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115 terms
Biology 111
Organism
Cell
Behavior
Homeostasis
a single-celled life form Ex: animal, plant
small microscopic functional unit of an organism
a way a human acts in a particular situation
reaching the state of equilibrium
Organism
a single-celled life form Ex: animal, plant
Cell
small microscopic functional unit of an organism
32 terms
BIOLOGY 111
Define Atomic Number
Define Atomic Mass
Define polar covalent bond
Most electronegative elements
Atomic number = # protons
Atomic mass = proton +neutron
unequal sharing of electrons... polar bears dont share equally
Florine... Oxygen... Chlorine ... Nitrogen... Food On CLean Napkins
Define Atomic Number
Atomic number = # protons
Define Atomic Mass
Atomic mass = proton +neutron
170 terms
Biology 111 Test 1
*Electron
*What charge does an electron have?
*Neutron
*Proton
A subatomic particle that orbits the nucleus
Negative
A subatomic particle present in the nucleus that has no charge
A subatomic particle present in the nucleus that has a positi…
*Electron
A subatomic particle that orbits the nucleus
*What charge does an electron have?
Negative
48 terms
Exam 2: Biology 111
What are the three components of the C…
Three Categories of Life:
Prokaryotic Cells consist of:... Eukaryot…
Inside the plasma membrane of a normal…
1) All living things are made of one or more cells... 2) Cells a…
Prokarya, Bacteria, Archaea
Bacteria and Archaea... Eukarya
-Cytoplasm... -Nucleoid region... -Ribosomes which make proteins
What are the three components of the C…
1) All living things are made of one or more cells... 2) Cells a…
Three Categories of Life:
Prokarya, Bacteria, Archaea
167 terms
Biology 111
Prokaryotes don't have a
Hydrophobic reactions of phospholipids…
Which membrane proteins move specific…
If the solution surrounding a cell con…
Nucleus
A lipid Bilayer
transport
hypotonic
Prokaryotes don't have a
Nucleus
Hydrophobic reactions of phospholipids…
A lipid Bilayer
Biology 111
Metabolism
Catabolic
Anabolic
Photosynthesis
The chemical process that occurs in a living organism in orde…
Breaks down, hydrolysis, cellular respiration, digestion, rel…
Builds up, condensation reaction, photosynthesis, requires en…
Plants convert water and co2 into high energy carbohydrates a…
Metabolism
The chemical process that occurs in a living organism in orde…
Catabolic
Breaks down, hydrolysis, cellular respiration, digestion, rel…
19 terms
Biology 111 chapter 6
Distinguish between prokaryotic and eu…
Describe the structure and function of…
Briefly explain how the nucleus contro…
Explain the role of the nucleolus in p…
Prokaryotic- do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-b…
Nuclear envelope -> Double membrane enclosing the nucleus, pe…
The nucleus directs protein synthesis by synthesizing messeng…
It synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and combines it with prot…
Distinguish between prokaryotic and eu…
Prokaryotic- do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-b…
Describe the structure and function of…
Nuclear envelope -> Double membrane enclosing the nucleus, pe…
83 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 1
Characteristics of Life (7)
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change (2)
Taxonomy
3 Domains
1. Cells & organization... 2. Energy use & metabolism... 3. Irritab…
1. Vertical descent with modification ... 2. Horizontal gene tra…
Grouping of species based on common ancestry
1. Bacteria... 2. Archaebacteria... 3. Eukarya
Characteristics of Life (7)
1. Cells & organization... 2. Energy use & metabolism... 3. Irritab…
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change (2)
1. Vertical descent with modification ... 2. Horizontal gene tra…
84 terms
Biology 111
characteristics of life
change adapt
cell theory
covalent and ionic bonds
cells, growth and development by taking chemical and energy f…
Organisms _____ and _____ to the environment.
the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in every…
two types of strong bonds
characteristics of life
cells, growth and development by taking chemical and energy f…
change adapt
Organisms _____ and _____ to the environment.
95 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 2
Polar Covalent Bond
Ionic Bond
What does it mean that water has a "hi…
What does it mean that water is "the u…
Bond in which atoms share electrons UNEQUALLY resulting in po…
Attraction between a positive and negative ion- atoms form io…
Heat causes hydrogen bonds in water to break and reform repea…
Polar molecules dissolve easily in water because of the posit…
Polar Covalent Bond
Bond in which atoms share electrons UNEQUALLY resulting in po…
Ionic Bond
Attraction between a positive and negative ion- atoms form io…
60 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 3
Functional Groups
4 Macromolecules
What is the Polymer of Carbohydrates?
