Study sets matching "biology exam 2"

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Study sets matching "biology exam 2"

Biology Exam 2
Carbohydrates
Carb Monomers
Carb Polymers
Monomers --> Polysachharides... (Linkage)
CHO
Monosaccharides
Polysaccharides
Glycosidic Linkage
Carbohydrates
CHO
Carb Monomers
Monosaccharides
44 terms
Biology Exam 2
Membranes are composed of what?
Fluid mosaic
Unsaturated fatty acids
Selective permeability
Phospholipids and proteins
Membranes are described as this. This means that the surface…
Many phospholipids are made of them. Have kinks in their tail…
In Membranes: Nonpolar molecules (carbon dioxide and oxygen)…
Membranes are composed of what?
Phospholipids and proteins
Fluid mosaic
Membranes are described as this. This means that the surface…
48 terms
Exam 2: Biology 111
What are the three components of the C…
Three Categories of Life:
Prokaryotic Cells consist of:... Eukaryot…
Inside the plasma membrane of a normal…
1) All living things are made of one or more cells... 2) Cells a…
Prokarya, Bacteria, Archaea
Bacteria and Archaea... Eukarya
-Cytoplasm... -Nucleoid region... -Ribosomes which make proteins
What are the three components of the C…
1) All living things are made of one or more cells... 2) Cells a…
Three Categories of Life:
Prokarya, Bacteria, Archaea
biology 1020: exam 2
alternation of generations
sporophyte
gametophyte
vegetative growth
the cycle which plants undergo
part of life cycle is spent as diploid sporophyte, which prod…
part of life cycle is spent as diploid gametophyte, which pro…
life cycle of grass plant
alternation of generations
the cycle which plants undergo
sporophyte
part of life cycle is spent as diploid sporophyte, which prod…
136 terms
Biology Exam 2
Organic compounds
Hydrocarbons
Isomers
Butane vs isobutane
Any compound that contains two or more carbon atoms... -carbon a…
are compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms... ex: metha…
are compounds with the same chemical formula but different st…
Both gases.... Except butane is a colorless flammable gas... and Is…
Organic compounds
Any compound that contains two or more carbon atoms... -carbon a…
Hydrocarbons
are compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms... ex: metha…
Biology Exam 2
Cell
Cell Theory
Anton van Leewenhoek
Robert Hooke
basic unit of all forms of life
fundamental concept of biology that states that all living th…
Dutch lens maker who developed the first simple microscope
the scientist who conceived cell theory
Cell
basic unit of all forms of life
Cell Theory
fundamental concept of biology that states that all living th…
113 terms
Biology 101 Exam 2
Denaturation
Enzymes
Metabolism
Energy
Process of unzipping protein - leads to a loss of activity -…
Proteins that can catalyze biochemical reactions - lower ener…
Input and output of energy
Ability to do work - cannot be created or destroyed
Denaturation
Process of unzipping protein - leads to a loss of activity -…
Enzymes
Proteins that can catalyze biochemical reactions - lower ener…
Biology Exam 2
Oxidation
Reduction
ATP
NAD
Loss of electrons
Gain of electrons
Adenosine Triphosphate (Adenine, Ribose + 3 Phosphates)
An organic molecule that serves as an electron carrier by bei…
Oxidation
Loss of electrons
Reduction
Gain of electrons
20 terms
Biology 171 - Exam 2
Disruptive intrasexual selection
Stabilizing intrasexual selection
Balancing selection
cryptic (hidden) female choice
individuals with extreme phenotypes increase fitness (reprodu…
individuals with intermediate phenotypes increase the fitness…
maintains genetic variation (i.e., multiple alleles in a popu…
form of intersexual selection where females mate with many ma…
Disruptive intrasexual selection
individuals with extreme phenotypes increase fitness (reprodu…
Stabilizing intrasexual selection
individuals with intermediate phenotypes increase the fitness…
199 terms
Biology Exam 2
amphipathic molecules
fluid mosaic model
As temperature cools, membrane switch…
The temperature at which a membrane so…
phospholipids containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
states that membrane is a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of…
True
True
amphipathic molecules
phospholipids containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
fluid mosaic model
states that membrane is a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of…
Biology Exam 2
A ____ is characterized by having cell…
The type of cell connection that stren…
When an animal cell is placed in to a…
If a solution A has a 500 mOSM solutio…
animal
desmosome
lyse or swell
Solution A is hyper-osmotic to solution B
A ____ is characterized by having cell…
animal
The type of cell connection that stren…
desmosome
Biology 1009 - Exam 2
Genotype
Phenotype
Sister Chromatids
Homologous Chromosomes (homologs)
the genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism
The observable physical and physiological traits of an organi…
Two copies of a duplicated chromosome attached to each other…
A pair of chromosomes of the same length, centromere position…
Genotype
the genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism
Phenotype
The observable physical and physiological traits of an organi…
94 terms
Biology 101 - Exam 2
Light Microscope
Magnification
Resolution
Contrast
An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible…
Make appear larger than it is, especially with a lens or micr…
A measurement - usually expressed in linear dots per inch (dp…
A principle of design referring to the difference in brightne…
Light Microscope
An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible…
Magnification
Make appear larger than it is, especially with a lens or micr…
111 terms
Biology 110 Exam 2
Sexual reproduction
Somatic cells
Asexual reproduction
What is sex?
