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Study sets matching "biology exam 2"

48 terms
Exam 2: Biology 111
What are the three components of the C…
Three Categories of Life:
Prokaryotic Cells consist of:... Eukaryot…
Inside the plasma membrane of a normal…
1) All living things are made of one or more cells... 2) Cells a…
Prokarya, Bacteria, Archaea
Bacteria and Archaea... Eukarya
-Cytoplasm... -Nucleoid region... -Ribosomes which make proteins
What are the three components of the C…
1) All living things are made of one or more cells... 2) Cells a…
Three Categories of Life:
Prokarya, Bacteria, Archaea
76 terms
biology 1020: exam 2
alternation of generations
sporophyte
gametophyte
vegetative growth
the cycle which plants undergo
part of life cycle is spent as diploid sporophyte, which prod…
part of life cycle is spent as diploid gametophyte, which pro…
life cycle of grass plant
alternation of generations
the cycle which plants undergo
sporophyte
part of life cycle is spent as diploid sporophyte, which prod…
Biology Exam 2
Cell
Cell Theory
Anton van Leewenhoek
Robert Hooke
basic unit of all forms of life
fundamental concept of biology that states that all living th…
Dutch lens maker who developed the first simple microscope
the scientist who conceived cell theory
Cell
basic unit of all forms of life
Cell Theory
fundamental concept of biology that states that all living th…
111 terms
Biology 110 Exam 2
Sexual reproduction
Somatic cells
Asexual reproduction
What is sex?
=A reproductive process that involves two parents that combin…
=Any cells in the body other than reproductive cells
=a form of reproduction where a single individual is the sole…
=the exchange or recombination of genetic information... -does n…
Sexual reproduction
=A reproductive process that involves two parents that combin…
Somatic cells
=Any cells in the body other than reproductive cells
113 terms
Biology 101 Exam 2
Denaturation
Enzymes
Metabolism
Energy
Process of unzipping protein - leads to a loss of activity -…
Proteins that can catalyze biochemical reactions - lower ener…
Input and output of energy
Ability to do work - cannot be created or destroyed
Denaturation
Process of unzipping protein - leads to a loss of activity -…
Enzymes
Proteins that can catalyze biochemical reactions - lower ener…
Exam 2 Biology
First law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Reduction-Oxidation (Redox reactions)
Enzymes
-Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed fro…
-When energy is changed from one form to another there is a l…
-Electrons pass from one molecule to another ... ~molecule that…
-ase ending in all names except "ribose"... -protein molecule th…
First law of Thermodynamics
-Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed fro…
Second Law of Thermodynamics
-When energy is changed from one form to another there is a l…
Biology Exam 2
Oxidation
Reduction
ATP
NAD
Loss of electrons
Gain of electrons
Adenosine Triphosphate (Adenine, Ribose + 3 Phosphates)
An organic molecule that serves as an electron carrier by bei…
Oxidation
Loss of electrons
Reduction
Gain of electrons
19 terms
Biology Exam 2
Protein
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nuclearic Acid
Monomer: Amino Acid Example:Meat
Monomer: Glucose (Sugar) Example:Bread
Monomer: Fatty acid chain and Gylcerol Example: butter, oil
Monomer: Nucleotides Example:DNA, RNA
Protein
Monomer: Amino Acid Example:Meat
Carbohydrates
Monomer: Glucose (Sugar) Example:Bread
20 terms
Biology 171 - Exam 2
Disruptive intrasexual selection
Stabilizing intrasexual selection
Balancing selection
cryptic (hidden) female choice
individuals with extreme phenotypes increase fitness (reprodu…
individuals with intermediate phenotypes increase the fitness…
maintains genetic variation (i.e., multiple alleles in a popu…
form of intersexual selection where females mate with many ma…
Disruptive intrasexual selection
individuals with extreme phenotypes increase fitness (reprodu…
Stabilizing intrasexual selection
individuals with intermediate phenotypes increase the fitness…
199 terms
Biology Exam 2
amphipathic molecules
fluid mosaic model
As temperature cools, membrane switch…
The temperature at which a membrane so…
phospholipids containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
states that membrane is a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of…
True
True
amphipathic molecules
phospholipids containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
fluid mosaic model
states that membrane is a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of…
94 terms
Biology Exam 2
A ____ is characterized by having cell…
The type of cell connection that stren…
When an animal cell is placed in to a…
If a solution A has a 500 mOSM solutio…
animal
desmosome
lyse or swell
Solution A is hyper-osmotic to solution B
A ____ is characterized by having cell…
animal
The type of cell connection that stren…
desmosome
94 terms
Biology 101 - Exam 2
Light Microscope
Magnification
