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Study sets matching "biology 101 chapter 3"

41 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells
Archaean cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Have a nucleus (membrane enclosed DNA organelle)... are structur…
Have a nucleoid (no membrane around DNA)... structurally simple;…
have qualities of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and exist i…
recognized for inventing one of the earliest microscopes and…
Eukaryotic cells
Have a nucleus (membrane enclosed DNA organelle)... are structur…
Prokaryotic cells
Have a nucleoid (no membrane around DNA)... structurally simple;…
36 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 3
polar molecule
cohesion
adhesion
surface tension
a molecule whose overall charge is unevenly distributed.
the linking together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bon…
the clinging of one substance to another
a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surf…
polar molecule
a molecule whose overall charge is unevenly distributed.
cohesion
the linking together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bon…
70 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3: The Molecules of Cells
hydrophillic
hydrophobic
functional groups
methyl group
water loving, polar, dissolve in water, form hydrogen bonds
"water fearing," non-polar, do not dissolve in water, no hydr…
chemical groups that are reactive, polar, hydrophillic. hydro…
hydrophobic, not reactive, carbon w/3 hydrogens attached, det…
hydrophillic
water loving, polar, dissolve in water, form hydrogen bonds
hydrophobic
"water fearing," non-polar, do not dissolve in water, no hydr…
41 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells
Archaean cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Have a nucleus (membrane enclosed DNA organelle)... are structur…
Have a nucleoid (no membrane around DNA)... structurally simple;…
have qualities of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and exist i…
recognized for inventing one of the earliest microscopes and…
Eukaryotic cells
Have a nucleus (membrane enclosed DNA organelle)... are structur…
Prokaryotic cells
Have a nucleoid (no membrane around DNA)... structurally simple;…
45 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Adenosine
ADP (adenosine diphosphate) amino acid
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
biomolecule
Portion of ATP and ADP that is composed of the base adenine a…
Nucleotide with two phosphate groups that can accept another…
Nucleotide with three phosphate groups. The breakdown of ATP…
Organic molecule (macromolecule as a protein or nucleic acid)…
Adenosine
Portion of ATP and ADP that is composed of the base adenine a…
ADP (adenosine diphosphate) amino acid
Nucleotide with two phosphate groups that can accept another…
36 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 3
polar molecule
cohesion
adhesion
surface tension
a molecule whose overall charge is unevenly distributed.
the linking together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bon…
the clinging of one substance to another
a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surf…
polar molecule
a molecule whose overall charge is unevenly distributed.
cohesion
the linking together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bon…
70 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3: The Molecules of Cells
hydrophillic
hydrophobic
functional groups
methyl group
water loving, polar, dissolve in water, form hydrogen bonds
"water fearing," non-polar, do not dissolve in water, no hydr…
chemical groups that are reactive, polar, hydrophillic. hydro…
hydrophobic, not reactive, carbon w/3 hydrogens attached, det…
hydrophillic
water loving, polar, dissolve in water, form hydrogen bonds
hydrophobic
"water fearing," non-polar, do not dissolve in water, no hydr…
38 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells
Archaean cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Have a nucleus (membrane enclosed DNA organelle)... are structur…
Have a nucleoid (no membrane around DNA)... structurally simple;…
have qualities of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and exist i…
recognized for inventing one of the earliest microscopes and…
Eukaryotic cells
Have a nucleus (membrane enclosed DNA organelle)... are structur…
Prokaryotic cells
Have a nucleoid (no membrane around DNA)... structurally simple;…
36 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 3
polar molecule
cohesion
adhesion
surface tension
a molecule whose overall charge is unevenly distributed.
the linking together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bon…
the clinging of one substance to another
a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surf…
polar molecule
a molecule whose overall charge is unevenly distributed.
cohesion
the linking together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bon…
71 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3: The Molecules of Cells
Organic Compounds
Carbon
hydrogen
True
Carbon-based molecules
What usually takes the center stage when it comes to making m…
Organ compounds usually contain ________ atoms addition to ca…
Carbon chains form the backbone of most organic molecules
Organic Compounds
Carbon-based molecules
Carbon
What usually takes the center stage when it comes to making m…
19 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Organic/inorganic
What are the biological molecules?
lipids
Steroids
Carbon based/non carbon based
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Amino acids, and fat and lipids
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes,…
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting…
Organic/inorganic
Carbon based/non carbon based
What are the biological molecules?
