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Study sets matching "biology a level aqa"

16 terms
AQA A-Level Biology - Enzymes
Activation Energy
Enzyme Function
Enzyme Structure
Active Site
The minimum energy required for successful collisions to resu…
Lowers the activation energy for a reaction to start, behaves…
Globular proteins that have a functional region known as an a…
Functional region on an enzyme that is complimentary to subst…
Activation Energy
The minimum energy required for successful collisions to resu…
Enzyme Function
Lowers the activation energy for a reaction to start, behaves…
AQA A-Level Biology - Lipids
Triglyceride
Ester Bond
Types of Triglyceride
Roles of Lipids
comprised of three fatty acids with a glycerol with an ester…
bonds in lipids (C-C)
Saturated, Mono-Unsaturated, Poly-Unsaturated
Energy source, waterproofing, insulation, protection
Triglyceride
comprised of three fatty acids with a glycerol with an ester…
Ester Bond
bonds in lipids (C-C)
Biology A-level AQA
optical
electron
artefact
heterogenous
A microscope that uses light waves, maximum magnification usu…
A microscope that uses a beam of electrons, maximum magnifica…
a structure that is not present in a living specimen
composed of different types
optical
A microscope that uses light waves, maximum magnification usu…
electron
A microscope that uses a beam of electrons, maximum magnifica…
AQA A-Level Biology - Carbohydrates
Glycosidic bond
Hydrolysis
Condensation Reaction
Monosaccharide
the bond between sugars (C-O-C)
adding water to break down a glycosidic bond
removing water to form a glycosidic bond
simplest form of sugar e.g. glucose, galactose and fructose
Glycosidic bond
the bond between sugars (C-O-C)
Hydrolysis
adding water to break down a glycosidic bond
AQA A-Level Biology - Diversity
Species
Homologous
Domain
Kingdom
A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile o…
Similar structure
The highest ranking taxon. With 3 categories
The second highest taxon. With 5 categories
Species
A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile o…
Homologous
Similar structure
AQA A-Level Biology - Mitosis
PMAT
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Abbreviation of the four stages of mitosis
The chromosomes thicken and condense, becoming visible. The n…
The chromosomes align in the centre of the cell. Spindle fibr…
The sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of t…
PMAT
Abbreviation of the four stages of mitosis
Prophase
The chromosomes thicken and condense, becoming visible. The n…
AQA A-Level Biology - Proteins
Amino Acid
Dipeptide
Polypeptide
Protein
A monomer that will join with other amino acids to form a pro…
Two amino acids bonded together via a peptide bond
Many amino acids bonded together via peptide bonds
A combination of polypeptides
Amino Acid
A monomer that will join with other amino acids to form a pro…
Dipeptide
Two amino acids bonded together via a peptide bond
A-Level AQA Biology
Ecosystem
Biotic
Community
Biosphere
An enviroment that includes all the living organisms intereac…
The living components of the environment e.g. competition and…
All the groups of living organisms living in a habitat at any…
The life-supporting layer of land, air and water that surroun…
Ecosystem
An enviroment that includes all the living organisms intereac…
Biotic
The living components of the environment e.g. competition and…
Biology AQA A level
Monomers
Polymer
Give three examples of monomers
What is a condensation reaction?
smaller units from which larger molecules are made
Molecules made from a large number of monomers joined together
Monosaccharides, amino acids and nucleotides
When two molecules join together with the formation of a chem…
Monomers
smaller units from which larger molecules are made
Polymer
Molecules made from a large number of monomers joined together
16 terms
AQA A-Level Biology - Enzymes
Activation Energy
Enzyme Function
Enzyme Structure
Active Site
The minimum energy required for successful collisions to resu…
Lowers the activation energy for a reaction to start, behaves…
Globular proteins that have a functional region known as an a…
Functional region on an enzyme that is complimentary to subst…
Activation Energy
The minimum energy required for successful collisions to resu…
Enzyme Function
Lowers the activation energy for a reaction to start, behaves…
17 terms
AQA A LEVEL BIOLOGY
the krebs cycle takes place in the ___…
epistasis
autosome
biodiversity
matrix mitochondria
arises when the allele of one gene affects or masks the expre…
a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
the range and variety of genes, species and habitats within a…
the krebs cycle takes place in the ___…
matrix mitochondria
epistasis
arises when the allele of one gene affects or masks the expre…
AQA A-Level Biology - Enzymes
Activation Energy
Enzyme Function
Enzyme Structure
Active Site
The minimum energy required for successful collisions to resu…
Lowers the activation energy for a reaction to start, behaves…
Globular proteins that have a functional region known as an a…
Functional region on an enzyme that is complimentary to subst…
Activation Energy
The minimum energy required for successful collisions to resu…
Enzyme Function
Lowers the activation energy for a reaction to start, behaves…
9 terms
AQA A Level Biology: Competition
Competition is a ______ factor as it i…
2 types of competition are...
