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Study sets matching "biology cells chapter 4"

19 terms
Biology: Chapter 4 - Cells and Energy
ATP
ADP
chemosynthesis
photosynthesis
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an…
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy…
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
ADP
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
15 terms
Biology: Chapter 4 - Cells and Energy
ATP
ADP
chemosynthesis
photosynthesis
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an…
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy…
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
ADP
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
19 terms
Biology: Chapter 4 - Cells and Energy
ATP
ADP
chemosynthesis
photosynthesis
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an…
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy…
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
ADP
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
19 terms
Biology: Chapter 4 - Cells and Energy
ATP
ADP
chemosynthesis
photosynthesis
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an…
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy…
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
ADP
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
25 terms
Biology: Chapter 4 - Cells and Energy
ATP
ADP
chemosynthesis
photosynthesis
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an…
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy…
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
ADP
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
Biology: Chapter 4 - Cells and Energy
ATP
ADP
chemosynthesis
photosynthesis
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an…
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy…
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
ADP
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
94 terms
AP Biology Chapter 4: Tour of the Cell
Typical size of a eukaryotic cell
Typical size of prokaryotic cell
3 principles in of cell theory
Why are cells so small
10-100 micrometer in diameter
1-10 micrometer in diameter
1. All organisms are made up of one or more cells and the lif…
Because if a cell becomes too big, it would be nearly impossi…
Typical size of a eukaryotic cell
10-100 micrometer in diameter
Typical size of prokaryotic cell
1-10 micrometer in diameter
52 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Biology
light microscope (LM)
electronic microscope
scanning electron microscopes (SEMs)
transmission electron microscopes (TEMs)
visible light passes through a specimen and then through glas…
shoots electrons in a vacuum, two types
focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen
focus a beam of electrons through a specimen
light microscope (LM)
visible light passes through a specimen and then through glas…
electronic microscope
shoots electrons in a vacuum, two types
44 terms
Biology Chapter 4: Cell
Cell theroy
ctyoplasm
nucleus
organelle
theory that all organisms consists of one or more cells, whic…
semi-fluid substance enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane... se…
of a eukaryotic cell, organelle with a double membrane that h…
structure that carries out a specialized metabolic function i…
Cell theroy
theory that all organisms consists of one or more cells, whic…
ctyoplasm
semi-fluid substance enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane... se…
Biology: Chapter 4 - Cells and Energy (w/images)
ATP
ADP
chemosynthesis
photosynthesis
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an…
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy…
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
ADP
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
30 terms
Chapter 4 Cell Biology
Chapter 4 Cell Biology Flash Cards
Cell
Cell Size
Cell Shape
USE THESE!!!!!!!!
Smallest unit that can carry on all of the processes of life
limited to its surface area-to-volume ratio
Reflects its Function
Chapter 4 Cell Biology Flash Cards
USE THESE!!!!!!!!
Cell
Smallest unit that can carry on all of the processes of life
45 terms
Cell Biology Chapter 4
Active site
Allosteric
alpha helix
Amino acid sequence
Region on the surface of an enzyme that binds to a substrate…
Describes a protein that can exist in multiple conformations…
Folding pattern, common in many proteins, in which a single p…
The order of the amino acid subunits in a protein chain. Some…
Active site
Region on the surface of an enzyme that binds to a substrate…
Allosteric
Describes a protein that can exist in multiple conformations…
60 terms
Biology Chapter 4 Cells and Energy
chemical energy
ATP
food
phosphate group is removed
All cells need
Chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by
Energy to make ATP comes from
Energy carried by ATP is released when
chemical energy
All cells need
ATP
Chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by
64 terms
Chapter 4 Cell Biology
What is a polypeptide chain?
What is the polypeptide backbone made…
What keeps a protein folded?
What atoms are involved in the folding…
A chain of proteins connected by covalent peptide bonds (poly…
A repeating sequence of atoms found in every amino acid (-N-C…
Many weak noncovalent bonds that form within the protein.
Atoms in the polypeptide backbone and the amino acid side cha…
What is a polypeptide chain?
