Study sets matching "biology 120"

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Study sets matching "biology 120"

261 terms
Biology 120
Robert Hooke
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
Cell theory
Scientific method
1635-1703. discovery of the first microscope
1632-1723. father of microbiology, improved lens magnificatio…
organisms consist of one or more cells. cells make up basic s…
1. observation... 2. hypothesis ... 3. predictions ... 4. controlled e…
Robert Hooke
1635-1703. discovery of the first microscope
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
1632-1723. father of microbiology, improved lens magnificatio…
11 terms
Biology 120
Primary Structure (Protein)
Secondary Structure (Protein)
Tertiary Structure (Protein)
Quaternary Structure (Protein)
The sequence of amino acids in a poly peptide chain, similar…
The corkscrew-like twists or pleated folds formed by hydrogen…
The complex three-dimensional shape formed by multiple twists…
Two or more polypeptide chains bonded together.
Primary Structure (Protein)
The sequence of amino acids in a poly peptide chain, similar…
Secondary Structure (Protein)
The corkscrew-like twists or pleated folds formed by hydrogen…
145 terms
Biology 120
Genes
Genome
Which is bigger: gene or genome? Why?
Consumer
hereditary units of information consisting of specific sequen…
Sum total of an organism's DNA
Genome, because your genome consist of all your genes
organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers of…
Genes
hereditary units of information consisting of specific sequen…
Genome
Sum total of an organism's DNA
405 terms
Biology 120
Energy, Cells, Information, Replicatio…
Energy
Organism
Cells
- Five fundamental characteristics that organisms share
- what cells need in order to reproduce and stay alive; sunli…
- a living entity made up of one or more cells.
- membrane-bound units which organisms are made up of.
Energy, Cells, Information, Replicatio…
- Five fundamental characteristics that organisms share
Energy
- what cells need in order to reproduce and stay alive; sunli…
Biology 120 chapter 5
biological molecules classes
macromolecules
dehydration reaction
hydrolysis
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins
carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins... &... polymer of monom…
2 monomers bonded together with the loss of a water molecule
water breakage... bond between monomers is broken by addition of…
biological molecules classes
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins
macromolecules
carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins... &... polymer of monom…
biology 120 chapter 4
organic chemistry
complex/large molecules
tetrahedron
hydrocarbons
study of organic compounds, which are compounds containing ca…
4 bonds or more
4 single bonds
carbon +hydrogen... they store and release enegry... variations inc…
organic chemistry
study of organic compounds, which are compounds containing ca…
complex/large molecules
4 bonds or more
Biology 120 chapter 7
selective permeability
membrane
molecules and ions
passive transport
allows some substances to cross it more easily than others
double layer = phospholipid bilayer ... fluid moves laterally... ha…
move back and forth across the membrane... nonpolar move more qu…
diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane... no ener…
selective permeability
allows some substances to cross it more easily than others
membrane
double layer = phospholipid bilayer ... fluid moves laterally... ha…
Biology 120 chapter 6
Plasma Membrane
Nuclear Pores
Ribosomes
Rough ER
Controls what enters and leaves the cell
Regulates the entry and exit of Proteins, RNA, and Macromolec…
Site of Protein Synthesis
Produces new membrane, aids in the synthesis of secretory pro…
Plasma Membrane
Controls what enters and leaves the cell
Nuclear Pores
Regulates the entry and exit of Proteins, RNA, and Macromolec…
305 terms
BIOLOGY 120 EXAM 3
Cell Division
Meiosis
Gamete
Mitosis, Somatic
The cell theory states that new cells arise from preexisting…
In animals , _____________ leads to the production of sperm a…
The term for sex cells is ____________ and refers to sperm an…
________ leads to the production of all other cell types call…
Cell Division
The cell theory states that new cells arise from preexisting…
Meiosis
In animals , _____________ leads to the production of sperm a…
Biology 120
Diploid
Gametes
Haploid
Zygote
-Body cells that have 46 (2n) paired chromosomes
egg and sperm
Sex cells that have only 23 (n) unpaired chromosomes
Sperm and egg combo during fertilization
Diploid
-Body cells that have 46 (2n) paired chromosomes
Gametes
egg and sperm
brcc Biology 120
Energy, Cells, Information, Replicatio…
Energy
Organism
Cells
- Five fundamental characteristics that organisms share
- what cells need in order to reproduce and stay alive; sunli…
- a living entity made up of one or more cells.
