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Study sets matching "biology 101 chapter 8"

38 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 8
metabolism
metabolic pathway
catabolic pathways
anabolic pathways
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a s…
release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler…
consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler on…
metabolism
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
metabolic pathway
begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a s…
22 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
Metabolism
2 Metabolic Pathways
Catabolic Pathway
Anabolic Pathway
Totality of an organisms chemical reactions. Depends on energy.
Catabolic Pathway... Anabolic Pathway
The release of energy. It takes energy to break things down.
Consumes energy. Builds things up.
Metabolism
Totality of an organisms chemical reactions. Depends on energy.
2 Metabolic Pathways
Catabolic Pathway... Anabolic Pathway
21 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 8
photosynthesis
autotrophs
producers
site of photosynthesis
the light energy of the sun is converted into chemical energy…
organisms that "feed themselves." they make their own organic…
make organic food molecules from very simple raw materials (p…
chloroplast
photosynthesis
the light energy of the sun is converted into chemical energy…
autotrophs
organisms that "feed themselves." they make their own organic…
59 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
the sum of all the chemical reactions…
reactions usually occur in a sequence…
starting molecules
ending molecules
Metabolism
Metabolic pathway
reactants
products
the sum of all the chemical reactions…
Metabolism
reactions usually occur in a sequence…
Metabolic pathway
25 terms
Biology 101 chapter 8
First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Energy
Potential Energy
energy can't be created nor destroyed
energy transfer increases entropy (disorder)
capacity to cause change
energy in covalent bond of glucose and ATP
First Law of Thermodynamics
energy can't be created nor destroyed
Second Law of Thermodynamics
energy transfer increases entropy (disorder)
8 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
ATP
aerobic respiration
anaerobic respiration
fermentation
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use fo…
Respiration that requires oxygen
Respiration that does not require oxygen
A cell getting energy without oxygen.
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use fo…
aerobic respiration
Respiration that requires oxygen
23 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
Bacteriophage
DNA Sequence
Chromosome
Histones
Virus that infects bacteria
Order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA
A molecule of DNA together with associated proteins; carries…
Type of protein that associates with DNA and structurally org…
Bacteriophage
Virus that infects bacteria
DNA Sequence
Order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA
49 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
bioluminescence
Metabolism
Metabolic pathway
Catabolic pathway
-organisms convert energy to light (glow appearance)
-the totality of an organims chemical reactions... -emergent pro…
-begin with a specific molecule and ends with a product... -each…
-release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpl…
bioluminescence
-organisms convert energy to light (glow appearance)
Metabolism
-the totality of an organims chemical reactions... -emergent pro…
38 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 8
metabolism
metabolic pathway
catabolic pathways
anabolic pathways
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a s…
release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler…
consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler on…
metabolism
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
metabolic pathway
begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a s…
16 terms
Biology 101 - Chapter 8
Cell division
Asexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
In asexual reproduction, the lone pare…
...
The creation of genetically identical offspring by a single p…
Requires fertilization of an egg by a sperm
Identical
Cell division
...
Asexual reproduction
The creation of genetically identical offspring by a single p…
32 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
Cell division
Chromosomes
Asexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
Reproduction of a cell through the duplication of the genome…
Gene carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic…
The creation of a genetically identical offspring by a single…
The creation of a genetically unique offspring by the fusion…
Cell division
Reproduction of a cell through the duplication of the genome…
Chromosomes
Gene carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic…
21 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 8
metabolic pathways
enzymes
energy
potential energy
chains of linked events where chemical reactions happen in a…
(biological catalysts) bio-molecules that speed up chemical r…
capacity to do work--every atom, molecule, particle, etc
energy stored in any system as a consequence of its position
metabolic pathways
chains of linked events where chemical reactions happen in a…
enzymes
(biological catalysts) bio-molecules that speed up chemical r…
37 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
Pharming
protein
Amino acids
Amino acids
using genetically modified animals to make pharmaceutical dru…
macromolecule made of repeating amino acid subunits
building blocks of proteins
bond together to form linear chains... chain folds into a 3-D p…
Pharming
using genetically modified animals to make pharmaceutical dru…
protein
macromolecule made of repeating amino acid subunits
66 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
The totality of an organism's reactions
the ways we do chemical reactions
what are the two type of metabolic pat…
breaks things down in a chemical react…
metabolism
metabolic pathways
catabolic and anabolic pathways
catabolic pathway
The totality of an organism's reactions
metabolism
the ways we do chemical reactions
metabolic pathways
43 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
2 pyruvate... 4 ATP... 2NADH
Glycolysis
30 ATP
Advantage of Fermentation
What does glycolysis produce?
