Study sets matching "biology 111"

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Study sets matching "biology 111"

115 terms
Biology 111
Organism
Cell
Behavior
Homeostasis
a single-celled life form Ex: animal, plant
small microscopic functional unit of an organism
a way a human acts in a particular situation
reaching the state of equilibrium
Organism
a single-celled life form Ex: animal, plant
Cell
small microscopic functional unit of an organism
32 terms
BIOLOGY 111
Define Atomic Number
Define Atomic Mass
Define polar covalent bond
Most electronegative elements
Atomic number = # protons
Atomic mass = proton +neutron
unequal sharing of electrons... polar bears dont share equally
Florine... Oxygen... Chlorine ... Nitrogen... Food On CLean Napkins
Define Atomic Number
Atomic number = # protons
Define Atomic Mass
Atomic mass = proton +neutron
Biology 111
Metabolism
Catabolic
Anabolic
Photosynthesis
The chemical process that occurs in a living organism in orde…
Breaks down, hydrolysis, cellular respiration, digestion, rel…
Builds up, condensation reaction, photosynthesis, requires en…
Plants convert water and co2 into high energy carbohydrates a…
Metabolism
The chemical process that occurs in a living organism in orde…
Catabolic
Breaks down, hydrolysis, cellular respiration, digestion, rel…
167 terms
Biology 111
Prokaryotes don't have a
Hydrophobic reactions of phospholipids…
Which membrane proteins move specific…
If the solution surrounding a cell con…
Nucleus
A lipid Bilayer
transport
hypotonic
Prokaryotes don't have a
Nucleus
Hydrophobic reactions of phospholipids…
A lipid Bilayer
84 terms
Biology 111
characteristics of life
change adapt
cell theory
covalent and ionic bonds
cells, growth and development by taking chemical and energy f…
Organisms _____ and _____ to the environment.
the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in every…
two types of strong bonds
characteristics of life
cells, growth and development by taking chemical and energy f…
change adapt
Organisms _____ and _____ to the environment.
Biology 111 Test 1
*Electron
*What charge does an electron have?
*Neutron
*Proton
A subatomic particle that orbits the nucleus
Negative
A subatomic particle present in the nucleus that has no charge
A subatomic particle present in the nucleus that has a positi…
*Electron
A subatomic particle that orbits the nucleus
*What charge does an electron have?
Negative
48 terms
Exam 2: Biology 111
What are the three components of the C…
Three Categories of Life:
Prokaryotic Cells consist of:... Eukaryot…
Inside the plasma membrane of a normal…
1) All living things are made of one or more cells... 2) Cells a…
Prokarya, Bacteria, Archaea
Bacteria and Archaea... Eukarya
-Cytoplasm... -Nucleoid region... -Ribosomes which make proteins
What are the three components of the C…
1) All living things are made of one or more cells... 2) Cells a…
Three Categories of Life:
Prokarya, Bacteria, Archaea
26 terms
Biology 111 Chapter 15
Chromosome Theory of Inheritence
Wild Type
Sex-Linked Gene
X-Linked Gene
a basic principle in biology stating that genes are located a…
the phenotype most commonly observed in reserved in natural p…
a gene located on either sex chromosome; most sex-linked gene…
a gene located on the X chromosome; such genes show a distinc…
Chromosome Theory of Inheritence
a basic principle in biology stating that genes are located a…
Wild Type
the phenotype most commonly observed in reserved in natural p…
191 terms
Biology 111
Life
Emergent Properties
Evolutionary theory
Variation within population, a way for…
Property that distinguishes plants and animals from inorganic…
Emerge from different levels of hierarchy which were not pres…
the idea that we all come from one thing; this helps to expla…
What 3 things does evolution need for it to occur?