Resolution
Contrast
An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible…
Make appear larger than it is, especially with a lens or micr…
A measurement - usually expressed in linear dots per inch (dp…
A principle of design referring to the difference in brightne…
Light Microscope
An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible…
Magnification
Make appear larger than it is, especially with a lens or micr…
125 terms
Developmental Biology Exam 2
What four things are released by corti…
Mammalian Zona Reaction
Initiation of Cortical Reaction
Mechanism of Calcium wave
CGSP - clips attachments holding envelope to cell and Bindin…
-No fertilization envelope "elevated"... -ZP2 cleaved by ovastac…
Calcium wave - influxe of Ca and fertilization envelope lifts…
-PLC cleaves PIP2 into IP3 and DAG... -IP3 binds to receptor on…
What four things are released by corti…
CGSP - clips attachments holding envelope to cell and Bindin…
Mammalian Zona Reaction
-No fertilization envelope "elevated"... -ZP2 cleaved by ovastac…
20 terms
Biology Exam 2
Nucleoid
Flagella
fimbriae
cytosol
Location and structural organization of circular chromosome i…
40 diff. proteins; propels cells through water
promote attachment to other cells or surfaces
fluid portion between membrane and organelles
Nucleoid
Location and structural organization of circular chromosome i…
Flagella
40 diff. proteins; propels cells through water
182 terms
Biology Exam 2 Review
Organic compounds
inorganic compounds
most organic compounds contain
vitalism was
compounds containing Carbon with some exceptions
compounds that do not contain carbon
hydrogen atoms and carbon atoms
disproven
Organic compounds
compounds containing Carbon with some exceptions
inorganic compounds
compounds that do not contain carbon
356 terms
Biology 2 Exam 2
Organization of Vertebrate Body
1) Cardiac Muscle Cell 2) Cardiac Musc…
Tissues
Connective Tissue
There are four levels of cellular organization:... Cells ----> T…
The following levels of organization are seen in the MOST IMP…
___________ are groups of cells that are similar in structure…
The main function of ____________ tissue is to bind and/or su…
Organization of Vertebrate Body
There are four levels of cellular organization:... Cells ----> T…
1) Cardiac Muscle Cell 2) Cardiac Musc…
The following levels of organization are seen in the MOST IMP…
13 terms
Biology Exam 2
Ecology
ecosystem
two main components of ecosystem
Second Law of Thermodynamics
study of interaction between organisms and their environment
all living organisms in environment and physical and chemical…
abiotic environment=physical traits... biotic environment=reside…
some energy is lost every time it is changed from one form to…
Ecology
study of interaction between organisms and their environment
ecosystem
all living organisms in environment and physical and chemical…
32 terms
Biology Exam 2
Cellular Respiration Phases
Cellular Respiration Purpose
Cellular Respiration Reactants
Cellular Respiration Products
1. Glycolysis... 2. Preparatory Reaction... 3. Citric Acid Cycle... 4.…
provides cells with the energy they need to function... example:…
Glucose (C6H12O6) & Oxygen (O2)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) & Water (H2O) & ATP & Heat
Cellular Respiration Phases
1. Glycolysis... 2. Preparatory Reaction... 3. Citric Acid Cycle... 4.…
Cellular Respiration Purpose
provides cells with the energy they need to function... example:…
123 terms
Biology Exam 2
Electrophoresis
Chromatography
DNA + RNA backbone
Agarose gel electrophoresis
molecules move through a gel at different rates in an electri…
separating molecules based on charge or size
sugar-phosphate; strong, uniform negative charge
how DNA + RNA molecules are typically separated
Electrophoresis
molecules move through a gel at different rates in an electri…
Chromatography
separating molecules based on charge or size
254 terms
Biology Exam 2
What can cross the phosphlipid bilayer?
What is the purpose of integral protei…
Are transport proteins specific or non…
How does passive transport happen?
only small hydrophobic molcules
molecules and ions use it to get in and out of the cell
they are specific to the molecule
diffusion
What can cross the phosphlipid bilayer?
only small hydrophobic molcules
What is the purpose of integral protei…
molecules and ions use it to get in and out of the cell
28 terms
Biology Exam 2 terms
Ecology
Interactions studied in Ecology
Competitive Exclusion Principle
Resources Partitioning
the study of organisms in relation to their environments
-interaction with physical environment... -predator-prey relatio…
2 species cannot coexist while exploiting the same limiting r…
-what if two species occupy perches at the same height?... -what…
Ecology
the study of organisms in relation to their environments
Interactions studied in Ecology
-interaction with physical environment... -predator-prey relatio…
41 terms
Marine Biology Exam 2
Fisheries
Types of fishing Techniques
Types of hooking lines?