Uses 2 ATP to split glucose
How many ATP is created by NADH at the end of the ETC cycle?
Allows organisms to live in an oxygen free environment
2 pyruvate... 4 ATP... 2NADH
What does glycolysis produce?
Glycolysis
Uses 2 ATP to split glucose
15 terms
Biology 101 - Chapter 8
Anabolic reactions
Catabolic reactions
The second law of thermodynamics
Entropy
Build new molecules and/or store energy.
Release energy that is used to drive chemical reactions
When energy is converted from one form to another, some of th…
Measure of the disorder in a system
Anabolic reactions
Build new molecules and/or store energy.
Catabolic reactions
Release energy that is used to drive chemical reactions
17 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
Metabolism
Catabolic
Anabolic
Bioenergetics
Totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Breakdown complex molecules and release energy
Consume energy to build complicated molecules
Study of how energy flows through living organisms
Metabolism
Totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Catabolic
Breakdown complex molecules and release energy
24 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
Metabolism
Metabolic Pathway
Catabolic
Anabolic
-Manages the material and energy resources of the cell... -Total…
-Chemical reactions that either build or break down complex m…
-Breakdown complex molecules into simpler molecules... -Releases…
-Build complex molecules... -Consume energy
Metabolism
-Manages the material and energy resources of the cell... -Total…
Metabolic Pathway
-Chemical reactions that either build or break down complex m…
33 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
clone
autosome
centromere
diploid
genetically identical copy of an organism
a chromosome that is the same in males and females
of a duplicated eukaryotic chromosome, constricted region whe…
having two of each type of chromosome characteristic of the s…
clone
genetically identical copy of an organism
autosome
a chromosome that is the same in males and females
25 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8 Vocabulary (ashell)
energy
kinetic energy
potential energy
thermodynamics
the capacity to do work/cause change in a cell
energy of motion (heat and light are forms of kinetic energy)
the energy an object possess but is not being used (determine…
study of energy transformations
energy
the capacity to do work/cause change in a cell
kinetic energy
energy of motion (heat and light are forms of kinetic energy)
62 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
metabolism
metabolic pathway
catabolic pathway
anabolic pathways
totality of an organisms chemical reactions (emergent propert…
begins with a specific molecule and ends w a product (**each…
release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simple…
consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones (…
metabolism
totality of an organisms chemical reactions (emergent propert…
metabolic pathway
begins with a specific molecule and ends w a product (**each…
18 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
ATP
Metabolism
Photosynthetic organisms
Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration
Currency of cellular energy, ... Generated by metabolism.
Breakdown molecules that contain lots of energy (ie. carbs, p…
capture the energy of sunlight and store it as the form of gl…
breakdown (oxidize) sugar molecules (glucose) to make ATP(ene…
ATP
Currency of cellular energy, ... Generated by metabolism.