Life
Property that distinguishes plants and animals from inorganic…
Emergent Properties
Emerge from different levels of hierarchy which were not pres…
83 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 1
Characteristics of Life (7)
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change (2)
Taxonomy
3 Domains
1. Cells & organization... 2. Energy use & metabolism... 3. Irritab…
1. Vertical descent with modification ... 2. Horizontal gene tra…
Grouping of species based on common ancestry
1. Bacteria... 2. Archaebacteria... 3. Eukarya
Characteristics of Life (7)
1. Cells & organization... 2. Energy use & metabolism... 3. Irritab…
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change (2)
1. Vertical descent with modification ... 2. Horizontal gene tra…
Biology 111: Chapter 1
Characteristics of Life (7)
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change (2)
Taxonomy
3 Domains
1. Cells & organization... 2. Energy use & metabolism... 3. Irritab…
1. Vertical descent with modification ... 2. Horizontal gene tra…
Grouping of species based on common ancestry
1. Bacteria... 2. Archaebacteria... 3. Eukarya
Characteristics of Life (7)
1. Cells & organization... 2. Energy use & metabolism... 3. Irritab…
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change (2)
1. Vertical descent with modification ... 2. Horizontal gene tra…
60 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 3
Functional Groups
4 Macromolecules
What is the Polymer of Carbohydrates?
What is the Polymer of Proteins?
Groups of atoms attached to carbon backbone which determine t…
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Monosaccharides - e.g., glucose
Amino Acids
Functional Groups
Groups of atoms attached to carbon backbone which determine t…
4 Macromolecules
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
95 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 2
Polar Covalent Bond
Ionic Bond
What does it mean that water has a "hi…
What does it mean that water is "the u…
Bond in which atoms share electrons UNEQUALLY resulting in po…
Attraction between a positive and negative ion- atoms form io…
Heat causes hydrogen bonds in water to break and reform repea…
Polar molecules dissolve easily in water because of the posit…
Polar Covalent Bond
Bond in which atoms share electrons UNEQUALLY resulting in po…
Ionic Bond
Attraction between a positive and negative ion- atoms form io…
43 terms
Biology 111 chapter 5
macromolecules
polymers
monomers
dehydration reaction
A very large organic molecule composed of many smaller molecu…
chainlike molecules formed from the linking together of many…
small unit that can join together with other small units to f…
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to…
macromolecules
A very large organic molecule composed of many smaller molecu…
polymers
chainlike molecules formed from the linking together of many…
Biology 111 chapter 6
Distinguish between prokaryotic and eu…
Describe the structure and function of…
Briefly explain how the nucleus contro…
Explain the role of the nucleolus in p…
Prokaryotic- do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-b…
Nuclear envelope -> Double membrane enclosing the nucleus, pe…
The nucleus directs protein synthesis by synthesizing messeng…
It synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and combines it with prot…
Distinguish between prokaryotic and eu…
Prokaryotic- do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-b…
Describe the structure and function of…
Nuclear envelope -> Double membrane enclosing the nucleus, pe…
Biology 111 Exam 3
Fertilization
Gametes
Meiosis
Humans cells have ___ chromosomes
The process of uniting a sperm and an egg
reproductive cells such as sperms and eggs
nuclear division that leads to halving chromosome number and…
46 chromosomes, 23 pairs of chromosomes
Fertilization
The process of uniting a sperm and an egg
Gametes
reproductive cells such as sperms and eggs
12 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 5
Fluid-Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure
Amphipathic
Fatty Acid Tails
Polar Heads
1. The membrane is considered a mosaic of lipid,... protein, and…
One end is polar, one end is nonpolar.
Nonpolar... Hydrophobic... Prevent polar molecules from passing acr…
Polar... Hydrophilic
Fluid-Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure
1. The membrane is considered a mosaic of lipid,... protein, and…
Amphipathic
One end is polar, one end is nonpolar.
Biology 111
Van der Waals bond
Emergent properties of water
pH of life
Dehydration reaction
Weak bond between partial positive and partial negative regio…
Liquid at room temp... Hydrogen bonding makes it cohesive... Evapor…
7.4
Builds larger molecules by removal of OH and H from the react…
Van der Waals bond
Weak bond between partial positive and partial negative regio…
Emergent properties of water
Liquid at room temp... Hydrogen bonding makes it cohesive... Evapor…
62 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 6
Enzyme
Chemical Reaction
Metabolism
Energy
Proteins that act as biological catalysts to speed up thousan…
A process in which one or more substances are changed into ot…
Sum total of all chemical reactions that occur within an orga…
It is define as the ability to promote change or do work.