=A reproductive process that involves two parents that combin…
=Any cells in the body other than reproductive cells
=a form of reproduction where a single individual is the sole…
=the exchange or recombination of genetic information... -does n…
Sexual reproduction
=A reproductive process that involves two parents that combin…
Somatic cells
=Any cells in the body other than reproductive cells
125 terms
Developmental Biology Exam 2
What four things are released by corti…
Mammalian Zona Reaction
Initiation of Cortical Reaction
Mechanism of Calcium wave
CGSP - clips attachments holding envelope to cell and Bindin…
-No fertilization envelope "elevated"... -ZP2 cleaved by ovastac…
Calcium wave - influxe of Ca and fertilization envelope lifts…
-PLC cleaves PIP2 into IP3 and DAG... -IP3 binds to receptor on…
What four things are released by corti…
CGSP - clips attachments holding envelope to cell and Bindin…
Mammalian Zona Reaction
-No fertilization envelope "elevated"... -ZP2 cleaved by ovastac…
155 terms
Biology exam 2
surface-to-volume ratio
surface area
volume
eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are m…
small size of cells is dictated by a physical relationship ... a…
height x width x number of sides
height x width x length
micrometers, which is 10^-6 meters
surface-to-volume ratio
small size of cells is dictated by a physical relationship ... a…
surface area
height x width x number of sides
Biology 2 Exam 2
Organization of Vertebrate Body
1) Cardiac Muscle Cell 2) Cardiac Musc…
Tissues
Connective Tissue
There are four levels of cellular organization:... Cells ----> T…
The following levels of organization are seen in the MOST IMP…
___________ are groups of cells that are similar in structure…
The main function of ____________ tissue is to bind and/or su…
Organization of Vertebrate Body
There are four levels of cellular organization:... Cells ----> T…
1) Cardiac Muscle Cell 2) Cardiac Musc…
The following levels of organization are seen in the MOST IMP…
21 terms
Biology Exam 2
Prokaryote
Eukaryotic
Animal cell
plant cell
small, simple, example bacteria
large complex cell, example plant and animal
contains centriole and lysosome specific to this cell
cell wall, large vacuole, chloroplast specific to this cell
Prokaryote
small, simple, example bacteria
Eukaryotic
large complex cell, example plant and animal
13 terms
Biology Exam 2
Ecology
ecosystem
two main components of ecosystem
Second Law of Thermodynamics
study of interaction between organisms and their environment
all living organisms in environment and physical and chemical…
abiotic environment=physical traits... biotic environment=reside…
some energy is lost every time it is changed from one form to…
Ecology
study of interaction between organisms and their environment
ecosystem
all living organisms in environment and physical and chemical…
Biology exam 2
Nucleotides
The four nitrogen bases are
Purines
Pyrimidines
Polymers that make up DNA made up of Deoxyribose, a phosphate…
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine
Double rings and are Adenine and Guanine
Single ring and are Cytosine and Thymine
Nucleotides
Polymers that make up DNA made up of Deoxyribose, a phosphate…
The four nitrogen bases are
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine
Biology Exam 2
parsimony
homoplasy
homology
monophyletic
phylogenous trees should be built to have the fewest possible…
a characteristic shared by a set of species but not by their…
shared characteristics or genes between species with a common…
a group of organisms that consists of an ancestral species an…
parsimony
phylogenous trees should be built to have the fewest possible…
homoplasy
a characteristic shared by a set of species but not by their…
Marine Biology Exam 2
Fisheries
Types of fishing Techniques
Types of hooking lines?