A chain of proteins connected by covalent peptide bonds (poly…
What is the polypeptide backbone made…
A repeating sequence of atoms found in every amino acid (-N-C…
39 terms
Chapter 4 Biology CELLS
Cell
Cells can do the following things
Robert Hooke
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
The basic unit of life. This is the smallest part of God's cr…
1. Can take in substances from their environment and organize…
The term "cell" came from his examination of a thin slice of…
The first scientist to observe living cells. Called "Father o…
Cell
The basic unit of life. This is the smallest part of God's cr…
Cells can do the following things
1. Can take in substances from their environment and organize…
70 terms
Chapter 4 - Biology of the cell
membrane proteins
structural classifications
functional classifications
plasma membrane
- has 2 structural classifications = integral proteins & peri…
- integral proteins... - peripheral proteins
- transport proteins, receptors, identity markers, enzymes, a…
- forms the outer, limiting barrier separating the internal c…
membrane proteins
- has 2 structural classifications = integral proteins & peri…
structural classifications
- integral proteins... - peripheral proteins
30 terms
Biology Chapter 4: The Cell
Homeostasis
Compartments
Cell
Eukaryotes
maintaining dynamic equilibrium in living systems
complex organisms contain many smaller compartments, each wit…
the basic unit of life
higher cells based on cellular complexity; have a nucleus, ab…
Homeostasis
maintaining dynamic equilibrium in living systems
Compartments
complex organisms contain many smaller compartments, each wit…
150 terms
Chapter 4: Biology of the Cell
phospholipid bilayer
phospholipid
interstitial fluid
cholesterol
basic structure of the plasma membrane, ensures cytosol remai…
know as balloons with 2 head. They are made up of two fatty a…
fluid that surrounds cells... (also known extracellular fluid)
scattered within phospholipid bilayer, strengthens the membra…
phospholipid bilayer
basic structure of the plasma membrane, ensures cytosol remai…
phospholipid
know as balloons with 2 head. They are made up of two fatty a…
237 terms
Chapter 4: Biology of the Cell
All body processes depend on what?
Cells
What is crucial to understanding human…
Cytology
Cellular Activity
Functional Units of the Body
understanding cell structure and function
Study of Cells (kytos=cells)
All body processes depend on what?
Cellular Activity
Cells
Functional Units of the Body
117 terms
Biology Chapter 4 - The Cell
When were light microscopes first used?
What is a light microscope?
What does a light microscope use?
Magnification of Light Microscope
1600s
Is an instrument that uses visible light and magnifying lense…
A beam of light shone through the specimen
1000x Magnification
When were light microscopes first used?
1600s
What is a light microscope?
Is an instrument that uses visible light and magnifying lense…
33 terms
Chapter 4: Biology of the cell
Describe the range in size in human ce…
Describe the three main structural fea…
Difference between cytoplasm and cytosol
List the lipid components of the plasm…
Most cells in the body are between 1 micrometer (um) and 100…
*plasma membrane - forms the outer limiting barrier separatin…
*cytoplasm - cellular content located between the plasma memb…
*phospholipids - phospholipid bilayer: basic structure of the…
Describe the range in size in human ce…
Most cells in the body are between 1 micrometer (um) and 100…
Describe the three main structural fea…
*plasma membrane - forms the outer limiting barrier separatin…
23 terms
Biology: Cells Chapter 4
Robert Hooke
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Matthias Schleiden
Theodor Schwann
Coined the term "cell"
1st to observe living cells
Concluded that all plants are composed of cells
Concluded that all animals are composed of cells
Robert Hooke
Coined the term "cell"
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
1st to observe living cells
Cell & Molecular Biology Chapter 4
Cytoplasm
Microfilament
Bacteria
Pseudopodia
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of t…
Thin fibers consisting of actin protein subunits; form part o…
Prokaryotic organisms that have peptidoglycan in their cell w…
A temporary extension of an amoeboid cell that is used for fe…
Cytoplasm
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of t…
Microfilament
Thin fibers consisting of actin protein subunits; form part o…
19 terms
Biology: Chapter 4 - Cells and Energy
ATP
ADP
chemosynthesis
photosynthesis
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an…
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy…
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
ADP
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
52 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Biology
light microscope (LM)
electronic microscope
scanning electron microscopes (SEMs)
transmission electron microscopes (TEMs)
visible light passes through a specimen and then through glas…
shoots electrons in a vacuum, two types
focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen
focus a beam of electrons through a specimen
light microscope (LM)
visible light passes through a specimen and then through glas…
electronic microscope
shoots electrons in a vacuum, two types
39 terms
Chapter 4 Biology CELLS
Cell
Cells can do the following things
Robert Hooke
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
The basic unit of life. This is the smallest part of God's cr…
1. Can take in substances from their environment and organize…
The term "cell" came from his examination of a thin slice of…
The first scientist to observe living cells. Called "Father o…
Cell
The basic unit of life. This is the smallest part of God's cr…
Cells can do the following things
1. Can take in substances from their environment and organize…
49 terms
Biology Chapter 4: Cells
-All living things are made of cells... -…
first to view and draw plant (cork) ce…
first to view living cells
concluded all plants are made of cells
List the three parts of the cell theory.
