k = kbT/h * e^-(Ea/RT)
MM eqn
vo = Vmax[S]/(Km+[S])
370 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
Disclaimer. Please Read!
What is signal transduction?
What are short term effects to a cell…
What are long term effects caused by?
These cards are written in a way that I could understand and…
The process of converting extracellular signals into cellular…
Post translational modifications that can reverse quickly
Changes in mRNA transcription that increases/decreases synthe…
Disclaimer. Please Read!
These cards are written in a way that I could understand and…
What is signal transduction?
The process of converting extracellular signals into cellular…
107 terms
Biochemistry Practice Exam 2
a protein for which disulfide bond is…
the protein for which hydrophobic inte…
the protein for which the electrostati…
the protein for which H bonds has the…
NaCl is lowest and B mercaptoethanol is highest
B mercaptoethanol and detergent are lowest (20%)
B mercaptoethanol and urea are lowest, NaCl are highest
B mercaptoethanol and urea are lowest, NaCl are highest
a protein for which disulfide bond is…
NaCl is lowest and B mercaptoethanol is highest
the protein for which hydrophobic inte…
B mercaptoethanol and detergent are lowest (20%)
155 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2 Review
What does the body use for energy?
What is the main energy source for the…
Polysaccs must be broken down into mon…
What breaks down polysaccharides to di…
Carbs, Proteins, Lipids
Carbs (glucose)
Digestion
Salivary amylase & pancreatic amylase
What does the body use for energy?
Carbs, Proteins, Lipids
What is the main energy source for the…
Carbs (glucose)
Science- Test 2: Biochemistry
Element
Atom
Isotope
Radioactive Isotope
A substance that can't be broken down to other substances by…
Smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of…
Have the same number of protons and behave identical in chemi…
The nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and en…
Element
A substance that can't be broken down to other substances by…
Atom
Smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of…
98 terms
LECOM Biochemistry Exam 2
BIOCHEMISTRY 19: FATTY ACID METABOLISM
Major Source of fuel overall
Fatty acids come from
Most fatty acid oxidation occurs in wh…
BIOCHEMISTRY 19: FATTY ACID METABOLISM
fatty acids
diet (chylomicron)... liver (vldl)... adipose tissue reservoir
muscle and liver
BIOCHEMISTRY 19: FATTY ACID METABOLISM
BIOCHEMISTRY 19: FATTY ACID METABOLISM
Major Source of fuel overall
fatty acids
36 terms
SCIENCE biochemistry 2 test
Goal of plasma membrane
what is the plasma membrane composed of?
head
lipid chains
to maintain homeostasis by regulating what comes in and out o…
a phospholipid bilayer
made of phosphate, polar, faces towards the water (hydrophilic)
long non-polar chains of carbon and hydrogen, faces away from…
Goal of plasma membrane
to maintain homeostasis by regulating what comes in and out o…
what is the plasma membrane composed of?
a phospholipid bilayer
Biochemistry SPP Exam 2
Role of sigma factor
Haloenzyme
3' poly A tail
5' cap
a protein needed only for initiation of RNA synthesis in prok…
active form of an enzyme-the binding of an apoenzyme and its…
Approx. 200 adenosine residues added to 3' end. Protects from…
occurs after 25 nucleotides have been transcribed... Addition of…
Role of sigma factor
a protein needed only for initiation of RNA synthesis in prok…
Haloenzyme
active form of an enzyme-the binding of an apoenzyme and its…
264 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2 (Jones)
What are the simple carbohydrates?
What are the complex carbohydrates?
What is the generic carbohydrate formu…
How do you name a carbohydrate?
monosaccharides and disaccharides
1) polysaccharides (starch) and 2) fiber (obtained through di…
CnH2nOn or Cn(H2O)n
1) Number of carbon atoms (triose, tetrose, pentose, hexose)…
What are the simple carbohydrates?
monosaccharides and disaccharides
What are the complex carbohydrates?
1) polysaccharides (starch) and 2) fiber (obtained through di…
Biochemistry - Exam 2
Why are carrier proteins needed to sup…
Hemoglobin
Myoglobin
Heme
Oxygen is insoluble in water and blood.