What is the Polymer of Proteins?
Groups of atoms attached to carbon backbone which determine t…
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Monosaccharides - e.g., glucose
Amino Acids
Functional Groups
Groups of atoms attached to carbon backbone which determine t…
4 Macromolecules
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
43 terms
Biology 111 chapter 5
macromolecules
polymers
monomers
dehydration reaction
A very large organic molecule composed of many smaller molecu…
chainlike molecules formed from the linking together of many…
small unit that can join together with other small units to f…
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to…
macromolecules
A very large organic molecule composed of many smaller molecu…
polymers
chainlike molecules formed from the linking together of many…
Biology 111 chapter 6
Distinguish between prokaryotic and eu…
Describe the structure and function of…
Briefly explain how the nucleus contro…
Explain the role of the nucleolus in p…
Prokaryotic- do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-b…
Nuclear envelope -> Double membrane enclosing the nucleus, pe…
The nucleus directs protein synthesis by synthesizing messeng…
It synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and combines it with prot…
Distinguish between prokaryotic and eu…
Prokaryotic- do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-b…
Describe the structure and function of…
Nuclear envelope -> Double membrane enclosing the nucleus, pe…
41 terms
Biology 111: Lab 1
Silurian limestone... Quarry... Fossils
Lake
Marsh
Prairie
What evidence do we have Chicago was under shallow ocean?
Aquatic environments that are permanently wet. ... Plants: Too d…
Shallow (Less than 1 m deep) wetlands characterized by algae…
Grasslands maintained by low moisture and periodic fire.... Much…
Silurian limestone... Quarry... Fossils
What evidence do we have Chicago was under shallow ocean?
Lake
Aquatic environments that are permanently wet. ... Plants: Too d…
75 terms
Biology 111 Exam 3
Fertilization
Gametes
Meiosis
Humans cells have ___ chromosomes
The process of uniting a sperm and an egg
reproductive cells such as sperms and eggs
nuclear division that leads to halving chromosome number and…
46 chromosomes, 23 pairs of chromosomes
Fertilization
The process of uniting a sperm and an egg
Gametes
reproductive cells such as sperms and eggs
83 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 1
Characteristics of Life (7)
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change (2)
Taxonomy
3 Domains
1. Cells & organization... 2. Energy use & metabolism... 3. Irritab…
1. Vertical descent with modification ... 2. Horizontal gene tra…
Grouping of species based on common ancestry
1. Bacteria... 2. Archaebacteria... 3. Eukarya
Characteristics of Life (7)
1. Cells & organization... 2. Energy use & metabolism... 3. Irritab…
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change (2)
1. Vertical descent with modification ... 2. Horizontal gene tra…
12 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 5
Fluid-Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure
Amphipathic
Fatty Acid Tails
Polar Heads
1. The membrane is considered a mosaic of lipid,... protein, and…
One end is polar, one end is nonpolar.
Nonpolar... Hydrophobic... Prevent polar molecules from passing acr…
Polar... Hydrophilic
Fluid-Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure
1. The membrane is considered a mosaic of lipid,... protein, and…
Amphipathic
One end is polar, one end is nonpolar.
191 terms
Biology 111
Life
Emergent Properties
Evolutionary theory
Variation within population, a way for…
Property that distinguishes plants and animals from inorganic…
Emerge from different levels of hierarchy which were not pres…
the idea that we all come from one thing; this helps to expla…
What 3 things does evolution need for it to occur?
Life
Property that distinguishes plants and animals from inorganic…
Emergent Properties
Emerge from different levels of hierarchy which were not pres…
10 terms
Biology 111
Exergonic
Energetic reaction
Oxidation
Reduction
exergonic reaction a chemical reaction that releases energy.
endergonic reactions yield products that are rich in potentia…
Loss of electrons
Gain of electron (Reduced because its becoming negative)
Exergonic
exergonic reaction a chemical reaction that releases energy.