- membrane-bound units which organisms are made up of.
Energy, Cells, Information, Replicatio…
- Five fundamental characteristics that organisms share
Energy
- what cells need in order to reproduce and stay alive; sunli…
405 terms
Biology 120
Energy, Cells, Information, Replicatio…
Energy
Organism
Cells
- Five fundamental characteristics that organisms share
- what cells need in order to reproduce and stay alive; sunli…
- a living entity made up of one or more cells.
- membrane-bound units which organisms are made up of.
Energy, Cells, Information, Replicatio…
- Five fundamental characteristics that organisms share
Energy
- what cells need in order to reproduce and stay alive; sunli…
Biology 120
Cell wall
Cell membrane
Ribosomes
Flagella
Made a various materials in plants cellulose provide support…
Composed of fats and proteins
The organelle of protein synthesis
Responsible for moving the cell
Cell wall
Made a various materials in plants cellulose provide support…
Cell membrane
Composed of fats and proteins
58 terms
Biology 120
what is biology
what is life
what are signs of life
organism
the study of life
the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inor…
growth, reproduction, functional activity, continual change p…
an assembly of molecules functioning as a more or less stable…
what is biology
the study of life
what is life
the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inor…
261 terms
Biology 120
Robert Hooke
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
Cell theory
Scientific method
1635-1703. discovery of the first microscope
1632-1723. father of microbiology, improved lens magnificatio…
organisms consist of one or more cells. cells make up basic s…
1. observation... 2. hypothesis ... 3. predictions ... 4. controlled e…
Robert Hooke
1635-1703. discovery of the first microscope
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
1632-1723. father of microbiology, improved lens magnificatio…
biology 120
mitochondria
Eukaryote
prokaryote
photosynthesis
an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which t…
A eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and…
a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus…
a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light…
mitochondria
an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which t…
Eukaryote
A eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and…
86 terms
Biology 120
Science is defined as...
Disorganized knowledge is...
What does science do?
Truth is built on ___ based on ____ on…
Organized knowledge
Trivia
Attempt to uncover the facts
Facts; subjective facts; conclusions
Science is defined as...
Organized knowledge
Disorganized knowledge is...
Trivia
33 terms
Biology 120
Water is the __________ of earth
Cells themselves are ____% water
Water molecule is a ______molecule
An example of cohesion using water is
Biological Medium
Cells themselves are 70-95% water
Polar molecule
Hydrogen bolds hold water molecules together
Water is the __________ of earth
Biological Medium
Cells themselves are ____% water
Cells themselves are 70-95% water
139 terms
Biology 120 Exam 1
Steroids
Phospholipids V Fats
Unsaturated Fat
Ester Linkage
4 Rings with different R-groups
Phospholipids- two tails with one head and tail is nonpolar w…
-Double Bonds between Carbon-less hydrogen-kinked-helps build…
bond between head and tails in Fats
Steroids
4 Rings with different R-groups
Phospholipids V Fats
Phospholipids- two tails with one head and tail is nonpolar w…
21 terms
Biology 120
WHAT IS SCIENCE
HYPOTHESIS
THEORY
LAW
-derived from observations
-proven to be correct by:... -supported by exhaustive experiment…
-consistent throughout the universe
WHAT IS SCIENCE
HYPOTHESIS
-derived from observations
Biology 120 Chapter 17
3 Types of Restriction Enzymes
DNA Ligase
Clone
Molecular Cloning
-Type I and II cleave with less precision and are not used in…
-Joins two fragments forming a stable DNA molecule... -Catalyzes…
Genetically identical copy
Isolation of a specific DNA sequence (usually protein-encoding)
