Study sets matching "biology and biochemistry"

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Study sets matching "biology and biochemistry"

11 terms
Biology-Biochemistry
Four types of Macromoclules
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Protein
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and they…
Non polar molecules that includes fats, oil, and cholesterol
A polymer made of monomers called amino acids.
Four types of Macromoclules
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Carbohydrates
Molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and they…
80 terms
SAT II Biology - Biochemistry
Atom
ground state
isotopes
radioisotopes
Consists of:... Protons (positively charged) and Neutrons (no ch…
electrons in the lowest available energy level
Atoms of one element that vary in the number of neutrons. Exa…
radioactive isotopes
Atom
Consists of:... Protons (positively charged) and Neutrons (no ch…
ground state
electrons in the lowest available energy level
26 terms
Biochemistry - AP Biology
Polar Molecule
Hydrophilic
Nonpolar Molecule
Hydrophobic
An asymmetrical molecule with a slight charge (dipole); that…
Water loving
A symmetrical or balanced molecule with no charge; hydrophobi…
Water fearing
Polar Molecule
An asymmetrical molecule with a slight charge (dipole); that…
Hydrophilic
Water loving
AP Biology- Biochemistry
ionic bond
covalent bond
nonpolar
polar
bond resulting from a transfer of electrons
bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
electrons shared equally
electrons shared unequally
ionic bond
bond resulting from a transfer of electrons
covalent bond
bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
39 terms
Biology- Biochemistry
Function of a protein
Monomer of a protein
Examples of proteins
Function of a lipid
Metabolism
Amino acids
Enzymes, hormones
Energy storage
Function of a protein
Metabolism
Monomer of a protein
Amino acids
Biology: Biochemistry
Isotope
Molecule
Radioisotope
Organic molecule
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neut…
substances composed of two or more atoms that are covalently…
an unstable isotope that decays over time by emitting radiation
a carbon-containing molecule in which carbon atoms are nearly…
Isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neut…
Molecule
substances composed of two or more atoms that are covalently…
Biology: Biochemistry
pH
Ionic bond
Catalysts
Product
measurement of acidity; related to free hydrogen ion concentr…
chemical bond formed through the electrical force between opp…
substance that decreases activation energy and increases reac…
substance formed by a chemical reaction
pH
measurement of acidity; related to free hydrogen ion concentr…
Ionic bond
chemical bond formed through the electrical force between opp…
118 terms
Biology - Biochemistry
organic compounds
pairs
inorganic compounds
carbon
contain carbon atoms that are covalently bonded to other elem…
the line represents...
do not for the most part, contain carbon atoms
four electrons in outermost shell - readily forms four covale…
organic compounds
contain carbon atoms that are covalently bonded to other elem…
pairs
the line represents...
133 terms
Biology: Biochemistry
The two types of chemical compounds
examples of inorganic compounds
organic compounds contain ______
has the ability to combine with four a…
inorganic compounds... organic compounds
HOH... NaCI
carbon
carbon
The two types of chemical compounds
inorganic compounds... organic compounds
examples of inorganic compounds
HOH... NaCI
76 terms
AP Biology-Biochemistry Review
Word Roots: -lysis
proton charge
proton mass in amu.
electron charge
split (glycolysis: the splitting of glucose into pyruvate)
+1,
1
-1
Word Roots: -lysis
split (glycolysis: the splitting of glucose into pyruvate)
proton charge
+1,
20 terms
Biology and Biochemistry
bio
hypo
multi
meta
life
under
many
between
bio
life
hypo
under
Biology and Biochemistry
Non-competitive Inhibitor
Competitive Inhibitor
Uncompetitive Inhibitor
Mixed Inhibition
-Binds at an allosteric site on an enzyme... -Vmax is reduced an…
-Binds at the active site of an enzyme... -Vmax stays the same a…
-Binds enzyme-substrate complex... -Vmax is reduced and Km is re…
-Can bind at either the active site of an enzyme with a great…
Non-competitive Inhibitor
-Binds at an allosteric site on an enzyme... -Vmax is reduced an…
Competitive Inhibitor
-Binds at the active site of an enzyme... -Vmax stays the same a…
126 terms
Biology and Biochemistry
Types of dendrites
kinesin
resting membrane potential
2 proteins required to create the rest…
unipolar... bipolar... multipolar
a motor protein that drives anterograde movement (soma to axo…
-70 mV
Na+/K+ ATPase... potassium leak channel
Types of dendrites
unipolar... bipolar... multipolar
kinesin
a motor protein that drives anterograde movement (soma to axo…
81 terms
Biology: Biochemistry
What are the most common elements in l…
What is a covalent bond?