intraspecific competition
There will be _________ in phenotypes…
biotic
Intraspecific competition and interspecific competition
competition between members of the same species
variation
Competition is a ______ factor as it i…
biotic
2 types of competition are...
Intraspecific competition and interspecific competition
15 terms
A level Biology Unit 4 AQA
Ecosystems
Populations
Community
Habitat
Made up of all the interacting abiotic and biotic features of…
A population is made up of all the interbreeding organisms of…
A community is made up of all the different populations of di…
A habitat is a place where a community of organisms live.
Ecosystems
Made up of all the interacting abiotic and biotic features of…
Populations
A population is made up of all the interbreeding organisms of…
AQA A-Level Biology: Proteins
Globular proteins
Globular proteins
Globular proteins
Globular proteins
spherical shape (tightly folded polypeptide chains)
transport proteins (those embedded in membranes)
enzymes (lipase/DNA polymerase)
hormones (oestrogen/insulin)
Globular proteins
spherical shape (tightly folded polypeptide chains)
Globular proteins
transport proteins (those embedded in membranes)
AQA A-Level Biology - Protein Synthesis
Splicing
Transcription Process
Transcription
Translation
The process by which introns are removed from the pre-mRNA se…
The process by which DNA unzips due to DNA helicase. This the…
A specific sequence of bases on DNA act as a template for the…
The process by which the mRNA acts as a template at the site…
Splicing
The process by which introns are removed from the pre-mRNA se…
Transcription Process
The process by which DNA unzips due to DNA helicase. This the…
AQA A-Level Biology - Nucleic Acids
DNA
Base
Deoxyribose
Phosphate
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Nitrogen containing; adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine or u…
The pentose sugar in a nucleotide, unique to DNA
A group that attaches to deoxyribose to form a polynucleotide
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Base
Nitrogen containing; adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine or u…
AQA A-Level Biology - Mass Transport
Left Atrium
Left Ventricle
Right Atrium
Right Ventricle
The chamber of the heart that holds oxygenated blood from the…
The chamber of the heart that holds oxygenated blood that is…
The chamber of the heart that holds deoxygenated blood from b…
The chamber of the heart that holds deoxygenated blood that i…
Left Atrium
The chamber of the heart that holds oxygenated blood from the…
Left Ventricle
The chamber of the heart that holds oxygenated blood that is…
10 terms
Photosynthesis AQA A level Biology
ATP
Light dependent reactions
NADPH2
Light independent reactions
Produced by phosphorylation ... Produced in light dependent reac…
Occur in granum... Involve electron carrier proteins... Produce NAD…
Required in light independent reactions... Produced in light dep…
Also known as the Calvin cycle ... Produce carbohydrates... Require…
ATP
Produced by phosphorylation ... Produced in light dependent reac…
Light dependent reactions
Occur in granum... Involve electron carrier proteins... Produce NAD…
AQA A-Level Biology - Plasma Membrane and Transport
Phospholipid Bilayer
Intrinsic Protein
Protein Channel
Carrier Protein
Makes up over 75% of the cell-surface membrane. The hydrophob…
A Protein channel that allows large molecules and water solub…
An intrinsic protein that is water filled and hydrophillic, t…
A type of intrinsic protein where only specific molecules can…
Phospholipid Bilayer
Makes up over 75% of the cell-surface membrane. The hydrophob…
Intrinsic Protein
A Protein channel that allows large molecules and water solub…
AQA A-Level Biology - Cell Specialisation
Epithelial Tissue
Xylem
Muscles
Connective Tissue
Lines surfaces of organs to perform a protective or secretory…
Adapted to transport water and ions throughout a plant, also…
Adapted to churn and mix stomach contents and to have normal…
Connects tissue and holds them together
Epithelial Tissue
Lines surfaces of organs to perform a protective or secretory…
Xylem
Adapted to transport water and ions throughout a plant, also…
AQA A-Level Biology - Prokaryotic Cells
Cell Wall
Capsule
Cell-Surface Membrane
Circular DNA
The physical barrier that excludes entry and exit of certain…