3 Types of Restriction Enzymes
-Type I and II cleave with less precision and are not used in…
DNA Ligase
-Joins two fragments forming a stable DNA molecule... -Catalyzes…
Biology 120 Chapter 11
Genetics
Heredity
Variation
What is inherited
Scientific study of heredity and variation
Passing on of traits from one generation to the next
Demonstrated by the differences in appearance that offspring…
Genes are inherited, not physical traits
Genetics
Scientific study of heredity and variation
Heredity
Passing on of traits from one generation to the next
Biology 120 Chapter 14
Frederick Griffith
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
James Watson and Francis Crick
Structure of DNA
-2 stains of virus (S and R)... -Transformation occurred from th…
-DNA is the genetic material, not proteins... -Only DNA entered…
-Determined the structure of DNA based off of Franklin's find…
Nucleotides that are composed of a phosphate group, a pentose…
Frederick Griffith
-2 stains of virus (S and R)... -Transformation occurred from th…
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
-DNA is the genetic material, not proteins... -Only DNA entered…
Biology 120 Chapter 12
Advantages of Pea Plants for Genetic S…
Alleles
True-breeding
Hybridization
-Distinct hertiable features (flower color) with variety... -Mat…
-Alternate forms of a gene for a trait... -Alleles are always on…
Plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they s…
Mixing two pure-breed species
Advantages of Pea Plants for Genetic S…
-Distinct hertiable features (flower color) with variety... -Mat…
Alleles
-Alternate forms of a gene for a trait... -Alleles are always on…
Biology 120 Chapter 10
Genome
Chromosomes
Somatic Cells
Gametes
All the DNA in a cell
-What DNA molecules are packaged into... -Composed of chromatin…
Non-reproductive, body cells which have two sets of chromosomes
Reproductive cells: Sperm and egg which have one set of chrom…
Genome
All the DNA in a cell
Chromosomes
-What DNA molecules are packaged into... -Composed of chromatin…
Biology 120 Chapter 9
Ligand
Receptor Protein
Signal Transduction
Four basic mechanisms for cellular com…
Signaling molecule
Molecule to which the receptor binds
-Converts the information in the signal into a cellular respo…
Direct Contact... Paracrine Signaling... Endocrine Signaling... Synapt…
Ligand
Signaling molecule
Receptor Protein
Molecule to which the receptor binds
108 terms
Biology 120 Test 1
valence electrons
ionic bonds
covalent bonds
single covalent bonds
electrons located in the outer shell
formed when 2 atoms are unequal in their attraction for valen…
valence electrons are shared by atoms (makes the valence shel…
each atom shares one electron with other atom, totaling 2 ele…
valence electrons
electrons located in the outer shell
ionic bonds
formed when 2 atoms are unequal in their attraction for valen…
Biology 120 Cells
Robert Hooke
Eukaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic Organisms
first person to see a cell; named cells
have cell organelles and nucleus
no cell organelles (except ribosomes)... no nucleus... Has ribosome…
Bacteria
Robert Hooke
first person to see a cell; named cells
Eukaryotic Cells
have cell organelles and nucleus
Biology 120
Properties of life
Cell theory
3 types of microscopy
Fermentation
1. display order... 2. harness and utilize energy... 3. reproduce... 4…
-all organisms are made up of one or more cells... -cells are th…
1. optical... 2. electron... 3. scanning
a metabolic process that converts sugars into acids, gases, a…
Properties of life
1. display order... 2. harness and utilize energy... 3. reproduce... 4…
Cell theory
-all organisms are made up of one or more cells... -cells are th…
45 terms
Biology 120: Chapter 15
Central dogma
Transcription..
Translation
3 Steps of transcription
DNA --> RNA --> Protein
DNA-directed synthesis of RNA
• Synthesis of polypeptides... • Takes place at ribosome... • Requi…
1) Initiation... 2) Elongation... 3) Termination
Central dogma
DNA --> RNA --> Protein
Transcription..