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Amino acids, and fat and lipids
28 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Organic
Condensation
Enzyme
Functional Group
Describe a compound that consists mainly of carbon and hydrog…
Chemical reaction in which an enzyme bulids a large molecule…
Organic molecule that speeds up without being charged by it
An atom (other tham hydrogen) or a small molecular group bond…
Organic
Describe a compound that consists mainly of carbon and hydrog…
Condensation
Chemical reaction in which an enzyme bulids a large molecule…
66 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 3
organic compounds
hydrocarbons
why is polarity important?
functional groups
contain at least one carbon atom
simplest organic molecule consisting of only carbon and hydro…
if atoms are polar, they have the ability to interact with ot…
a group of atoms that bond to a carbon skeleton
organic compounds
contain at least one carbon atom
hydrocarbons
simplest organic molecule consisting of only carbon and hydro…
36 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 3 Avian
What day were avian creatures created…
How do modern biologists define insects?
Where are an insects taste sensors loc…
Is a butterfly an orthopteran?
5th
six legs, three body parts
feet
yes
What day were avian creatures created…
5th
How do modern biologists define insects?
six legs, three body parts
31 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
What are isomers
Name the 7 functional groups
Hydroxyl
aldehyde
same chemical structure but different structures
hydroxyl, aldehyde, keytone, carboxyl, amino group, phosphate…
OH
C=O
What are isomers
same chemical structure but different structures
Name the 7 functional groups
hydroxyl, aldehyde, keytone, carboxyl, amino group, phosphate…
74 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 3
Cells can convert energy
Absence of energy
Nonspontanous
Spontaneous
From one form to another and use this to create order
Natural tendency of systems to move towards disorder
Disorder to order ... Input of energy
Order to disorder... Energy released
Cells can convert energy
From one form to another and use this to create order
Absence of energy
Natural tendency of systems to move towards disorder
35 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Organic
Inorganic
Functional Groups
Hydroxl
molecules with C skeleton and H atoms
CO2 and all molecules without C
atom groups attached to C backbone of organic molecules; dete…
functional group OH-
Organic
molecules with C skeleton and H atoms
Inorganic
CO2 and all molecules without C
72 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Inorganic molecules
Organic molecules
What makes Carbon special?
Hydrocarbon
Does not contain carbon and hydrogen together; will always re…
most can be synthesized now in a laboratory; can not return t…
Carbon tends to share e- rather than donate or receive; carbo…
a molecule that is made of only carbon and hydrogen
Inorganic molecules
Does not contain carbon and hydrogen together; will always re…
Organic molecules
most can be synthesized now in a laboratory; can not return t…
67 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 3
What is the backbone of all organic mo…
How many electrons does carbon have?
What are macromolecules?
What classifies the type of macromolec…
Carbon
6
large molecules composed of smaller building blocks
Whatever is attached to it.
What is the backbone of all organic mo…
Carbon
How many electrons does carbon have?
6
17 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
are neither macromolecules nor polymer…
contain long chains of carbon atoms bo…
have four connected carbon rings
is a sterol that is an important compo…
lipids
fatty acids
sterols
cholesterol
are neither macromolecules nor polymer…
lipids
contain long chains of carbon atoms bo…
fatty acids
58 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Inorganic chemistry
Inorganic molecules
Organic chemistry
Organic molecules
Chemistry of NONLIVING matter
•Usually contains positive/negative charged ions... •Usually ion…
Chemistry of LIVING organisms
•Molecules that contain a C skeleton + H atom... •Always covalen…
Inorganic chemistry
Chemistry of NONLIVING matter
Inorganic molecules
•Usually contains positive/negative charged ions... •Usually ion…
31 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Organic molecules
Macromolecules
Dehydration reaction
Hydrolysis reaction
Based around atoms of carbon, large diversity of molecules be…
Large molecules composed of smaller subunits.