Metabolism
Breakdown molecules that contain lots of energy (ie. carbs, p…
106 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 8 and 9
metabolism
catabolism
anabolism
redox reactions
chemical reactions of an organism- "making and breaking coval…
The branch of metabolism that breaks the bonds of larger mole…
The branch of metabolism that forms new bonds, creating large…
electron transfer reactions
metabolism
chemical reactions of an organism- "making and breaking coval…
catabolism
The branch of metabolism that breaks the bonds of larger mole…
19 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
metabolism
catabolic pathway
anabolic pathways
first law of thermodynamics
totality of an organism's chemical reactions
release energy by breaking down complex molecules
consume energy to build complex molecules
energy can neither be created nor destroyed
metabolism
totality of an organism's chemical reactions
catabolic pathway
release energy by breaking down complex molecules
32 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8
Define Niche
Define Fundamental Niche
Define Realized Niche
What happens when 2 species niches ove…
A biological role (how an organism utilizes its environment,…
All of the biological roles, space, etc. an organism could th…
Actual Niche an organism uses, the limited version
Competition
Define Niche
A biological role (how an organism utilizes its environment,…
Define Fundamental Niche
All of the biological roles, space, etc. an organism could th…
56 terms
Biology 101 - Chapter 8
The creation of genetically identical…
Which of the following statements rega…
Strictly speaking, the phrase "like be…
Asexual reproduction requires ________…
asexual reproduction.
D.) Sexual reproduction is more likely to increase genetic va…
asexual reproduction only.
1
The creation of genetically identical…
asexual reproduction.
Which of the following statements rega…
D.) Sexual reproduction is more likely to increase genetic va…
65 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 8 catabolism
metabolism
catabolism
anabolism
redox reactions
chemical reactions of an organism- "making and breaking coval…
The branch of metabolism that breaks the bonds of larger mole…
The branch of metabolism that forms new bonds, creating large…
electron transfer reactions
metabolism
chemical reactions of an organism- "making and breaking coval…
catabolism
The branch of metabolism that breaks the bonds of larger mole…
45 terms
Chapter 8 Biology 101
The creation of offspring carrying gen…
Which one of the following is a differ…
Strictly speaking, the phrase "like be…
With the exception of identical twins,…
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IS MORE LIKELY TO INCREASE GENETIC VARIAT…
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION ONLY
SOME GEN VARIANTS IN COMMON AND SOME VARIANTS NOT FOUND IN TH…
The creation of offspring carrying gen…
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Which one of the following is a differ…
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IS MORE LIKELY TO INCREASE GENETIC VARIAT…
52 terms
BIO 101 Chapter 8
What is Chromatin?
What do Chromosome numbers vary between?
How many Chromosomes do humans have?
What are Sister Chromatids?
Fibers composed of roughly equal amounts of DNA and protein m…
1-1200
46
Two replicated chromosomes still attached to the centromere.
What is Chromatin?
Fibers composed of roughly equal amounts of DNA and protein m…
What do Chromosome numbers vary between?
1-1200
Biology 101 Chapter 8 DNA
bacteriophage
DNA sequence
nucleotides
DNA structure
virus that infects bacteria
order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA
adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine are the 4 kinds of...
double helix consisting of 2 antiparallel polynucleotide stra…
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
DNA sequence
order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA
Biology 101 Chapter 8 (EXAM 2)
metabolism
metabolic pathway
catabolism and anabolism
catabolism
all chemical reactions of an organism
includes a staring molecule being transformed into a final pr…
what are the two types of metabolic pathways?
the subset of metabolic processes that break down molecules a…
metabolism
all chemical reactions of an organism
metabolic pathway
includes a staring molecule being transformed into a final pr…
27 terms
Biology H101 Chapter 8
What is the purpose of DNA?
What is a gene?
What is cell differentation?
What is the function of gene expression?
To store genetic information as a precise sequence of 4 nucle…
A segment of DNA coding for distinct inherited characteristics
The development process of a cell acquiring a specialized fun…
Determines whether a gene is read and information is turned i…
What is the purpose of DNA?
To store genetic information as a precise sequence of 4 nucle…
What is a gene?