DNA-directed synthesis of RNA
Biology 120 Chapter 13
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
Reasons why flies are good organisms f…
Wild Type
Mutant Phenotypes
-Mendelian genes have specific loci (positions) on chromosome…
-They breed at a high rate... -A generation can be bred every 2…
Normal phenotypes
Abnormal phenotypes
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
-Mendelian genes have specific loci (positions) on chromosome…
Reasons why flies are good organisms f…
-They breed at a high rate... -A generation can be bred every 2…
73 terms
Biology 120
Systematics
Phylogeny
Cladogram
Cladistics
the branch of biology that deals with classification and nome…
study of the evolutionary development and diversification of…
a branching diagram showing the cladistic relationship betwee…
a method of classification of animals and plants according to…
Systematics
the branch of biology that deals with classification and nome…
Phylogeny
study of the evolutionary development and diversification of…
BIOLOGY 120
Consist of gases,liquid, or solids pre…
Eye irritations, nausea, headaches, re…
Is the measure of how difficult it is…
Is the fresh water found on Earth's su…
Air pollution
Sick building syndrome
Surface tension
Surface water
Consist of gases,liquid, or solids pre…
Air pollution
Eye irritations, nausea, headaches, re…
Sick building syndrome
Biology 120
induction
gastrulation
cleavage
oogenesis
1 group of cells influencing the development of an adjacent g…
9 days after conception
series of rapid cell divisions that produces a multicellular…
development of mature egg cells
induction
1 group of cells influencing the development of an adjacent g…
gastrulation
9 days after conception
Biology 120 Chap 1
Biology
Organism
Characteristics of living things
Population
The scientific study of living things
Any living thing
Made up of chemical components, composed of cells, convert mo…
An interacting group of the same species
Biology
The scientific study of living things
Organism
Any living thing
65 terms
Biology 120
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy
Bright Field Microscopy
Scans across a whole cell or organism and makes it appear in 3D
Focuses on a thin specimen in a vacuum, commonly used to view…
Laser scan across a fluorescent stained specimen. Provides a…
Light passes directly through the specimen, has insufficient…
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Scans across a whole cell or organism and makes it appear in 3D
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Focuses on a thin specimen in a vacuum, commonly used to view…
74 terms
Biology 120
Polymers
Enzymes
Dehydration reaction
Hydrolysis
Long chains of similar building blocks (monomers; amino acids…
Specialized molecules used for speeding up the reactions
The reaction that causes 2 molecules to covalently bond thru…
"Water break" (Greek) water molecule is the reactant that cau…
Polymers
Long chains of similar building blocks (monomers; amino acids…
Enzymes
Specialized molecules used for speeding up the reactions
33 terms
Biology 120 Exam 2
Ancestral Algae
Secondary compunds
Tannis
Flavonoids
Multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic, autotrophic, cellu…
Way for plant to defend itself, behavioral trait
Secondary compound, Stains things
Absorbs light to make plant stink
Ancestral Algae
Multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic, autotrophic, cellu…
Secondary compunds
Way for plant to defend itself, behavioral trait
80 terms
Biology 120 - Craig Milgrim - Final
Autotroph
Heterotroph
Obligate Anaerobe
Obligate Aerobe
Organism that makes its own food using carbon from inorganic…
Organism that obtains energy and carbon from organic compound…
Occurring in the absence of oxygen.... Prokaryotes
Involving or occurring in the presence of oxygen.... Prokaryote…
Autotroph
Organism that makes its own food using carbon from inorganic…
Heterotroph
Organism that obtains energy and carbon from organic compound…
39 terms
Biology 120 Chapter 14
character
true-breeding
hybridization
P generation
an observable heritable feature that may vary among individuals
referring to organisms that produce offspring of the same var…
in genetics, the mating, or crossing, of two true-breeding va…
the true-breeding (homozygous) parent individuals from which…
character
an observable heritable feature that may vary among individuals
true-breeding
referring to organisms that produce offspring of the same var…
Biology 120 1 test
hydroxyl group
carbonyl group
carboxyl group
amino group
-OH
C=O
OH-C=H
H-N-H
hydroxyl group
-OH
carbonyl group
C=O
Biology 120
Empirical
Creative
Subjective
Objective
Originated in Observation. Can be observed
Beyond Traditional Ideas
How you experience things
Simply the facts
Empirical
Originated in Observation. Can be observed
Creative
Beyond Traditional Ideas
222 terms
Biology 120
Order of organisms
Water is a polar molecule becuase oxyg…
Hydrogen bonds account for the cohesiv…
An alkaline solution has an excess of…
Eukaryotes, land plants, tetrapods, dinosaurs, flowering plan…
True
True
False
Order of organisms
Eukaryotes, land plants, tetrapods, dinosaurs, flowering plan…
Water is a polar molecule becuase oxyg…
True
28 terms
Biology 120
Five characteristics of life
Cell theory
Food Web
Primary consumers
1. Life is organized ... 2. Life rquires energy ... 3. Life maintai…
All living things are made up of cells.