Types of Nets?
typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species o…
1. Hooking:long lines with rows of hooks... 2. Nets:large drift…
1. Drift Nets 2. Set Nets 3. Purse Seine ... 4. Bottom otter tra…
Fisheries
typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species o…
Types of fishing Techniques
1. Hooking:long lines with rows of hooks... 2. Nets:large drift…
63 terms
Mastering Biology Exam 2
In eukaryotic cells the first step in…
Which organelle plays a role in intrac…
Where is the genetic information of th…
The structural framework in a cell is…
transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA
Lysosome
Nucleus
Cytoskeleton
In eukaryotic cells the first step in…
transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA
Which organelle plays a role in intrac…
Lysosome
243 terms
Biology 1020 Exam 2
aqueous environments
plasma membrane
regulated, outside environment
Enzymes
Membranes separate _________ ____________, so that difference…
The ______ _________ surrounds the cell and separates the int…
Passage of substances across membranes is generally _________…
Many _________ are embedded in membranes. They help make reac…
aqueous environments
Membranes separate _________ ____________, so that difference…
plasma membrane
The ______ _________ surrounds the cell and separates the int…
49 terms
Biology 211 Exam 2
Animals
Characteristics of Animals
Features of Animals Life Cycles
Animal Embryonic Development
- Monophyletic clade... - Most well studied group
- Multi-cellular, chemoorganoheterotrophs, eukaryotes ... - Obta…
- Most reproduce only sexually w/ diploid stage prominent ... -…
- Zygote --> eight cell stage -->blastula --> gastrulation --…
Animals
- Monophyletic clade... - Most well studied group
Characteristics of Animals
- Multi-cellular, chemoorganoheterotrophs, eukaryotes ... - Obta…
70 terms
Biology Exam 2
Nucleic Acids
Two types of nucleic acids
monomers
polymers
Mold genetic information, including information needed to mak…
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
nucleotides
polynucleotides
Nucleic Acids
Mold genetic information, including information needed to mak…
Two types of nucleic acids
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Biology Exam 2
Matter
Atom
Element
Nucleus
anything that occupies space and mass
Smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of…
Substance that cannot be broken down into other substances
center region
Matter
anything that occupies space and mass
Atom
Smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of…
Biology Exam 2
Prokaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic Cells
Phospholipid bilayer
Diffusion
Bacteria or archaea cells whose DNA is not enclosed within a…
All other cells. Cells whose primary complement of DNA is enc…
chief component of the plasma membrane composed of two layers…
movement of molecules or ions from a region of their higher c…
Prokaryotic Cells
Bacteria or archaea cells whose DNA is not enclosed within a…
Eukaryotic Cells
All other cells. Cells whose primary complement of DNA is enc…
Biology 140 Exam 2
Kinetic energy
potential energy
first law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
heat and thermal energy... energy of motion
bond, chemical, and stored energy
energy can be transformed from one form to another or transfe…
every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy…
Kinetic energy
heat and thermal energy... energy of motion
potential energy
bond, chemical, and stored energy
Biology Exam 2
Skeletal System
Circulatory System
Respiratory System
206
Supports body and anchors muscles
transports substances throughout body
Exhanges O2 and CO2 between blood and air
How many bones are in the Skeletal system?