Protein responsible for oxygen transport in the blood stream…
Protein responsible for oxygen storage in muscles of mammals.
- Fe-protoporphyrin IX, a prosthetic group which coordinates…
Why are carrier proteins needed to sup…
Oxygen is insoluble in water and blood.
Hemoglobin
Protein responsible for oxygen transport in the blood stream…
221 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2 (b)
Respiratory quotient
Cytoplasm metabolic process
ER and Golgi metabolic process
Lysosome metabolic process
carb = 1... fat = .7... protein = .8
anabolic and catabolic... -store glycogen and fat
synthesis and process protein and membrane lipids
macromolecule degradation (hydrolytic)
Respiratory quotient
carb = 1... fat = .7... protein = .8
Cytoplasm metabolic process
anabolic and catabolic... -store glycogen and fat
80 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
What is an amide plane?
Which form of the peptide bond is favo…
What are the 3 classes of secondary st…
Which type of bond stabilizes a second…
All four of the atoms in an amide group and the two alpha car…
Trans-form
Alpha helix... Beta sheet... Beta turns
Hydrogen bonds
What is an amide plane?
All four of the atoms in an amide group and the two alpha car…
Which form of the peptide bond is favo…
Trans-form
Nutritional Biochemistry Exam 2
Structure of Vitamin A - All-Trans-Ret…
Structure of Vitamin A - Retinal
Structure of Vitamin A - Retnioic Acid
Group of compounds that possess the bi…
What structure is this?
What structure is this?
What is this structure?
▪All-trans retinol... ▪Retinal... ▪Retinoic acid
Structure of Vitamin A - All-Trans-Ret…
What structure is this?
Structure of Vitamin A - Retinal
What structure is this?
Science Test #2: biochemistry
chemical reaction
product
substrates aka
activation energy
process that changes or transforms, one set of chemicals into…
reactants turn into
reactants
amount of energy needed in order for a chemical reaction to t…
chemical reaction
process that changes or transforms, one set of chemicals into…
product
reactants turn into
Biochemistry Exam 2 Carbs
simple carbohydrates
complex carbohydrates
dietary sources of complex carbohydrates
naming carbs
monosaccharides... disaccharides
polysaccharides (starch)... Fiber... Glycogen
polysaccharides and fiber
number of carbons... presence of aldehyde or ketone group
simple carbohydrates
monosaccharides... disaccharides
complex carbohydrates
polysaccharides (starch)... Fiber... Glycogen
79 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
keratin:... -type of protein... -structure... -…
hair perms and straightening is...
collagen molecules/Gly-X-Y
collagen fibril
-fibrous protein... -Amino acids form a helix, 2 alpha helices i…
a reduction of disulfide bonds that make up keratin
collagen molecules are made of 3 interwound alpha helices (ea…
composed of many (triple helical) collagen molecules that are…
keratin:... -type of protein... -structure... -…
-fibrous protein... -Amino acids form a helix, 2 alpha helices i…
hair perms and straightening is...
a reduction of disulfide bonds that make up keratin
Life Science Biochemistry Exam 2 11-23-15
Isomers
Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation)
Hydrolysis
The four categories of organic molecules
Two or more compounds with the same formulas but different ar…
When water molecules are removed to create larger molecules.
When water molecules are added to break down into smaller mol…
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Isomers
Two or more compounds with the same formulas but different ar…
Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation)
When water molecules are removed to create larger molecules.
42 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
Glycine
ketotetrose
aldotriose
ketotriose
Of the 20 amino acids, only _________ is non-chiral. The reas…
Glycine
Of the 20 amino acids, only _________ is non-chiral. The reas…
ketotetrose
Biochemistry Exam 2
Primary structure
secondary structure
tertiary structure
Quarternary structure
The main sequence of the polypeptide chain
Helix, due to interactions of the peptide bond amides and car…
Backbone + R groups, one complete protein chain, combo of 2nd…
multiple polypeptide protein, 2 alpha and 2 beta chains, sepe…
Primary structure
The main sequence of the polypeptide chain
secondary structure
Helix, due to interactions of the peptide bond amides and car…
107 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
Enzymes exert
Yields in biochemical systems
Rate/Velocity
Rate Law
kinetic control over thermodynamic potentiality .
are very high due to specificity.
delta A over delta T.
delta A over delta T = k. concentration of A multiplied by co…
Enzymes exert
kinetic control over thermodynamic potentiality .