What is an ionic bond?
What kind of bond is water?
Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon
A chemical bond where electrons are shared between the atoms
A bond between a metal and a non-metal where electrons are gi…
Covalent
What are the most common elements in l…
Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon
What is a covalent bond?
A chemical bond where electrons are shared between the atoms
51 terms
Biology - Biochemistry
cellulose
where is cellulose found?
organic
how many electrons does the outer shel…
the most abundant organic compound on Earth
in plant cell walls
carbon containing compounds
four
cellulose
the most abundant organic compound on Earth
where is cellulose found?
in plant cell walls
16 terms
Biology - Biochemistry
What are the basic building blocks of…
What is the name of a two sugar unit?
What is the several sugar unit?
3 foods that contain carbs
Monosaccharide
Disaccharide
Polysaccharide
Bread, beef, & corn
What are the basic building blocks of…
Monosaccharide
What is the name of a two sugar unit?
Disaccharide
Biology Biochemistry
If a substance if organic, it must hav…
Name the four organic (biological) mol…
How many calories per gram are found i…
What are the monomers of carbs?
Carbon and hydrogen
Nucleic Acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins
4
Monosaccharide
If a substance if organic, it must hav…
Carbon and hydrogen
Name the four organic (biological) mol…
Nucleic Acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins
Biochemistry -Biology
monomers
polymers
dehydration synthesis
hydrolysis
building blocks
made of repeated links of monomers
forms large molecules by the loss of water. Results in polyme…
the breakdown of molecules by the addition of water. Results…
monomers
building blocks
polymers
made of repeated links of monomers
17 terms
Biology Biochemistry
If a substance if organic, it must hav…
Name the four organic (biological) mol…
How many calories per gram are found i…
What are the monomers of carbs?
Carbon and hydrogen
Nucleic Acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins
4
Monosaccharide
If a substance if organic, it must hav…
Carbon and hydrogen
Name the four organic (biological) mol…
Nucleic Acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins
204 terms
Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics
Antimycin A does what
Tight junctions are composed of...
Purpose of tight junctions
Protein important in linking adjacent…
Inhibits the oxidation of co-enzyme Q by binding to complex 3
Occludins and Claudins.
Maintain cell polarity and prevent lateral diffusion. Forces…
Desmosomes
Antimycin A does what
Inhibits the oxidation of co-enzyme Q by binding to complex 3
Tight junctions are composed of...
Occludins and Claudins.
25 terms
Biology SOL Review - Biochemistry
pH
Alkaline
Cohesion
Adhesion
p(otential of) H(ydrogen); the logarithm of the reciprocal of…
relating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7
the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules in…
the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or th…
pH
p(otential of) H(ydrogen); the logarithm of the reciprocal of…
Alkaline
relating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7
39 terms
Biochemistry -Biology
monomers
polymers
dehydration synthesis
hydrolysis
building blocks
made of repeated links of monomers
forms large molecules by the loss of water
the breakdown of molecules be the addition of water
monomers
building blocks
polymers
made of repeated links of monomers
Biology: Biochemistry
Organic molecules
Single bond
Double bond
Triple bond
carbon containing molecules found in living organisms.
a bond in which 1 pair of electrons is shared between 2 atoms…
a bond in which 1 pair of electrons is shared between 2 atoms…
a bond in which 3 pair of electrons is shared between atoms (…
Organic molecules
carbon containing molecules found in living organisms.
Single bond
a bond in which 1 pair of electrons is shared between 2 atoms…
98 terms
Biology/Biochemistry
Maltose
Sucrose
Lactose
Galactose
alpha 1-4 linkage of 2 D-glucoses
alpha 1-4 linkage of alpha D-glucose and ... beta D-fructose
beta D-galactose in 1,4 linkage w D-glucose
Maltose
alpha 1-4 linkage of 2 D-glucoses
Sucrose
alpha 1-4 linkage of alpha D-glucose and ... beta D-fructose
Biology (Biochemistry)
what are reactants?
what are substrates?
what are products?
what are enzymes?
the substances going into a reaction (on the left side)
reacting molecules, this is what the enzyme functions on
the new substances that form in a chemical reaction
proteins that speed up specific chemical reactions by lowerin…
what are reactants?
the substances going into a reaction (on the left side)
what are substrates?
reacting molecules, this is what the enzyme functions on
Biology- Biochemistry
oxygen strongly __________ electrons t…
what is oxygen's strong attraction to…
how does electronegativity cause water…
what is a hydrogen bond?
attracts
electronegativity
since oxygen attracts electrons, the hydrogen atoms become sl…
the weak bond that forms from the contact of two polar molecu…
oxygen strongly __________ electrons t…
attracts
what is oxygen's strong attraction to…
electronegativity
Biology- Biochemistry
Two atoms that share electrons form wh…
What are ions?