Skeletal System
Supports body and anchors muscles
Circulatory System
transports substances throughout body
Biology Exam 2
Cells
Cell theory
3 Truths about Cells
All cells have...
smallest unit of life
the theory that explains that all living organisms are made p…
1. All living things are made up of cells ... 2. Cells are the b…
1. Cell Membrane... 2.Cytoplasm... 3. DNA, RNA, proteins and other…
Cells
smallest unit of life
Cell theory
the theory that explains that all living organisms are made p…
141 terms
BIOLOGY EXAM 2
All organisms are made of
Though cells can differ substantially…
All cells are related by their descent…
Cell Theory
Cells
they share common features
earlier cells
1.All living things are made up of cell(s) .2.Cells are the b…
All organisms are made of
Cells
Though cells can differ substantially…
they share common features
Exam 2 Biology
the recipes for proteins
Double Helix
Base Pairing
Using one strand as the template
Why is DNA calle blueprint of life?
DNA Structure
The process by which DNA is copied from the template strand
how do cells maintain accuracy of DNA
the recipes for proteins
Why is DNA calle blueprint of life?
Double Helix
DNA Structure
79 terms
Biology Exam 2
genome
Prokaryotes with DNA
Eukaryotes with DNA
What compacts DNA?
-all of the genetic material of an organism that is transferr…
-single DNA molecule... -in nucleoid (no barrier)
-have chromosomes (humans 23)... -genome carries 6 billion base…
histones (DNA wraps around)
genome
-all of the genetic material of an organism that is transferr…
Prokaryotes with DNA
-single DNA molecule... -in nucleoid (no barrier)
152 terms
Biology 1 Exam 2
Eukaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic Cell
Nucleus
Nucleous
Cell with a nucleus
Cell without a nucleus
-Contains most of the genes... -Doubled nuclear membrane with po…
-Within Nucleus... - Produces Ribosomes(10,000/min)
Eukaryotic Cell
Cell with a nucleus
Prokaryotic Cell
Cell without a nucleus
200 terms
Biology Exam 2
Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration... 4 pr…
Glycolysis
Pyruvate Processing
Citric Acid Cycle
1. Glycolysis (cytosol) ... 2. Pyruvate Processing (mitochondria…
1 molecule of glucose yields: ... - 2 ATPs from phosphorylation…
2 Pyruvates( 3-C) yields:... - 2 COs ... - 2 NADH from reduction of…
2 Acetyl CoAs (4-C) are oxidized to yield: ... - 6 NADH ... - 2 FAD…
Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration... 4 pr…
1. Glycolysis (cytosol) ... 2. Pyruvate Processing (mitochondria…
Glycolysis
1 molecule of glucose yields: ... - 2 ATPs from phosphorylation…
59 terms
Biology Vocab Exam 2
Metabolism
Metabolic Pathways
Catabolic Pathway
Anabolic Pathway
the totality of an organisms chemical reactions
chain of chemical reactions beginning with a specific molecul…
chemical properties that release energy and break things down…
pathway that uses energy to build things up (protein synthesis)
Metabolism
the totality of an organisms chemical reactions
Metabolic Pathways
chain of chemical reactions beginning with a specific molecul…
135 terms
Biology 171 Exam 2
chlorophyll
mesophyll
stomata
thylakoids
green pigment within chloroplasts
interior tissue of the leaf in which chloroplasts are mainly…
microscopic pores through which CO2 enters and O2 exits
membranous sacs in chloroplasts whose membranes house chlorop…
chlorophyll
green pigment within chloroplasts
mesophyll
interior tissue of the leaf in which chloroplasts are mainly…
46 terms
Biology exam 2
Mitosis
Meiosis
Difference between mitosis and meiosis
Interphase
Cell splits and creates perfect copy-2
Sex cells reproduce- creates 4 haploid cells
No crossing over in Mitosis, number difference
90% g1, s, g2
Mitosis
Cell splits and creates perfect copy-2
Meiosis
Sex cells reproduce- creates 4 haploid cells
130 terms
Biology 2107 Exam 2
Lipids
Lipids Function
Saturated
Unsaturated
Triglycerides (backbone)... 3 Fatty Acids... - long chain of hydro…
Cell stores energy for long term in form of fats... Provide insu…
Has maximum number of Hydrogens... Solidifies at room temperatu…
Has double bonds with Carbon and does NOT have max number of…
Lipids
Triglycerides (backbone)... 3 Fatty Acids... - long chain of hydro…
Lipids Function
Cell stores energy for long term in form of fats... Provide insu…
Biology Exam 2
Fluid Mosaic Model
Spontaneously
Liposome
Vesicle
The general structure of the membrane; phospholipid bilayer i…
Lipids maintain a bilayer organization.....