Energetic reaction
endergonic reactions yield products that are rich in potentia…
46 terms
Biology 111
Scientific Method
Characteristics of Living Things:... Cells
Characteristics of Living Things:... Hier…
Characteristics of Living Things:... Repr…
Research... Hypothesis... Experiment... Results... Conclusion... Replication…
Are made up of one or more cells(unicellular or multicellular)
atoms-molecules-macromolecules-bio molecules-organelles-cells…
asexual: reproduction by yourself(animals)... sexual: 2 organism…
Scientific Method
Research... Hypothesis... Experiment... Results... Conclusion... Replication…
Characteristics of Living Things:... Cells
Are made up of one or more cells(unicellular or multicellular)
99 terms
Biology (111)
Extremophile
Halophile
Acidophile
Thermophile
Organism that lives in environmental conditions so extreme th…
Extreme salt lovers
Extreme acid lovers
Extreme heat lovers
Extremophile
Organism that lives in environmental conditions so extreme th…
Halophile
Extreme salt lovers
115 terms
Biology 111
Organism
Cell
Behavior
Homeostasis
a single-celled life form Ex: animal, plant
small microscopic functional unit of an organism
a way a human acts in a particular situation
reaching the state of equilibrium
Organism
a single-celled life form Ex: animal, plant
Cell
small microscopic functional unit of an organism
62 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 6
Enzyme
Chemical Reaction
Metabolism
Energy
Proteins that act as biological catalysts to speed up thousan…
A process in which one or more substances are changed into ot…
Sum total of all chemical reactions that occur within an orga…
It is define as the ability to promote change or do work.
Enzyme
Proteins that act as biological catalysts to speed up thousan…
Chemical Reaction
A process in which one or more substances are changed into ot…
16 terms
BIOLOGY 111
Define Atomic Number
Define Atomic Mass
Define polar covalent bond
Most electronegative elements
Atomic number = # protons
Atomic mass = proton +neutron
unequal sharing of electrons... polar bears dont share equally
Florine... Oxygen... Chlorine ... Nitrogen... Food On CLean Napkins
Define Atomic Number
Atomic number = # protons
Define Atomic Mass
Atomic mass = proton +neutron
72 terms
Biology 111
Van der Waals bond
Emergent properties of water
pH of life
Dehydration reaction
Weak bond between partial positive and partial negative regio…
Liquid at room temp... Hydrogen bonding makes it cohesive... Evapor…
7.4
Builds larger molecules by removal of OH and H from the react…
Van der Waals bond
Weak bond between partial positive and partial negative regio…
Emergent properties of water
Liquid at room temp... Hydrogen bonding makes it cohesive... Evapor…
58 terms
biology 111
Homology
Evolution
Fitness
Direct fitness
all organisms came from a common descendent
Change of populations over time (at the level of populations)
number of viable offspring your children are able to produce
is the number of offspring an individual produces
Homology
all organisms came from a common descendent
Evolution
Change of populations over time (at the level of populations)
44 terms
Biology 111
Science is
What isn't science
Scientific method
Observations
a body of knowledge
recalling specific facts about the world
making observations, proposing ideas, testing the ideas, disc…
lead to questions
Science is
a body of knowledge
What isn't science
recalling specific facts about the world
19 terms
Biology 111
What is Biology?
What is life?
What is the reductionist approach?
What is the systems biology approach?
Biology is the science of life.
Life is the growth and development of a species.
When you have a huge general question then break it down into…
this system tries to tie components back together into a whole.
What is Biology?
Biology is the science of life.
What is life?
Life is the growth and development of a species.
48 terms
Biology 111 Chapter 16: Vocab
Frederick Griffith 1928
transformation
Hershey-Chase 1952
Erwin Chargaff 1947
worked with a pathogenic and harmless stains of bacterium... tr…
a change in genotype and phenotype due to assimilation of for…
Bateriophage-virus particles attack bacteria... Hershey & Chase…
Relationship of the four nitrogenous bases of DNA (A/T -- G/C)
Frederick Griffith 1928
worked with a pathogenic and harmless stains of bacterium... tr…
transformation
a change in genotype and phenotype due to assimilation of for…
60 terms
biology 111
polymer
Double Helix
Histone
genes
a large compound made up of many repeating subunits.
the structure of DNA. Aka a spiral ladder.
Proteins that occur in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
A section of DNA that codes for or carries instructions for a…
polymer
a large compound made up of many repeating subunits.
Double Helix
the structure of DNA. Aka a spiral ladder.
44 terms
Biology 111 Chapter 15: Vocab
Mendel
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Morgan's experiment
Drosophila Melanogaster
...
studied fruit fly and discovered sex link genes... Provided con…
Resulted in the discovery that transmission of the X chromoso…
Fruit fly used in Morgan's experiments
Mendel
...