What are ionic bonds?
What is adhesion?
Covelant
Atom or more cut weight electrical charge
Positive and negative charges attracting
Attraction between the same substance
Two atoms that share electrons form wh…
Covelant
What are ions?
Atom or more cut weight electrical charge
32 terms
Biology: Biochemistry
what is in the nucleus of an atom?
what is the charge of an electron?
what is the charge of a proton?
what is the charge of a neutron
protons and neutrons
negative
positive
neutral or no charge
what is in the nucleus of an atom?
protons and neutrons
what is the charge of an electron?
negative
Biology/Biochemistry
COPI
COPII
clathrin + adaptin 1
oxidative phosphorylation
retrograde transport from Golgi to ER
anterograde transport from ER to Golgi
golgi to lysosomes
-metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutr…
COPI
retrograde transport from Golgi to ER
COPII
anterograde transport from ER to Golgi
821 terms
Biology/Biochemistry
The backbone of DNA is this portion of…
The nonbackbone of DNA is the
Draw example of DNA structure
ATP vs. dATP
ribose + phosphate portion of the nucleotide since it is inva…
aromatic base (adenine or guanine or uracil or thymine or cyt…
ATP has an extra OH which is why d stands for deoxyadenosine
The backbone of DNA is this portion of…
ribose + phosphate portion of the nucleotide since it is inva…
The nonbackbone of DNA is the
aromatic base (adenine or guanine or uracil or thymine or cyt…
45 terms
Biology | Biochemistry
Polymer
What are the four biological macromole…
What is the protein monomer
Describe the molecular structure of an…
Large molecule made of two or more similar units
1. Nucleic Acids... 2. Carbohydrates... 3. Lipids... 4. Proteins
Amino acid
A central carbon bonded to four groups... 1. Amine group - NH2... 2…
Polymer
Large molecule made of two or more similar units
What are the four biological macromole…
1. Nucleic Acids... 2. Carbohydrates... 3. Lipids... 4. Proteins
25 terms
Biology, biochemistry
What are the most common elements?
What does the chemistry of carbon allow?
What are organic molecules and what do…
What are inorganic molecules and what…
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen. (it constitutes about 95%…
It allows the formation of an enormous variety of organic mol…
They have carbon and hydrogen; they determine structure and f…
They don't contain carbon and hydrogen together; inorganic mo…
What are the most common elements?
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen. (it constitutes about 95%…
What does the chemistry of carbon allow?
It allows the formation of an enormous variety of organic mol…
37 terms
Biology - Biochemistry
Atom
Nucleus
Protons
Neutrons
the basic unit of structure
central portion of an atom
subatomic particle with a positive charge
subatomic particle with no charge
Atom
the basic unit of structure
Nucleus
central portion of an atom
Biology Biochemistry
Activation energy
Amino acids
Carbohydrate
Catalyst
Energy input neccessary to initiate a chemical reaction.
Acids found in proteins
Molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Substance that decreases activation energy and increases reac…
Activation energy
Energy input neccessary to initiate a chemical reaction.