Enzyme
Proteins that act as biological catalysts to speed up thousan…
Chemical Reaction
A process in which one or more substances are changed into ot…
58 terms
biology 111
Homology
Evolution
Fitness
Direct fitness
all organisms came from a common descendent
Change of populations over time (at the level of populations)
number of viable offspring your children are able to produce
is the number of offspring an individual produces
Homology
all organisms came from a common descendent
Evolution
Change of populations over time (at the level of populations)
Biology (111)
Extremophile
Halophile
Acidophile
Thermophile
Organism that lives in environmental conditions so extreme th…
Extreme salt lovers
Extreme acid lovers
Extreme heat lovers
Extremophile
Organism that lives in environmental conditions so extreme th…
Halophile
Extreme salt lovers
116 terms
Biology 111
Scientific Method
Characteristics of Living Things:... Cells
Characteristics of Living Things:... Hier…
Characteristics of Living Things:... Repr…
Research... Hypothesis... Experiment... Results... Conclusion... Replication…
Are made up of one or more cells(unicellular or multicellular)
atoms-molecules-macromolecules-bio molecules-organelles-cells…
asexual: reproduction by yourself(animals)... sexual: 2 organism…
Scientific Method
Research... Hypothesis... Experiment... Results... Conclusion... Replication…
Characteristics of Living Things:... Cells
Are made up of one or more cells(unicellular or multicellular)
115 terms
Biology 111
Organism
Cell
Behavior
Homeostasis
a single-celled life form Ex: animal, plant
small microscopic functional unit of an organism
a way a human acts in a particular situation
reaching the state of equilibrium
Organism
a single-celled life form Ex: animal, plant
Cell
small microscopic functional unit of an organism
Biology 111
What is Biology?
What is life?
What is the reductionist approach?
What is the systems biology approach?
Biology is the science of life.
Life is the growth and development of a species.
When you have a huge general question then break it down into…
this system tries to tie components back together into a whole.
What is Biology?
Biology is the science of life.
What is life?
Life is the growth and development of a species.
16 terms
BIOLOGY 111
Define Atomic Number
Define Atomic Mass
Define polar covalent bond
Most electronegative elements
Atomic number = # protons
Atomic mass = proton +neutron
unequal sharing of electrons... polar bears dont share equally
Florine... Oxygen... Chlorine ... Nitrogen... Food On CLean Napkins
Define Atomic Number
Atomic number = # protons
Define Atomic Mass
Atomic mass = proton +neutron
60 terms
biology 111
polymer
Double Helix
Histone
genes
a large compound made up of many repeating subunits.
the structure of DNA. Aka a spiral ladder.
Proteins that occur in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
A section of DNA that codes for or carries instructions for a…
polymer
a large compound made up of many repeating subunits.
Double Helix
the structure of DNA. Aka a spiral ladder.
41 terms
Biology 111- Chapter 2
Matter
Atom
Molecule
Element
Anything that contains mass and occupies space.
Smallest unit of matter.
Two or more atoms bonded together.
A pure substance of one kind of atom.
Matter
Anything that contains mass and occupies space.
Atom
Smallest unit of matter.
19 terms
Biology 111 chapter 6
Distinguish between prokaryotic and eu…
Describe the structure and function of…
Briefly explain how the nucleus contro…
Explain the role of the nucleolus in p…
Prokaryotic- do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-b…
Nuclear envelope -> Double membrane enclosing the nucleus, pe…
The nucleus directs protein synthesis by synthesizing messeng…
It synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and combines it with prot…
Distinguish between prokaryotic and eu…
Prokaryotic- do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-b…
Describe the structure and function of…
Nuclear envelope -> Double membrane enclosing the nucleus, pe…
Biology 111 Final Exam
What is life?
What is Biology?
Who first defined the Scientific Method?
What are the steps of the Scientific M…
-Must be able to replicate itself without the aid of another…
-The study of life and the environment in which it interacts.
-Sir Francis Bacon
-Observation... -Ask a question... -Form a hypothesis... -Make a predi…
What is life?
-Must be able to replicate itself without the aid of another…
What is Biology?
-The study of life and the environment in which it interacts.