Joining of molecular subunits (monomers) to create a large ch…
The breaking of a polymer into its monomer subunits. The bond…
Organic molecules
Based around atoms of carbon, large diversity of molecules be…
Macromolecules
Large molecules composed of smaller subunits.
60 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
organic compounds
enzymes
functional groups
monomers
compound that consists mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms
organic molecule that speeds up a reaction without being chan…
an atom (other than hydrogen) or a small molecular group bond…
molecules that are subunits of polymers
organic compounds
compound that consists mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms
enzymes
organic molecule that speeds up a reaction without being chan…
14 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 3
Biological molecules
Almost all molecules of life are built…
Molecules made of only C and H are
Molecules made of C,H, and other molec…
Organic (have H,C, and O)
Carbon atoms
Hydrocarbon molecules
Organic molecules
Biological molecules
Organic (have H,C, and O)
Almost all molecules of life are built…
Carbon atoms
32 terms
Biology 101-Chapter 3
Organic Molecules
Macromolecules
Monomoers
Polymers
Always contain C and H; a carbon may share electrons with ano…
Contain many molecules joined together; monomers and polymers…
Simple organic molecules that exist individually
Large organic molecules formed by combining monomers
Organic Molecules
Always contain C and H; a carbon may share electrons with ano…
Macromolecules
Contain many molecules joined together; monomers and polymers…
88 terms
Chapter 3: Biology 101
Eyepiece magnification
Scanner
Low power
High power
10x-20x
Red... 4x
Yellow... 10x
Blue... 40x
Eyepiece magnification
10x-20x
Scanner
Red... 4x
18 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Cohesion
Adhesion
Surface Tension
Kinetic Energy
Collectively, hydrogen bonds that hold water molecules togeth…
An attraction between different substances , for example, bet…
A measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid.
The energy of motion.
Cohesion
Collectively, hydrogen bonds that hold water molecules togeth…
Adhesion
An attraction between different substances , for example, bet…
31 terms
Biology 101 chapter 3
Water
Cohesion
Evapotranspiration
Surface tension
It is a polar molecule. Oxygen has a high electronegativity a…
Water sticks together. Enables the transport of water against…
Water from the ground up a tree into the air
Forms a lot of hydrogen bonds with neighbors(temporary) water…
Water
It is a polar molecule. Oxygen has a high electronegativity a…
Cohesion
Water sticks together. Enables the transport of water against…
21 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Water Molecule
Emergent Properties of Water
Cohesion
Adhesion
-Structure allows interaction with other molecules... -electrons…
-Cohesion of water molecules... -Moderation of temperature by wa…
Linking together of like molecules. Hydrogen bonding together.
Clinging of one substance to another. Hydrogen bonding with n…
Water Molecule
-Structure allows interaction with other molecules... -electrons…
Emergent Properties of Water
-Cohesion of water molecules... -Moderation of temperature by wa…
26 terms
Biology 101 chapter 3
Polar Covalent bonds
Polar molecule
Adhension
Cohesion
Spend more time near oxygen then the hydrogen
Overall charge it is unevenly distributed
Attraction between different substances.
Helps the transport of water against gravity in plants.