Protects bacterium from other cells and helps many bacteria s…
Acts as a differentially permeable layer, controls the entry…
Contains genetic information to allow for replication of the…
Cell Wall
The physical barrier that excludes entry and exit of certain…
Capsule
Protects bacterium from other cells and helps many bacteria s…
12 terms
The MFG Unit 4 A Level Biology AQA
Describe the role of microorganisms in…
Upwelling often results in high primar…
Explain what is meant by the term phen…
Explain what is meant by the ecologica…
1. Saprobiotic (microorganisms / bacteria) break down remains…
1. Nitrate / phosphate / named ion / nutrients for growth of…
1.Expression / appearance / characteristic due to genetic con…
All / group of species / all/group of populations / all the o…
Describe the role of microorganisms in…
1. Saprobiotic (microorganisms / bacteria) break down remains…
Upwelling often results in high primar…
1. Nitrate / phosphate / named ion / nutrients for growth of…
AQA A-Level Biology - Studying Cells
Formula for Magnification
Why the Solution is Cold
Why the Solution is Buffered
Why the Solution is Isotonic
Magnification x Actual Size = Image Size
To suspend enzyme activity that could break down organelles
To maintain the pH of the organelles
To maintain the water potential of the organelles, preventing…
Formula for Magnification
Magnification x Actual Size = Image Size
Why the Solution is Cold
To suspend enzyme activity that could break down organelles
AQA A-Level Biology - Response to Stimuli
Stimulus
Receptors
Taxis
Kinesis
A detectable change in the internal or external environment o…
Specific to one type of stimulus, with the coordinator findin…
A random response to a stimulus to get away from unfavourable…
A specific response to a stimulus to get away from unfavourab…
Stimulus
A detectable change in the internal or external environment o…
Receptors
Specific to one type of stimulus, with the coordinator findin…
15 terms
AQA A Level Biology: Variation in population size
3 phases of a population growth curve
population growth curve
population size is affected by _______…
Rapid growth can happen when there are…
1.Slow growth as numbers are built up... 2.Rapid growth... 3.Popula…
limiting factors
no or few
3 phases of a population growth curve
1.Slow growth as numbers are built up... 2.Rapid growth... 3.Popula…
population growth curve
65 terms
AQA A Level Biology Unit 1 Definitions
Ultrastructure
Eukaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic Cell
Magnification
Internal structure of a cell suited to its job
Cell that has membrane bound organelles
Cell that has no nucleus and membrane bound organelles
How much bigger an image is than the spectrum
Ultrastructure
Internal structure of a cell suited to its job
Eukaryotic Cell
Cell that has membrane bound organelles
226 terms
Unit 4 AQA A Level Biology
Ecology
Biosphere
Ecosystems
2 Factors in an ecosystem
Studying interrelationships between organisms and their envir…
Land, air and sea surrounding the Earth that supports life
Self contained functioning units
Energy flow through the system and cycling energy through the…
Ecology
Studying interrelationships between organisms and their envir…
Biosphere
Land, air and sea surrounding the Earth that supports life
AQA A-Level Biology - Immunity and Disease
Self Cells
Non-Self Cells
Non Specific Defense
Specific Defense
The body's own cells and molecules
Foreign cells and molecules invading someone
A bodily response that is immediate and applies to all pathog…
A slower bodily response that is specific based on each patho…
Self Cells
The body's own cells and molecules
Non-Self Cells
Foreign cells and molecules invading someone
65 terms
AQA A Level Biology Unit 1 Definitions
Ultrastructure
Eukaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic Cell
Magnification
Internal structure of a cell suited to its job... The detailed s…
Cell that has membrane bound organelles and contains a nucleus
Cell that has no nucleus and membrane bound organelles
How much bigger an image is than the spectrum... The degree to w…
Ultrastructure
Internal structure of a cell suited to its job... The detailed s…
Eukaryotic Cell
Cell that has membrane bound organelles and contains a nucleus
51 terms
AQA A-level Biology Unit 5 Definitions
Tropism
Taxis
Kinesis
Reflex Arc Pathway
...
...
...
...
Tropism
...
Taxis
...