45 terms
Biology 111 Chapter 17
Transcription
Translation
mRNA
tRNA
a DNA strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a comp…
the order of nucleotides in mRNA is used to determine the ami…
messenger RNA; a type of RNA that is synthesized using a DNA…
transfer RNA; an RNA molecule that functions as a translator…
Transcription
a DNA strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a comp…
Translation
the order of nucleotides in mRNA is used to determine the ami…
55 terms
Biology 111 Chapter 9
living cells
energy
catabolic pathways
cellular respiration
require transfusions of energy from outside sources to perfor…
flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat
yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels... exergonic... yield ene…
the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway ... consumes…
living cells
require transfusions of energy from outside sources to perfor…
energy
flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat
Biology 111 Test 2
polymer
monomer
dehydration synthesis (condensation)
hydrolysis
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical build…
Smaller molecules that serve as the repeating units in polymers
synthesis of polymers
breakdown of polymers
polymer
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical build…
monomer
Smaller molecules that serve as the repeating units in polymers
40 terms
Biology 111- Chapter 1
What is the 5 characteristics of life?
1. The biosphere (organization)
2. The Ecosystem (organization)
3. Communities (Organization)
1.Organization... 2.infromation... 3.Energy+Matter... 4.Interactions... 5…
consists all life on earth and all the places where life exis…
consists of all living things an non living things live in a…
array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem
What is the 5 characteristics of life?
1.Organization... 2.infromation... 3.Energy+Matter... 4.Interactions... 5…
1. The biosphere (organization)
consists all life on earth and all the places where life exis…
41 terms
Biology 111: Lab 1
Silurian limestone... Quarry... Fossils
Lake
Marsh
Prairie
What evidence do we have Chicago was under shallow ocean?
Aquatic environments that are permanently wet. ... Plants: Too d…
Shallow (Less than 1 m deep) wetlands characterized by algae…
Grasslands maintained by low moisture and periodic fire.... Much…
Silurian limestone... Quarry... Fossils
What evidence do we have Chicago was under shallow ocean?
Lake
Aquatic environments that are permanently wet. ... Plants: Too d…
Biology 111
Science is
What isn't science
Scientific method
Observations
a body of knowledge
recalling specific facts about the world
making observations, proposing ideas, testing the ideas, disc…
lead to questions
Science is
a body of knowledge
What isn't science
recalling specific facts about the world
79 terms
biology 111 chapter 4
organic molecules (technically)
organic molecules (biologists)
carbon atom properties
lipids
molecules that contain carbon
molecules that contain carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
has 4 valence electrons and can form single covalent bonds in…
characterized by numerous carbon hydrogen bonds
organic molecules (technically)
molecules that contain carbon
organic molecules (biologists)
molecules that contain carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
Biology 111
Isomer
Structural isomers
Optical isomers
biochemical unity
molecules with same chemical formula but atoms arranged diffe…
differ in how atoms are joined together
carbon atom has four different atoms or groups of atoms attac…
reflects evolution of all life from a common ancestor by desc…
Isomer
molecules with same chemical formula but atoms arranged diffe…
Structural isomers
differ in how atoms are joined together
60 terms
Biology 111: Chapter 3
Functional Groups
4 Macromolecules
What is the Polymer of Carbohydrates?
What is the Polymer of Proteins?
Groups of atoms attached to carbon backbone which determine t…
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Monosaccharides - e.g., glucose
Amino Acids
Functional Groups
Groups of atoms attached to carbon backbone which determine t…
4 Macromolecules
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
110 terms
Biology 111
Emergent Properties
Biosphere
Ecosystems
Communities
looking from the tiniest part then zooming out to see the ind…
earth
an ecosystem consists of all the living things in a particula…
The array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem is c…
Emergent Properties
looking from the tiniest part then zooming out to see the ind…
Biosphere
earth
Biology 111
Exergonic
Energetic reaction
Oxidation
Reduction
exergonic reaction a chemical reaction that releases energy.
endergonic reactions yield products that are rich in potentia…
Loss of electrons
Gain of electron (Reduced because its becoming negative)
Exergonic
exergonic reaction a chemical reaction that releases energy.