Polar Covalent bonds
Spend more time near oxygen then the hydrogen
Polar molecule
Overall charge it is unevenly distributed
40 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Organic compounds
Functional groups
Three categories of macromolecules
Polymers
Carbon based molecule
Groups of atoms directly involved in chemical reactions
1. Carbohydrates... 2. Protein... 3. Nucleic Acids
Made of stringing together smaller molecules called monomers
Organic compounds
Carbon based molecule
Functional groups
Groups of atoms directly involved in chemical reactions
70 terms
Biology 101 chapter 3
Cell
Cell theory
Eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells
The smallest unit of life that can function independently
All living organisms are made up of one or more cells and all…
Type of cell that has a central control structure called a nu…
Type of cell that doesn't have a nucleus; its DNA simply resi…
Cell
The smallest unit of life that can function independently
Cell theory
All living organisms are made up of one or more cells and all…
33 terms
Biology 101 chapter 3
cell theory
cytoplasm
nucleus
organelle
theory that all organisms consist of one ore more cells, whic…
semifluid substance enclosed by a cells plasma membrane
of a cell wall, an organelle with two membranes that holds th…
structure that carries out a special metabolic function insid…
cell theory
theory that all organisms consist of one ore more cells, whic…
cytoplasm
semifluid substance enclosed by a cells plasma membrane
44 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 3
amino group
sulfhydryl group
phosphate group
functional group
nitrogen
sulfate
phosphorous
a specific combination of bonded atoms that always reacts in…
amino group
nitrogen
sulfhydryl group
sulfate
31 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 3
Condensation
Enzyme
Functional Group
Hydrocarbon
chemical reaction in which an enzyme builds a large molecule…
organic molecule that speeds up a reaction without being chan…
an atom (other than hydrogen) or a small molecular group bond…
compound or region of one that consists only of carbon and hy…
Condensation
chemical reaction in which an enzyme builds a large molecule…
Enzyme
organic molecule that speeds up a reaction without being chan…
29 terms
Chapter 3~Biology 101
carbon
ribbon
monomers
polymers
Oxygen, hydrogen, and ____ are the most abundant elements in…
Larger molecules are best visualized using ____ models.
Simple sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides are…
Monomers may be joined to form ____, or ____ may be broken do…
carbon
Oxygen, hydrogen, and ____ are the most abundant elements in…
ribbon
Larger molecules are best visualized using ____ models.
37 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Microscope
Light Microscope
Dissecting Microscopes
Electron Microscopes
Is an instrument that magnifies an object.
Uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images o…
Can provide a three-dimensional view of the specimen. - are u…
Use a beam of elections instead of a beam of light. - High re…
Microscope
Is an instrument that magnifies an object.
Light Microscope
Uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images o…
34 terms
chapter 3 biology 101 exam
What makes the rough endoplasmic retic…
A scientist tries to build a eukaryoti…
Which of the following organelles cont…
The cell on the left is ______________…
It is covered with ribosomes.
the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
mitochondria
an animal cell ; a plant cell ; a mitochondrion
What makes the rough endoplasmic retic…
It is covered with ribosomes.
A scientist tries to build a eukaryoti…
the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
31 terms
Biology 101 - Chapter 3 Flashcards
What is the biological medium on Earth?
What percent of cells are water?
Is water a polar or non polar molecule?
What are the four properties of water…
water
70-95%
polar
1. Cohesive behavior... 2. Ability to moderate temperature... 3. Ex…
What is the biological medium on Earth?
water
What percent of cells are water?
70-95%
39 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
What do nutrients provide?
Macronutrients are?
What does water do for your body?
How much water does the average human…
Materials/energy
Water, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
disperses nutrients, and dissolves waste.
3 liters.
What do nutrients provide?
Materials/energy
Macronutrients are?
Water, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
54 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Water
Electrons of the polar covalent bonds…
What type of molecule is water?
Polarity allows water molecules to do…
Biological medium on earth... -exists in all three states
Near the oxygen than the hydrogen
Polar-charges unevenly distributed
Form hydrogen bonds with eachother
Water
Biological medium on earth... -exists in all three states
Electrons of the polar covalent bonds…
Near the oxygen than the hydrogen
37 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
Shaped like a V with two ________ atom…
What kind of bond is water?