Amino acids
Acids found in proteins
Biology: Biochemistry
sucrose
maltose
lactose
Plants store carbohydrate energy as __…
"table sugar" glucose + fructose
"grain" glucose + glucose
"milk sugar" galactose + glucose
starch
sucrose
"table sugar" glucose + fructose
maltose
"grain" glucose + glucose
120 terms
Biochemistry: Biology
atomic #
atomic mass
atomic mass - atomic number =
atomic mass is the average of
# of protons in an atom, defines the element
# of protons + # of neutrons
# of neutrons
all isotopes of elements
atomic #
# of protons in an atom, defines the element
atomic mass
# of protons + # of neutrons
28 terms
Biology Biochemistry
Isotopes
Radioactivity
Half-life
Ions
atoms of the same element that differ in their number of neut…
Isotopes that are often so unstable that they fall apart and…
How long it takes for half of these atoms to break down to a…
Atoms of the same element that differ in their number of elec…
Isotopes
atoms of the same element that differ in their number of neut…
Radioactivity
Isotopes that are often so unstable that they fall apart and…
23 terms
Biology - Biochemistry
Characteristics of life
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Constant
DNA... Organized ... Grow... Reproduce ... Adapt... Cells... Energy ... Evolve
What the investigator changes in the experiment
What is being measured, counted or recorded
Something that stays the same throughout the experiment
Characteristics of life
DNA... Organized ... Grow... Reproduce ... Adapt... Cells... Energy ... Evolve
Independent variable
What the investigator changes in the experiment
22 terms
Biology Biochemistry
element
compound
six common elements that make up livin…
subatomic particles
a substance that is made up of the same type of atom
contains the atoms of two or more elements
1. Carbon 2. Hydrogen 3. Oxygen 4. Nitrogen 5. Phosphorus 6.…
Proton, Neutron, and Electron
element
a substance that is made up of the same type of atom
compound
contains the atoms of two or more elements
30 terms
Biology biochemistry
Atom
Molecule
Molecular formula
Organic compound
The basic building block of matter
A group of atoms bonded together
The number of atoms of an element in a compound
Any compound with carbon
Atom
The basic building block of matter
Molecule
A group of atoms bonded together
33 terms
Biology Biochemistry
Organic compound
4
Carbon skelton
Hydrocarbons
carbon-based compounds that also contain hydrogen; found in t…
Carbon has 4 valence electrons and will form how many covalen…
shows a large versatility of organic backbone; forms single,…
molecules made of only carbon and hydrogen; nonpolar
Organic compound
carbon-based compounds that also contain hydrogen; found in t…
4
Carbon has 4 valence electrons and will form how many covalen…
59 terms
Biology Biochemistry
Organic compounds have
Monomers
Polymers
All of the 4 major Macromolecules are…
Carbon
Single units
Units joined together
1) monomers... 2)polymers
Organic compounds have
Carbon
Monomers
Single units
34 terms
Biology: Biochemistry
Atom
Element
Compound
Molecule
Basic unit of a chemical element
Substance consisting of atoms which have the same number of p…
Substance formed when two or more chemical elemtns are chemic…
A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest f…
Atom
Basic unit of a chemical element
Element
Substance consisting of atoms which have the same number of p…
46 terms
Biology Biochemistry
5
Unsaturated
Amino acids
Cohesion
An atom has 5 protons, 4 neutrons, and 5 electrons. What is t…
Which of the following types of lipids exists as a liquid at…
Which of these are considered the building blocks of proteins?
What is the term that means "the bonding between two of the s…
5
An atom has 5 protons, 4 neutrons, and 5 electrons. What is t…
Unsaturated
Which of the following types of lipids exists as a liquid at…
Biology- Biochemistry
Nucleus
Neutrons
monosaccharide
isotope
Positively charged center of an atom composed of neutrons and…
Particles with no charge
The simplest form of a carbohydrate. Glucose and fructose are…
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neut…
Nucleus
Positively charged center of an atom composed of neutrons and…
Neutrons
Particles with no charge
30 terms
biology- biochemistry
carbohydrates
monosaccharides
disaccharide
polysaccaharides
sugars and polymers
mono- single, sacchar- sugars
2 monosaccharides joined together by glysocidic linkage colva…
polymers with a few hundred/ thousand monosaccharides joined…
carbohydrates
sugars and polymers
monosaccharides
mono- single, sacchar- sugars
132 terms
Biology/Biochemistry
What enzyme releases excessive stress…
Outline the steps of DNA replication
Which proteins synthesize RNA primers…
New DNA nucleotides are added in what…
Topoisomerase. ... T1 cuts 1 strand, T2 does both.
- specific proteins (DnaA for prokaryotes and a group of prot…
primosome.
dNTP
What enzyme releases excessive stress…
Topoisomerase. ... T1 cuts 1 strand, T2 does both.
Outline the steps of DNA replication
- specific proteins (DnaA for prokaryotes and a group of prot…
BIOLOGY BIOCHEMISTRY
ground state
excited state
ionic bonds
anion
electrons in lowest available energy level
electrons in higher energy level
bonds that form when electrons are transferred
a negative ion
ground state
electrons in lowest available energy level
excited state
electrons in higher energy level
23 terms
Biology: Biochemistry
Ion
Isotope
Molecule
Enzyme
Atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
Form of an element that has the same number of protons but a…
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds; not necess…
Protein that catalyzes chemical reactions for organisms
Ion
Atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
Isotope
Form of an element that has the same number of protons but a…
20 terms
Biology-biochemistry
Chemical Reactions
Metabolism
Buffers
Organic Molecules
When bonds between atoms are formed or broken,it requires ene…
All the chemical reactions that occur inside an organism
We have this in the blood to protect against large changes in…
It contains carbon; instead, all living things have carbon.
Chemical Reactions
When bonds between atoms are formed or broken,it requires ene…
Metabolism
All the chemical reactions that occur inside an organism
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