Thomas Hunt Morgan
studied fruit fly and discovered sex link genes... Provided con…
74 terms
Biology 111
All cells are bounded by a plasma memb…
Which cell lacks a nucleus and organel…
Which molecule contains the genetic in…
Function of Ribosomes
True
Prokaryotic Cells
Chromosomes made up of Chromatin
Carry out Protein Synthesis
All cells are bounded by a plasma memb…
True
Which cell lacks a nucleus and organel…
Prokaryotic Cells
26 terms
Biology 111 Chapter 15
Chromosome Theory of Inheritence
Wild Type
Sex-Linked Gene
X-Linked Gene
a basic principle in biology stating that genes are located a…
the phenotype most commonly observed in reserved in natural p…
a gene located on either sex chromosome; most sex-linked gene…
a gene located on the X chromosome; such genes show a distinc…
Chromosome Theory of Inheritence
a basic principle in biology stating that genes are located a…
Wild Type
the phenotype most commonly observed in reserved in natural p…
60 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 3
Functional Groups
4 Macromolecules
What is the Polymer of Carbohydrates?
What is the Polymer of Proteins?
Groups of atoms attached to carbon backbone which determine t…
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Monosaccharides - e.g., glucose
Amino Acids
Functional Groups
Groups of atoms attached to carbon backbone which determine t…
4 Macromolecules
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
81 terms
Biology 111- Test 1
prediction
hypothesis
Positive Control
Negative Control
A statement of what will happen next in a sequence of events.
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Receives a treatment or test with a known result. This result…
No response is expected. Lets you know if you set up the expe…
prediction
A statement of what will happen next in a sequence of events.
hypothesis
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
77 terms
Biology 111
Organism
5 fundamental characteristics of organ…
2 unifying ideas
Cell theory
life form: living entity made up of 1 or more cells
1. energy... 2. cells... 3. genetic information... 4. replication... 5. e…
1. cell theory... 2. evolution
-everything is made up of cells... -all cells come from cells
Organism
life form: living entity made up of 1 or more cells
5 fundamental characteristics of organ…
1. energy... 2. cells... 3. genetic information... 4. replication... 5. e…
110 terms
Biology 111
Emergent Properties
Biosphere
Ecosystems
Communities
looking from the tiniest part then zooming out to see the ind…
earth
an ecosystem consists of all the living things in a particula…
The array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem is c…
Emergent Properties
looking from the tiniest part then zooming out to see the ind…
Biosphere
earth
13 terms
Biology 111
Daughter cells
Interphase
G1 phase
S (Synthesis)
Product(s) of cell division; Cells reproduced from Cell divis…
First (longest) phase; Cells create 2 copies of DNA. Made up…
Cell grows twice as big
Replicate DNA
Daughter cells
Product(s) of cell division; Cells reproduced from Cell divis…
Interphase
First (longest) phase; Cells create 2 copies of DNA. Made up…
63 terms
Biology 111
What makes up a living thing?
Discovery science
Hypothesis- driven science
Hypothesis
1) display of movement... 2) take and release energy... 3) grow... 4)r…
Lots of observations and then drawing a conclusion
Have an educated guess and preform an experiment to come to a…
1) a tentative answer to some question... 2) possible cause... 3)mu…
What makes up a living thing?