Energetic reaction
endergonic reactions yield products that are rich in potentia…
Biology 111 Chapter 14
Character
Trait
True-Breeding
Hybridization
an observable heritable feature that may vary among individuals
one of two or more detectable variants in a genetic character
referring to organisms that produce offspring of the same var…
in genetics, the mating, or crossing, of true-breeding variet…
Character
an observable heritable feature that may vary among individuals
Trait
one of two or more detectable variants in a genetic character
13 terms
Biology 111
Daughter cells
Interphase
G1 phase
S (Synthesis)
Product(s) of cell division; Cells reproduced from Cell divis…
First (longest) phase; Cells create 2 copies of DNA. Made up…
Cell grows twice as big
Replicate DNA
Daughter cells
Product(s) of cell division; Cells reproduced from Cell divis…
Interphase
First (longest) phase; Cells create 2 copies of DNA. Made up…
17 terms
Biology 111
Chyme
Esophagus
Diuretic
Glomerulus
A semifluid mass created during digestion once the food has b…
A muscular tube that conducts food from the pharynx to the st…
A substance that promotes urine production. Alcohol is a diur…
A tuft of capillaries within the renal corpuscle of a nephron
Chyme
A semifluid mass created during digestion once the food has b…
Esophagus
A muscular tube that conducts food from the pharynx to the st…
BIOLOGY 111
Chitin and Glucans
Fungi
Hyphae
Mycelium
Makes up cell well of fungi. Chitin (Poly-glucosamine) and Gl…
Absorptive heterotrophs.... most are decomposers. most are multi…
Long branched filaments in fungi body plan
Tangled mass of hyphae
Chitin and Glucans
Makes up cell well of fungi. Chitin (Poly-glucosamine) and Gl…
Fungi
Absorptive heterotrophs.... most are decomposers. most are multi…
71 terms
Biology 111
operon
repressor
corepressor
repressible operon
the entire stretch of DNA that includes the operator, the pro…
prevents gene transcription by binding... to the operator and bl…
a molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch…
one that is usually on; binding of a repressor to the operato…
operon
the entire stretch of DNA that includes the operator, the pro…
repressor
prevents gene transcription by binding... to the operator and bl…
45 terms
Biology 111
Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
Ribosomes
Nucleus
a lipid-based boundary that contains the cell's aqueous inter…
the contents of a cell internal to the plasma membrane; a thi…
the cell's protein making machinery
envelopes the DNA (chromosomes) in eukaryotic cells
Plasma membrane
a lipid-based boundary that contains the cell's aqueous inter…
Cytoplasm
the contents of a cell internal to the plasma membrane; a thi…
Biology 111
cell (plasma) membrane
cytoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes
Structure : membrane composed of a double layer of phospholip…
Structure: fluid, jellylike substance between the cell membra…
Structure: system of interconnected membrane forming canals a…
Structure: Granular particles composed of protein and RNA... Fu…
cell (plasma) membrane
Structure : membrane composed of a double layer of phospholip…
cytoplasm
Structure: fluid, jellylike substance between the cell membra…
Biology 111
3. Integrating center
2. Sensory neuron
1. Sensory receptor
4. motor neuron
-found only in gray matter of CNS. ... -sensory info is process…
-also called afferment neuron .... -carried sensory info to ner…
-First step of reflex arc.... - detects the presence of a stimu…
- also called efferent neuron... - carries motor command to eff…
3. Integrating center
-found only in gray matter of CNS. ... -sensory info is process…
2. Sensory neuron
-also called afferment neuron .... -carried sensory info to ner…
23 terms
Biology 111- lecture 4
1600's
1700's
1800's
late 1800's
-microscope was developed ... -first cell was observed
-optics improved... -nuclei was observed for first time
-staining procedures ... -observed chromosomes for first time
observed stages of devlopment
1600's
-microscope was developed ... -first cell was observed
1700's
-optics improved... -nuclei was observed for first time
169 terms
Biology 111 TAMU Rao Final
7 characteristics of life
3 domains of life
Reductionist
Systems Biology
Order, Evolutionary adaptation, responses to environment, reg…
Domain Bacteria- bacteria prokaryotes... Domain Archaea- prokary…
Approaches to biology that break everything down into the sim…
Approach tries to tie small parts back together into a whole
7 characteristics of life
Order, Evolutionary adaptation, responses to environment, reg…
3 domains of life
Domain Bacteria- bacteria prokaryotes... Domain Archaea- prokary…
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