28 terms
AQA A level Biology Carbs and Lipids questions
1. Lactose... 2. Sucrose (Non reducing su…
1.a) Fructose
1. a) Glucose ... b) Hydrolysis reaction
1.a) 0- 45 mins blood glucose concentr…
Glucose + Galactose equals?... Glucose + Fructose equals? ... Gluco…
Sucrose is a Disaccharide. It is formed from two Monosacchari…
The equation shows the breakdown of lactose by the enzyme Lac…
A woman was given a solution of sucrose to drink. Her blood g…
1. Lactose... 2. Sucrose (Non reducing su…
Glucose + Galactose equals?... Glucose + Fructose equals? ... Gluco…
1.a) Fructose
Sucrose is a Disaccharide. It is formed from two Monosacchari…
94 terms
AQA A-Level Biology Definitions Unit 2
Interspecific Variation
Intraspecific Variation
Standard Deviation
Allele
Variation between members of different species
Variation between members of the same species
A Calculation that tells us how far data is spread from the a…
1 copy of a gene in a different form
Interspecific Variation
Variation between members of different species
Intraspecific Variation
Variation between members of the same species
38 terms
A-Level Biology - AQA Unit 4
Ecosystem
Population
Community
Habitat
A self-contained unit made up of all the biotic and abiotic f…
A group of interbreeding organisms of one species in a partic…
All the populations of different organisms living and interac…
The place where a community of organisms live
Ecosystem
A self-contained unit made up of all the biotic and abiotic f…
Population
A group of interbreeding organisms of one species in a partic…
39 terms
AQA A-Level Biology Unit 2
What is sampling
Why might measurements not be represen…
How can sampling bias be removed
How can the effect of chance on sampli…
Sampling involves taking measurements of individuals selected…
1) The selection process may be biased. The investigators may…
Random sampling can be used to remove any human involvement i…
1) Using a large sample size to reduce the probability that c…
What is sampling
Sampling involves taking measurements of individuals selected…
Why might measurements not be represen…
1) The selection process may be biased. The investigators may…
21 terms
AQA A Level Biology: The Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen is essential for growth becau…
nitrogen __________ is the most common…
Nitrogen makes up about __% of the atm…
Why are plants unable to use the nitro…
proteins
deficiency
78
Nitrogen gas is unreactive and is not easily converted into o…
Nitrogen is essential for growth becau…
proteins
nitrogen __________ is the most common…
deficiency
65 terms
AQA A Level Biology Unit 1 Definitions
Ultrastructure
Eukaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic Cell
Magnification
Internal structure of a cell suited to its job
Cell that has membrane bound organelles
Cell that has no nucleus and membrane bound organelles
How much bigger an image is than the spectrum
Ultrastructure
Internal structure of a cell suited to its job
Eukaryotic Cell
Cell that has membrane bound organelles
64 terms
AQA A Level Biology Unit 1 Definitions
Ultrastructure
Eukaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic Cell
Magnification
Internal structure of a cell suited to its job
Cell that has membrane bound organelles
Cell that has no nucleus and membrane bound organelles
How much bigger an image is than the spectrum
Ultrastructure
Internal structure of a cell suited to its job
Eukaryotic Cell
Cell that has membrane bound organelles
A-Level Biology AQA - Photosynthesis and Respiration
Photosynthesis
Respiration
Calvin Cycle
Light Dependent Reaction
The process which involves the light dependent reaction and t…
The process in which energy is released in order for an organ…
The process in which carbon dioxide is fixed on to RuBP to co…
The process in which the absorption of light stimulates the p…
Photosynthesis
The process which involves the light dependent reaction and t…
Respiration
The process in which energy is released in order for an organ…
94 terms
AQA A-Level Biology Definitions Unit 2
Interspecific Variation
Intraspecific Variation
Standard Deviation
Allele
Variation between members of different species
Variation between members of the same species
A Calculation that tells us how far data is spread from the a…
1 copy of a gene in a different form
Interspecific Variation
Variation between members of different species
Intraspecific Variation
Variation between members of the same species
AQA A-Level Biology: Biochemical Tests
Proteins
Reducing sugars
Lipids
Starch
add biurets reagent to the sample. if a protein in present, t…
add Benedict's reagent to the sample. heat on a Bunsen/in a w…
Dissolve sample in ethanol. Pour (slowly) the solution into w…
Add iodine solution to the sample. if starch is present, the…
Proteins
add biurets reagent to the sample. if a protein in present, t…
Reducing sugars
add Benedict's reagent to the sample. heat on a Bunsen/in a w…
12 terms
AQA A-Level Biology Cell Organelles
Cell Surface Membrane
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Chloroplast
Allow substances to move in and out of the cell... Allow differe…
Store genetic information... Make Ribosomes... Proteinsynthesis
Aerobic respration
First and second stages of photosynthesis
Cell Surface Membrane
Allow substances to move in and out of the cell... Allow differe…
Nucleus
Store genetic information... Make Ribosomes... Proteinsynthesis
9 terms
AQA A Level Biology: Investigating populations
random sampling
why is random sampling usually used?