How many bonds does water want?
Water molecules stay close to each oth…
hydrogen, oxygen
a single polar covalent bond
4
hydrogen bonding
Shaped like a V with two ________ atom…
hydrogen, oxygen
What kind of bond is water?
a single polar covalent bond
16 terms
Biology 101- Chapter 3
organic compound
What are the four main classes of crit…
macromolecules
How many electrons does carbon have?
a compound containing carbon... -almost all organic compounds as…
-Carbohydrates... -Lipids... -Proteins... -Nucleic Acids
3 of the 4 main classes, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic…
Carbon has 6 electrons, with 2 in the first electron shell an…
organic compound
a compound containing carbon... -almost all organic compounds as…
What are the four main classes of crit…
-Carbohydrates... -Lipids... -Proteins... -Nucleic Acids
20 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3
______ is an example of an element
The four most common elements found in…
Which of the following elements is ess…
All Atoms of an element have the same…
Carbon
Carbon oxygen nitrogen and hydrogen
Iodine
Protons
______ is an example of an element
Carbon
The four most common elements found in…
Carbon oxygen nitrogen and hydrogen
13 terms
BIOLOGY 101 CHAPTER 3
Organic Compounds:
Hydrocarbons:
Functional groups
Functional group names..
Compounds which carbon atoms are covalently bonded to each ot…
Compounds where only hydrogen is attached to the backbone.
Groups of atoms covalently bonded to the carbon backbone
Marcomolecules: Big molecules... Micromolecules: small molecules…
Organic Compounds:
Compounds which carbon atoms are covalently bonded to each ot…
Hydrocarbons:
Compounds where only hydrogen is attached to the backbone.
55 terms
Biology 101 chapter 3
what cells require energy?
Photosynthesis
What does Photosynthesis do?
Cellular Respiration
All living organisms
organisms that capture energy from the sun and use it to crea…
transforms light energy into chemical energy stored in the co…
the reciprocal process to photosynthesis in which sugars are…
what cells require energy?
All living organisms
Photosynthesis
organisms that capture energy from the sun and use it to crea…
44 terms
Chapter 3 Biology 101 Beldsoe
organic molecules
Hydrocarbons
Functional Groups
Sugars
compounds principally composed of C and H (Carbon and Hydroge…
organic compounds made ONLY composed of C and H
non-H atoms or group of atoms bonded to organic compounds tha…
can either be aldosugars or ketosugars. Aldehydes can react w…
organic molecules
compounds principally composed of C and H (Carbon and Hydroge…
Hydrocarbons
organic compounds made ONLY composed of C and H
16 terms
biology 101 chapter 3
why do mitochondria consume most of th…
statements about cell theory
where in the body would you expect to…
why is energy required for active tran…
cells use high energy ATP molecules to fuel all their functio…
1. all living organisms are made up of one or more cells... 2.…
small intestines, tight junctions force fluid to pass through…
molecules can be moved against concentration gradients
why do mitochondria consume most of th…
cells use high energy ATP molecules to fuel all their functio…
statements about cell theory
1. all living organisms are made up of one or more cells... 2.…
58 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 3(part 1)
Organic compound
Hydrocarbons
Carbon Skeleton
Isomers
carbon-based molecules
methane and other compounds composed of only carbon and hydro…
the chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule
compounds with the same formula but different structures
Organic compound
carbon-based molecules
Hydrocarbons
methane and other compounds composed of only carbon and hydro…
40 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 3
Organic Compounds
Hydrocarbons
Cis Trans Isomer
Carbon Skeleton
Carbon Based molecules. Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds... The…
Compounds composed of only Hydrogen and carbon
Molecule that differers in structure due to a rotation around…
Chain of carbon atoms that can differ in length and be straig…
Organic Compounds
Carbon Based molecules. Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds... The…
Hydrocarbons
Compounds composed of only Hydrogen and carbon
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