What did Robert Hooke do?
What did Leeuwenhoek do?
What did Schleiden do?
-All living things are made of cells... -…
List the three parts of the cell theory.
first to view and draw plant (cork) ce…
What did Robert Hooke do?
53 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Biology
light microscope (LM)
electronic microscope
scanning electron microscopes (SEMs)
transmission electron microscopes (TEMs)
visible light passes through a specimen and then through glas…
shoots electrons in a vacuum, two types
focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen
focus a beam of electrons through a specimen
light microscope (LM)
visible light passes through a specimen and then through glas…
electronic microscope
shoots electrons in a vacuum, two types
30 terms
Biology Chapter 4 CELLS
Cell Size
Fluid Mosiac Model
Lipid Bilayer
Cell Surface Proteins
Surface to Volume Ratio ... Volume grows faster than surface are…
How we conceptualize the plasma membrane... A sheet of lipids an…
Forms spontaneously whenever phosholipids are put in water... In…
Act as markers to identify specific types of cells
Cell Size
Surface to Volume Ratio ... Volume grows faster than surface are…
Fluid Mosiac Model
How we conceptualize the plasma membrane... A sheet of lipids an…
22 terms
Biology Chapter 4 Cells
Nucleus
chromatin
nuclear membrane... (nuclear envelope)
nucleolus
The organelle of a eukaryotic cell that contains the genetic…
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chro…
A double membrane that encloses the nucleus, perforated with…
A structure within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is made an…
Nucleus
The organelle of a eukaryotic cell that contains the genetic…
chromatin
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chro…
55 terms
Cell Biology Chapter 4
archaea
methaogens
halophiles
limitations of cell size
include many species that live in extreme habitats on Earth a…
an archaea that obtains energy form hydrogen while converting…
an archaea that can grow in extremely salty environments.
1. the requirement for an adequate surface area/volume ratio.…
archaea
include many species that live in extreme habitats on Earth a…
methaogens
an archaea that obtains energy form hydrogen while converting…
39 terms
Chapter 4 Biology: Cells
Cell Theory
Cell
Robert Hooke
Anton Von Leeuvonhoek
-All life forms are composed of cells... -Cells reproduce from p…
smallest unit that can carry on all of the processes of life
-used a light microscope... -dead cells... -1655
-living cells... -1673... -precise microscopes (10 times more magni…
Cell Theory
-All life forms are composed of cells... -Cells reproduce from p…
Cell
smallest unit that can carry on all of the processes of life
Cell & Molecular Biology Chapter 4
Cytoplasm
Microfilament
Bacteria
Pseudopodia
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of t…
Thin fibers of actin protein subunits; from part of the cytos…
Prokaryotic organisms that have peptidoglycan in their cell w…
A temporary extension of an amoeboid cell that is used for fe…
Cytoplasm
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of t…
Microfilament
Thin fibers of actin protein subunits; from part of the cytos…
84 terms
Chapter 4 - Biology of the cell
Cytology
Light microscope (LM)
Electron Microscope (EM)
Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
study of cells
-produces a 2D image by passing visible light through the spe…
-Uses a beam of electrons to "illuminate" the specimen... -provi…
-directs an electron beam through a thin-cut section of the s…
Cytology
study of cells
Light microscope (LM)
-produces a 2D image by passing visible light through the spe…
Biology: Chapter 4 cells
1.ATP
2.ADP
3.chemosynthesis
4.photosynthesis
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an…
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy…
1.ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
2.ADP
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
109 terms
Cell and Molecular Biology, Chapter 4
Plasma membrane
Plasma membrane is not detectable with…
The 2 dark-staining layers in the elec…
All membranes examined closely from pl…
The outer boundary of the cell that separates it from the wor…
..light microscope; need electron microscope
...the inner and outer polar surfaces of the bilayer
...the same ultrastructure
Plasma membrane
The outer boundary of the cell that separates it from the wor…
Plasma membrane is not detectable with…
..light microscope; need electron microscope
Cell biology Chapter 4
Disulfide bonds
How do proteins work
enzymes bind to
other molecules bind to
1. convalent bond between two cysteine resides... 2. make molecu…
1. binding to other molecules
substrates
ligands
Disulfide bonds
1. convalent bond between two cysteine resides... 2. make molecu…
How do proteins work
1. binding to other molecules
121 terms
Chapter 4: Biology of the Cell
cytology
light microscope (LM)
electron microscope (EM)
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
the study of cells
produces a two-dimensional image by passing visible light thr…
uses a beam of electrons to "illuminate" the specimen. easily…