Yields in biochemical systems
are very high due to specificity.
20 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
Lysine (Lys)
Arginine (Arg)
Histidine (His)
Glycine (Gly)
Lysine (Lys)
Arginine (Arg)
25 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
Ligand
Binding Site
Lock & Key
Induced Fit
A small molecule that binds specifically to a larger one; for…
The crevice or pocket on a protein in which a ligand binds.
...
A change in the conformation of an enzyme in response to subs…
Ligand
A small molecule that binds specifically to a larger one; for…
Binding Site
The crevice or pocket on a protein in which a ligand binds.
155 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
Blood Type O
Blood Groups A, B, AB, O - what sugar…
Glycolipid
What term is applied to sets of enzyme…
more susceptible to Ulcers (duodenal ulcerations) because H.…
depend on sugar residues at the ends of carbohydrate chains o…
sugars can be added to lipids.
Isoenzymes (Isozymes)... - More than one enzyme is known that ph…
Blood Type O
more susceptible to Ulcers (duodenal ulcerations) because H.…
Blood Groups A, B, AB, O - what sugar…
depend on sugar residues at the ends of carbohydrate chains o…
6 terms
Science Test 2- Biochemistry
What are the building blocks of life?
What are the chemical properties of ca…
What makes water so crucial to life?
What chemical factors make water diffe…
Nucleic acids- they make up proteins, which make up DNA
-Carbon will covalently bond with a lot of elements... -Carbon w…
-Cohesion-the ability of water to bond to itself... -Adhesion-th…
-Ice is less dense than than water because the hydrogens crea…
What are the building blocks of life?
Nucleic acids- they make up proteins, which make up DNA
What are the chemical properties of ca…
-Carbon will covalently bond with a lot of elements... -Carbon w…
28 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2 Structures
Dinitrophenol
Malonate
Oxaloacetate
Vitamin A
Dinitrophenol
Malonate
222 terms
BIOCHEMISTRY EXAM 2
description of primary proteins
description of secondary proteins
description of tertiary proteins
description of quaternary proteins
sequence of AA in polypeptide
spatial arrangement of AA of a polypeptide main chain without…
3D arrangement of atoms in a protein
arrangement of multiple folded protein molecules in a multisu…
description of primary proteins
sequence of AA in polypeptide
description of secondary proteins
spatial arrangement of AA of a polypeptide main chain without…
242 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
Which AA is most commonly used for gen…
Three ways a metal ion can act as a ca…
How does electrostatic catalysis funct…
Entropy-reduction catalysis
Histidine
- Stabilize transition state... - Generate a nucleophile by incr…
Balances a charge + reduces the energy required to generate a…
Brings two substrates physically closer together
Which AA is most commonly used for gen…
Histidine
Three ways a metal ion can act as a ca…
- Stabilize transition state... - Generate a nucleophile by incr…
122 terms
Biochemistry Exam 2
Primary Structure
Secondary Structure
Tertiary Structure
Quaternary Structure
Amino acids linearly joined together by peptide bonds
a-helix or beta- strand conformation
overall 3-D shape of an entire protein (50 AA or more) molecu…
multiple polypeptide chains (protein subunits) interacting to…
Primary Structure
Amino acids linearly joined together by peptide bonds
Secondary Structure
a-helix or beta- strand conformation
53 terms
BIOCHEMISTRY EXAM 2
Relate the structural features of the…
Structure of myoglobin
Structure of hemoglobin
Compare and contrast the general struc…
L6... Mb is not affected by conformational change... Hb IS AFFECTE…
myoglobin is created by the binding of the alpha helices to t…
2 dimers (4 monomers) an alpha beta dimer 1 and alpha beta di…
L6... Mb is a monomer with two helical structures bound to a he…
Relate the structural features of the…
L6... Mb is not affected by conformational change... Hb IS AFFECTE…
Structure of myoglobin
myoglobin is created by the binding of the alpha helices to t…
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