A segment of DNA coding for distinct inherited characteristics
27 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8 Definitions
Metabolic Pathway
Catabolic Pathways
Anabolic Pathways
Kinetic Energy
begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product.
Complex molecules -----> Simpler compounds
Simple molecules ----> Complex Molecules
energy associated with motion.
Metabolic Pathway
begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product.
Catabolic Pathways
Complex molecules -----> Simpler compounds
29 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8 DNA
bacteriophage
DNA sequence
nucleotides
DNA structure
virus that infects bacteria
order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA
adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine are the 4 kinds of...
double helix consisting of 2 antiparallel polynucleotide stra…
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
DNA sequence
order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA
Biology 101 Chapter 8 and 9
Cell division
chromosomes
asexual reproduction
sexual reproduction
the reproduction of a cell through duplication of the genome…
a gene carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryoti…
creation of genetically identical offspring by a single paren…
creation of genetically unique offspring by the fusion of two…
Cell division
the reproduction of a cell through duplication of the genome…
chromosomes
a gene carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryoti…
107 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 8 and 9
metabolism
catabolism
anabolism
redox reactions
chemical reactions of an organism- "making and breaking coval…
The branch of metabolism that breaks the bonds of larger mole…
The branch of metabolism that forms new bonds, creating large…
electron transfer reactions
metabolism
chemical reactions of an organism- "making and breaking coval…
catabolism
The branch of metabolism that breaks the bonds of larger mole…
43 terms
Campbell Biology Chapter 8
metabolic pathway
catabolic pathway
anabolic pathway
bioenergetic
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex m…
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down com…
A metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a comp…
The study of energy flow or energy transformations into and w…
metabolic pathway
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex m…
catabolic pathway
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down com…
21 terms
Biology 101: Chapter 8 Cellular Reproduction
How do cells reproduce?
Explain asexual reproduction
Explain sexual reproduction
What is a histone?
cells reproduce through cell devision
these are single cells reproducing through cell division. the…
requires fertilization of an egg by a sperm. it uses meiosis.…
proteins used to package DNA in eukaryotes
How do cells reproduce?
cells reproduce through cell devision
Explain asexual reproduction
these are single cells reproducing through cell division. the…
10 terms
Chapter 8 Biology 101 (Transcription and Translation)
A protein is made up of a chain of?
What determines a protein's function?
Is this statement true or false? "A ge…
What is the final product of gene expr…
amino acids
the sequence of amino acids, three-dimensional shape , and th…
false
a protein
A protein is made up of a chain of?
amino acids
What determines a protein's function?
the sequence of amino acids, three-dimensional shape , and th…
46 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Pt 2
Energy (ATP) from light dependent reac…
Carbon Reactions produce carbohydrates
Carbon Fixation
Stomata
To build carbohydrates cells use
In the carbon reactions, the chloroplasts will use the ATP &…
C3 plants, C4 plants, and CAM plants all use slightly differe…
Closing cuts off the supply of CO2 entering the leaf and does…
Energy (ATP) from light dependent reac…
To build carbohydrates cells use
Carbon Reactions produce carbohydrates
In the carbon reactions, the chloroplasts will use the ATP &…
76 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 8
cell division
chromosomes
asexual reproduction
sexual reproduction
the reproduction of a cell through duplication of the genome…
a gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryoti…
the creation of genetically identical offspring by a single p…
the creation of genetically unique offspring by the fusion of…
cell division
the reproduction of a cell through duplication of the genome…
chromosomes
a gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryoti…
30 terms
Bio 101 Chapter 8
What makes up the simplecell cycle?
How do all things store their heredita…
How is DNA in eukaryotic cells packaged?
What is Mitosis?
1. Copy the DNA, aka replication... 2. Split the celll in two to…
Stored in the form of DNA
It is packaged into linear and compact chromosomes
A cell division mechanism that occurs in no reproductive cell…
What makes up the simplecell cycle?