Artificial membrane created in a lab where a layer of phospho…
An organic structure found in a cell where a layer of phospho…
Fluid Mosaic Model
The general structure of the membrane; phospholipid bilayer i…
Spontaneously
Lipids maintain a bilayer organization.....
Biology Exam 2
Nucleic Acids
DNA
RNA
Nucleotides
polymers that store, transmit, and express genetic information
deoxyribonucleic acid(polymers)-master copy to keep safe, ins…
ribonucleic acid(polymer)... photocopy, we can make another copy…
monomers:... pentose sugar + N-containing base + phosphate group
Nucleic Acids
polymers that store, transmit, and express genetic information
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid(polymers)-master copy to keep safe, ins…
Biology Exam 2
monad
diad
haploid
diploid
one set of information; chromosome which has NOT duplicated i…
two sets of information; chromosome which has duplicated itse…
CELLS which only have one chromosome of each homologous pair…
CELLS which have two chromosomes of each homologous pair (2n)
monad
one set of information; chromosome which has NOT duplicated i…
diad
two sets of information; chromosome which has duplicated itse…
56 terms
Biology Exam 2
photoautotroph
photoheterotroph
chemoautotroph
chemoheterotroph
An organism that harnesses light energy to drive the synthesi…
Takes in organic molecules from environment or other organism…
An organism (typically a bacterium or a protozoan) that obtai…
An organism deriving energy by ingesting intermediates or bui…
photoautotroph
An organism that harnesses light energy to drive the synthesi…
photoheterotroph
Takes in organic molecules from environment or other organism…
196 terms
Cell Biology Exam 2
ATP-powered pumps... Ion Channels... Transpo…
H+
conformational change must occur from…
Pump INTO CELL 4 H+ while converting A…
channels (3) that input E to help create a concentration grad…
the Trans-Glgi gradient contains __ on the inside of the Golgi
why are transporters slower than channels?
what does the F type ATP proton pump do?
ATP-powered pumps... Ion Channels... Transpo…
channels (3) that input E to help create a concentration grad…
H+
the Trans-Glgi gradient contains __ on the inside of the Golgi
72 terms
Biology Exam 2 Voc
prokaryotes
eukaryotes
nuclear envelope
chromosomes
bacteria and archea
protists, fungi, animals and plants
double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic mat…
threat like structures located inside the nuclear of animal a…
prokaryotes
bacteria and archea
eukaryotes
protists, fungi, animals and plants
510 terms
Biology 172 Exam 2
Diffusion
Hypertonic
Isotonic
Hypotonic
movement of molecules across a membrane down a concentration…
Water exits cell, cell implodes
Equilibrium, cell is normal
Water enters cell, cell explodes
Diffusion
movement of molecules across a membrane down a concentration…
Hypertonic
Water exits cell, cell implodes
89 terms
Biology Exam 2
Cell membrane
Phospholipid
Head
Tail
separates the inside of the cell from the outside of the cell…
part of the cell membrane; molecules with a head and tail reg…
part of the cell membrane and phospholipid bilayer; polar and…
part of the cell membrane and phospholipid bilayer; nonpolar…
Cell membrane
separates the inside of the cell from the outside of the cell…
Phospholipid
part of the cell membrane; molecules with a head and tail reg…
139 terms
Biology 210 Exam 2
chemical equation for cellular respira…
What does cellular respiration accompl…
in DNA, Adenine (A) pairs with
in DNA, guanine (G) pairs with
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---- 6CO2 + 6H2O + heat
It uses electrons harvested from high-energy molecules to pro…
Thymine (T)
Cytosine (C)
chemical equation for cellular respira…
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---- 6CO2 + 6H2O + heat
What does cellular respiration accompl…
It uses electrons harvested from high-energy molecules to pro…
125 terms
College Biology Exam 2
Hydrophobic
hydrophilic
Antibody
antigen
water fearing and nonpolar
water loving and polar/charged
blood protein produced in response to and countering an antigen
toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune respo…
Hydrophobic
water fearing and nonpolar
hydrophilic
water loving and polar/charged
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