systematic sampling
3 things to consider when using quadra…
Two numbered axis can be laid out over the sample area. Gener…
to eliminate bias
A similar grid to random sampling is laid over the entire are…
1.The size of the quadrat... 2.The number of samples being taken…
random sampling
Two numbered axis can be laid out over the sample area. Gener…
why is random sampling usually used?
to eliminate bias
AQA A-Level Biology - Eukaryotic Cells
Nuclear Envelope
Nuclear Pores
Nucleoplasm
Chromosomes
A double membrane that surrounds the nucleus, the outer membr…
Large pores on the nuclear envelope that allows for large mol…
A jelly like substance that makes up the bulk of the nucleus…
Protein-bound, linear DNA in the nucleus
Nuclear Envelope
A double membrane that surrounds the nucleus, the outer membr…
Nuclear Pores
Large pores on the nuclear envelope that allows for large mol…
159 terms
AQA Year 1 A Level Biology
activation energy
active immunity
active loading
active site
energy required to bring about a reaction. The activation ene…
resistance to disease resulting from the activities of an ind…
the movement of sucrose into sieve tubes, using active transp…
a group of amino acids that makes up the region of an enzyme…
activation energy
energy required to bring about a reaction. The activation ene…
active immunity
resistance to disease resulting from the activities of an ind…
23 terms
AQA Biology Unit 2 2014 A level
What is meant by a hierarchy ?
Explain the role of independent segreg…
Why are hybrids usually infertile
What is selective breeding
A hierarchy refers to groups within the groups, there is no o…
Independent segregation provides genetic variation. It allows…
They usually have an uneven number of chromosomes, this means…
Selective breeding is where humans breed organisms with chose…
What is meant by a hierarchy ?
A hierarchy refers to groups within the groups, there is no o…
Explain the role of independent segreg…
Independent segregation provides genetic variation. It allows…
14 terms
Aqa A level Biology Monomers and Carbohydrates
Organic molecules
Monomers
3 macromolecules
Condensation
Molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen together
Single repeating units that are joined togwther in the proces…
Polysaccharide- monosaccarides- single sugar unit eg.glucose…
Monomers joined together through the removal of a molecule of…
Organic molecules
Molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen together
Monomers
Single repeating units that are joined togwther in the proces…
13 terms
AQA A level Biology - Eukaryotic Cells
Cell-surface membrane
Cell wall
Chloroplast
RER
Controls the passage of molecules in and out of the cell. Mad…
Provides strength so that cell does not burst if surrounding…
Responsible for photosynthesis in plants (present in plants a…
Transports proteins that are synthesised in the ribosomes. Ne…
Cell-surface membrane
Controls the passage of molecules in and out of the cell. Mad…
Cell wall
Provides strength so that cell does not burst if surrounding…
34 terms
AQA A-Level Biology - Immunity and Disease
Self Cells
Non-Self Cells
Non Specific Defense
Specific Defense
The body's own cells and molecules
Foreign cells and molecules invading someone
A bodily response that is immediate and applies to all pathog…
A slower bodily response that is specific based on each patho…
Self Cells
The body's own cells and molecules
Non-Self Cells
Foreign cells and molecules invading someone
27 terms
AQA A level Biology - Cells and their organelles
What is a eukaryote organism?
What is a eukaryotic cell?
What is the difference between a eukar…
What is a cells ultrastructure?
They are organisms made up from eukaryotic cells
A eukaryotic cell has membrane bound organelles. Eukaryotic c…
A prokaryotic cell is less complex then a eukaryotic cell and…
The ultrastructure of a cell is the internal structure that s…
What is a eukaryote organism?
They are organisms made up from eukaryotic cells
What is a eukaryotic cell?
A eukaryotic cell has membrane bound organelles. Eukaryotic c…
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