1) display of movement... 2) take and release energy... 3) grow... 4)r…
Discovery science
Lots of observations and then drawing a conclusion
288 terms
BIOLOGY 111
Chitin and Glucans
Fungi
Hyphae
Mycelium
Makes up cell well of fungi. Chitin (Poly-glucosamine) and Gl…
Absorptive heterotrophs.... most are decomposers. most are multi…
Long branched filaments in fungi body plan
Tangled mass of hyphae
Chitin and Glucans
Makes up cell well of fungi. Chitin (Poly-glucosamine) and Gl…
Fungi
Absorptive heterotrophs.... most are decomposers. most are multi…
71 terms
Biology 111
operon
repressor
corepressor
repressible operon
the entire stretch of DNA that includes the operator, the pro…
prevents gene transcription by binding... to the operator and bl…
a molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch…
one that is usually on; binding of a repressor to the operato…
operon
the entire stretch of DNA that includes the operator, the pro…
repressor
prevents gene transcription by binding... to the operator and bl…
17 terms
Biology 111
Chyme
Esophagus
Diuretic
Glomerulus
A semifluid mass created during digestion once the food has b…
A muscular tube that conducts food from the pharynx to the st…
A substance that promotes urine production. Alcohol is a diur…
A tuft of capillaries within the renal corpuscle of a nephron
Chyme
A semifluid mass created during digestion once the food has b…
Esophagus
A muscular tube that conducts food from the pharynx to the st…
45 terms
Biology 111
Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
Ribosomes
Nucleus
a lipid-based boundary that contains the cell's aqueous inter…
the contents of a cell internal to the plasma membrane; a thi…
the cell's protein making machinery
envelopes the DNA (chromosomes) in eukaryotic cells
Plasma membrane
a lipid-based boundary that contains the cell's aqueous inter…
Cytoplasm
the contents of a cell internal to the plasma membrane; a thi…
30 terms
Biology 111
cell (plasma) membrane
cytoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes
Structure : membrane composed of a double layer of phospholip…
Structure: fluid, jellylike substance between the cell membra…
Structure: system of interconnected membrane forming canals a…
Structure: Granular particles composed of protein and RNA... Fu…
cell (plasma) membrane
Structure : membrane composed of a double layer of phospholip…
cytoplasm
Structure: fluid, jellylike substance between the cell membra…
166 terms
Biology 111
The three big characteristics of livin…
How did life get started?
Homology
Homoplasy
-Transform energy to synthesize new molecules... -Must be able t…
Chemical evolution.... Miller and Urey's experiment:... 1. Mimic ea…
Shared ancestry
Similarity due to convergent evolution
The three big characteristics of livin…
-Transform energy to synthesize new molecules... -Must be able t…
How did life get started?
Chemical evolution.... Miller and Urey's experiment:... 1. Mimic ea…
54 terms
Biology 111
3. Integrating center
2. Sensory neuron
1. Sensory receptor
4. motor neuron
-found only in gray matter of CNS. ... -sensory info is process…
-also called afferment neuron .... -carried sensory info to ner…
-First step of reflex arc.... - detects the presence of a stimu…
- also called efferent neuron... - carries motor command to eff…
3. Integrating center
-found only in gray matter of CNS. ... -sensory info is process…
2. Sensory neuron
-also called afferment neuron .... -carried sensory info to ner…
83 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 1
Characteristics of Life (7)
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change (2)
Taxonomy
3 Domains
1. Cells & organization... 2. Energy use & metabolism... 3. Irritab…
1. Vertical descent with modification ... 2. Horizontal gene tra…
Grouping of species based on common ancestry
1. Bacteria... 2. Archaebacteria... 3. Eukarya
Characteristics of Life (7)
1. Cells & organization... 2. Energy use & metabolism... 3. Irritab…
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change (2)
1. Vertical descent with modification ... 2. Horizontal gene tra…
83 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 1
Characteristics of Life (7)
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change (2)
Taxonomy
3 Domains
1. Cells & organization... 2. Energy use & metabolism... 3. Irritab…
1. Vertical descent with modification ... 2. Horizontal gene tra…
Grouping of species based on common ancestry
1. Bacteria... 2. Archaebacteria... 3. Eukarya
Characteristics of Life (7)
1. Cells & organization... 2. Energy use & metabolism... 3. Irritab…
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change (2)
1. Vertical descent with modification ... 2. Horizontal gene tra…
22 terms
Biology 111 Chapter 7
Cellular Respiration
Aerobic Respiration
Glycolysis
Breakdown of Pyruvate
A process by which living cells obtain energy from organic mo…
A type of cellular respiration in which O2 is consumed and CO…
A metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose to pyruvate
Pyruvate is broken down to CO2 and an acetyl group that becom…
Cellular Respiration
A process by which living cells obtain energy from organic mo…
Aerobic Respiration
A type of cellular respiration in which O2 is consumed and CO…
808 terms
Biology 111
Big 3 of living organisms?
Three sources of energy?
Photoautotroph
Chemoautotroph
1) Reproduce... 2) Transfer Energy... 3) Maintain homeostasis
1) Light... 2) Inorganic compounds... 3) Organic compounds
Self feeder using light
Self feeder using chemical E
Big 3 of living organisms?
1) Reproduce... 2) Transfer Energy... 3) Maintain homeostasis
Three sources of energy?
1) Light... 2) Inorganic compounds... 3) Organic compounds
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