directs an electron beam through the thin-cut section of the…
cytology
the study of cells
light microscope (LM)
produces a two-dimensional image by passing visible light thr…
121 terms
Chapter 4: Biology of the Cell
cytology
light microscope (LM)
electron microscope (EM)
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
the study of cells
produces a two-dimensional image by passing visible light thr…
uses a beam of electrons to "illuminate" the specimen. easily…
directs an electron beam through the thin-cut section of the…
cytology
the study of cells
light microscope (LM)
produces a two-dimensional image by passing visible light thr…
33 terms
Chapter 4 Biology - THE CELL
Cell
Cell Theory
Plasma Membrane
nucleus
Basic unit of life
the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and fun…
A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boun…
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for…
Cell
Basic unit of life
Cell Theory
the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and fun…
27 terms
Chapter 4 Biology - THE CELL
Cell
Cell Theory
Plasma Membrane
nucleus
Basic unit of life
the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and fun…
A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boun…
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for…
Cell
Basic unit of life
Cell Theory
the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and fun…
32 terms
Biology Chapter 4: Tour of the Cell
Prokaryotic Cell
Eukaryotic Cell
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
has no nucleus, so the DNA is stored in nucleoid, no chloropl…
DNA is found in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts (…
has a cell wall, 1 large vacuole, chloroplasts, smooth edges.…
no cell wall, has many small vacuoles, varies in shape, rigid…
Prokaryotic Cell
has no nucleus, so the DNA is stored in nucleoid, no chloropl…
Eukaryotic Cell
DNA is found in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts (…
15 terms
Biology - Chapter 4: Cells and Energy
ATP
ADP
Chemosynthesis
Photosynthesis
High energy molecule that contains, within its bonds, energy…
Low energy molecule that can be converted to ATP.
Process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an…
Process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy…
ATP
High energy molecule that contains, within its bonds, energy…
ADP
Low energy molecule that can be converted to ATP.
19 terms
Biology: Chapter 4 - Cells and Energy
ATP
ADP
chemosynthesis
photosynthesis
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an…
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy…
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
ADP
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
74 terms
Cell Biology Chapter 4
Insulin
Carboxylase
Rhodopsin
Hemoglobin
Signal Protein
Enzyme
Receptor
Transport
Insulin
Signal Protein
Carboxylase
Enzyme
25 terms
Biology Chapter 4 - Cell Diagram
plasma membrane
cytoplasm
mitochondrion
secretory vesicle
lipid bilayer in which proteins are embedded
semifluid matrix that contains the nucleus and other organelles
organelles in which energy is extracted from food during oxid…
vesicle fusing with the plasma membrane, releasing materials…
plasma membrane
lipid bilayer in which proteins are embedded
cytoplasm
semifluid matrix that contains the nucleus and other organelles
33 terms
Biology Chapter 4: Cell Structure
3 Main Principles of Cell Theory
Matthias Schleiden & Theodor Schwaan
Why are cells small in size?
Bright-field Microscope
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells.... 2. Cells…
Fully recognized that plants and animals are composed of cells.
It's more efficient in rate of diffusion
compound light; most frequently used; called this because it…
3 Main Principles of Cell Theory
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells.... 2. Cells…
Matthias Schleiden & Theodor Schwaan
Fully recognized that plants and animals are composed of cells.
19 terms
Biology Chapter 4 cells and energy
ATP
ADP
phototsynethesis
Chlorophyll
energy currency for life
Nucleotide C10H15N5O10P2
is a process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugar…
Green pigment
ATP
energy currency for life
ADP
Nucleotide C10H15N5O10P2
91 terms
Cell Biology (Ch.4)
The Functions of a cell:
Plasma Membrane
Which side of the plasma membrane is p…
Glycocalyx
-cell metabolism and energy use... -synthesis of molecules... -comm…
separates intracellular vs. extracellular materials
Outside
combination of carbohydates, glycolipids, and glycoproteins o…
The Functions of a cell:
-cell metabolism and energy use... -synthesis of molecules... -comm…
Plasma Membrane
separates intracellular vs. extracellular materials
19 terms
Biology: Chapter 4 - Cells and Energy
ATP
ADP
chemosynthesis
photosynthesis
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an…
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy…
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) high-energy molecule that contains,…
ADP
(adenosine diphosphate) low-energy molecule that can be conve…
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