1. Copy the DNA, aka replication... 2. Split the celll in two to…
How do all things store their heredita…
Stored in the form of DNA
17 terms
CHAPTER 8 FOR BIOLOGY 101 EXAM
1st law of thermodynamics
2nd law of thermodynamics
entropy
energy quality and quantity...
energy CANNOT be created or destroyed only TRANSFORMED ... ex:…
with each transformation the ENTROPY of the universe increases
the conversion of more useful energy into forms of LESS usefu…
the QUANTITY of energy in the universe does NOT change but it…
1st law of thermodynamics
energy CANNOT be created or destroyed only TRANSFORMED ... ex:…
2nd law of thermodynamics
with each transformation the ENTROPY of the universe increases
12 terms
bio 101 chapter 8
metabolism
transformation of energy
thermodynamics
chemical reactions and energy
-total chemical activity of a living organism ... -catabolism-…
potential energy- energy stored up/ energy of state or positi…
- how energy is transformed... 1st law... -energy is neither creat…
-may release or take up energy... -anabolic reactions consume e…
metabolism
-total chemical activity of a living organism ... -catabolism-…
transformation of energy
potential energy- energy stored up/ energy of state or positi…
21 terms
Biology 101 Chapter 8 - energy, enzymes, and metabolism
metabolism
potential energy
kinetic energy
catabolic reactions
the total of all chemical reactions occurring in a biological…
the energy of state or position - stored energy
the energy of movement - type of energy that does work, that…
associated with the breakdown of complex molecules and releas…
metabolism
the total of all chemical reactions occurring in a biological…
potential energy
the energy of state or position - stored energy
18 terms
biology 101 Chapter 8. Cellular Respiration
aerobic
anabolism
anaerobic
catabolism
chemical process that requires air (oxygen); phase of cellula…
Chemical reaction in which smaller molecules (monomers) are c…
A chemical reaction that occurs in the absence of oxygen; an…
Metabolic process that breaks down large molecules into small…
aerobic
chemical process that requires air (oxygen); phase of cellula…
anabolism
Chemical reaction in which smaller molecules (monomers) are c…
35 terms
Chapter 8 Biology
anaphase
organs
organ systems
organisms
The phase of mitosis when sister chromatids separate from eac…
Tissues that work together to perform the same function are o…
Organs that work together to perform the same function are or…
Organ systems that work together to perform the same function…
anaphase
The phase of mitosis when sister chromatids separate from eac…
organs
Tissues that work together to perform the same function are o…
51 terms
Biology Chapter 8
peristalsis
chyme
gallbladder
bile
The movement of digestive organs that pushes food through the…
Partly digested liquid food in the digestive tract.
The digestive organ that stores bile.
A substance made in the liver that breaks down fats.
peristalsis
The movement of digestive organs that pushes food through the…
chyme
Partly digested liquid food in the digestive tract.
59 terms
An Introduction to Metabolism - Chapter 8 - Biology 101
Metabolism
Metabolic Pathway
Catabolic
anabolic
the totality of an organisms chemical reactions, manages the…
a series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex m…
pathways that breakdown complex molecules into simpler molecu…
pathways that consume energy to build complicated molecules
Metabolism
the totality of an organisms chemical reactions, manages the…
Metabolic Pathway
a series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex m…
48 terms
BIO 101 Chapter 8
Johannes Miescher
Oswald Avery; Maclyn McCarty
Alfred Hershey; Martha Chase
bacteriophage
DNA was first described in 1869 by ________ _______, who extr…
In 1940 ______ ______ and ______ ______ came up with the tran…
In the late 1940s _______ ______ and _______ _______ proved t…
Hershey and Chase also specialized in working with __________…
Johannes Miescher
DNA was first described in 1869 by ________ _______, who extr…
Oswald Avery; Maclyn McCarty
In 1940 ______ ______ and ______ ______ came up with the tran…
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