A diagram showing the flow of energy from organisms at lower…
Herbivores that feed on primary producers.
Five characteristics of life
1. Life is organized ... 2. Life rquires energy ... 3. Life maintai…
Cell theory
All living things are made up of cells.
Biology 120
Principle 1
Principle 2
Principle 3
Principle 4
Cells are the simplest unit of life
Living organisms use energy
Living organisms interact with their environment.
Living organisms maintain homeostasis.
Principle 1
Cells are the simplest unit of life
Principle 2
Living organisms use energy
Biology 120
Scientific Method
Primary Journal Articles
Secondary Journal Article
Hypothesis
1. Observation ... 2. Question ... 3. Preliminary Research ... 4. Hypo…
Research conducted by the authors, usually has a materials an…
when the researcher did not conduct their own experiment but…
A tentative explanation for a scientific observation
Scientific Method
1. Observation ... 2. Question ... 3. Preliminary Research ... 4. Hypo…
Primary Journal Articles
Research conducted by the authors, usually has a materials an…
32 terms
Biology 120; Chapter 1
Hypothesis
Theory
Law
Scientific Method
guess, idea, statement (derived from observation) to explain…
verified or proven (supported by exhaustive experimental evid…
consistent
1. Oberservation... 2. hypothesis... 3. Predict & Test... 4. Independe…
Hypothesis
guess, idea, statement (derived from observation) to explain…
Theory
verified or proven (supported by exhaustive experimental evid…
Biology 120:
Four classes of macromolecules we lear…
Biological Macromolecules
Carbohydrate
Lipids
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acid.
Molecules that contain carbon covalently bonded with hydrogen…
Subunit is sugars. This macromolecule stores energy and cellu…
Subunit is fatty acids. provides long term energy and is a st…
Four classes of macromolecules we lear…
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acid.
Biological Macromolecules
Molecules that contain carbon covalently bonded with hydrogen…
21 terms
Biology 120
Energy
2 States of energy and forms
First law of Thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
Capacity to cause change or to perform work.
KINETIC and POTENTIAL energy. Forms of energy are heat, therm…
Energy in the universe is constant. Energy can be transferred…
Energy conversions increase the entropy (disorder) of the uni…
Energy
Capacity to cause change or to perform work.
2 States of energy and forms
KINETIC and POTENTIAL energy. Forms of energy are heat, therm…
Biology 120 Chapter 8
Describe the roles of cell division in…
Describe the basic structure of a chro…
Explain what limits cell size (and rel…
Describe the key events of each phase…
Meiosis for reproduction and mitosis for growth and maintenan…
Chromosomes are made up of DNA and protein molecules. The pro…
-Diffusion is slow over long distances... -Larger cells cant tra…
Mitotic (M) phase includes mitosis and cytokinesis, and inter…
Describe the roles of cell division in…
Meiosis for reproduction and mitosis for growth and maintenan…
Describe the basic structure of a chro…
Chromosomes are made up of DNA and protein molecules. The pro…
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