Types of Nets?
typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species o…
1. Hooking:long lines with rows of hooks... 2. Nets:large drift…
1. Drift Nets 2. Set Nets 3. Purse Seine ... 4. Bottom otter tra…
Fisheries
typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species o…
Types of fishing Techniques
1. Hooking:long lines with rows of hooks... 2. Nets:large drift…
63 terms
Mastering Biology Exam 2
In eukaryotic cells the first step in…
Which organelle plays a role in intrac…
Where is the genetic information of th…
The structural framework in a cell is…
transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA
Lysosome
Nucleus
Cytoskeleton
In eukaryotic cells the first step in…
transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA
Which organelle plays a role in intrac…
Lysosome
83 terms
Biology exam 2
Nucleotides
The four nitrogen bases are
Purines
Pyrimidines
Polymers that make up DNA made up of Deoxyribose, a phosphate…
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine
Double rings and are Adenine and Guanine
Single ring and are Cytosine and Thymine
Nucleotides
Polymers that make up DNA made up of Deoxyribose, a phosphate…
The four nitrogen bases are
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine
87 terms
Biology Exam 2
parsimony
homoplasy
homology
monophyletic
phylogenous trees should be built to have the fewest possible…
a characteristic shared by a set of species but not by their…
shared characteristics or genes between species with a common…
a group of organisms that consists of an ancestral species an…
parsimony
phylogenous trees should be built to have the fewest possible…
homoplasy
a characteristic shared by a set of species but not by their…
243 terms
Biology 1020 Exam 2
aqueous environments
plasma membrane
regulated, outside environment
Enzymes
Membranes separate _________ ____________, so that difference…
The ______ _________ surrounds the cell and separates the int…
Passage of substances across membranes is generally _________…
Many _________ are embedded in membranes. They help make reac…
aqueous environments
Membranes separate _________ ____________, so that difference…
plasma membrane
The ______ _________ surrounds the cell and separates the int…
13 terms
Biology Exam 2
Lignin
Heterokaryotic and dikaryotic
Mycelium
Septate
Building block in plants.
2 distinct nuclei.
Seperate but there's a small opening.
Lignin
Building block in plants.
Heterokaryotic and dikaryotic
2 distinct nuclei.
49 terms
Biology 211 Exam 2
Animals
Characteristics of Animals
Features of Animals Life Cycles
Animal Embryonic Development
- Monophyletic clade... - Most well studied group
- Multi-cellular, chemoorganoheterotrophs, eukaryotes ... - Obta…
- Most reproduce only sexually w/ diploid stage prominent ... -…
- Zygote --> eight cell stage -->blastula --> gastrulation --…
Animals
- Monophyletic clade... - Most well studied group
Characteristics of Animals
- Multi-cellular, chemoorganoheterotrophs, eukaryotes ... - Obta…
70 terms
Biology Exam 2
Nucleic Acids
Two types of nucleic acids
monomers
polymers
Mold genetic information, including information needed to mak…
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
nucleotides
polynucleotides
Nucleic Acids
Mold genetic information, including information needed to mak…
Two types of nucleic acids
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
94 terms
Biology exam 2
ecology
organismal
population
abiotic
how organisms interact/relate to one another and their enviro…
one organisms interaction with its environment(biotic and abi…
interactions between members of the same species
non living physical and chemical systems
ecology
how organisms interact/relate to one another and their enviro…
organismal
one organisms interaction with its environment(biotic and abi…
18 terms
Biology 104 Exam 2
Mitosis
Meiosis
Prophase
Metaphase
Provides two exact daughter cells during prophase, pro metaph…
A single cell divides twice to produce four haploid daughter…
Chromosomes become visible, the nucleolus disappears, the mit…
Thick, coiled chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.…
Mitosis
Provides two exact daughter cells during prophase, pro metaph…
Meiosis
A single cell divides twice to produce four haploid daughter…
99 terms
Biology 115 Exam 2
Cell Membrane
Cell wall
Cytoplasm
Mitochondria
Controls what comes into and out of a cell; found in plant an…
Ridged outer layer of a plant cell
cel-like fluid where the organelles are found
Produces the energy a cell needs to carry out its function
Cell Membrane
Controls what comes into and out of a cell; found in plant an…
Cell wall
Ridged outer layer of a plant cell
141 terms
BIOLOGY EXAM 2
All organisms are made of
Though cells can differ substantially…
All cells are related by their descent…
Cell Theory
Cells
they share common features
earlier cells
1.All living things are made up of cell(s) .2.Cells are the b…
All organisms are made of
Cells
Though cells can differ substantially…
they share common features
Biology Exam 2
Glycolysis
Krebs cycle
Photosynthesis
Autotroph
the complete breakdown of glucose resulting in 2 ATP/glucose
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid i…
Energy comes from the sun and then, in photosynthesis, is sto…
An organism that makes its own food
Glycolysis
the complete breakdown of glucose resulting in 2 ATP/glucose
Krebs cycle
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid i…
102 terms
Biology Exam 2
Cells
Cell theory
3 Truths about Cells
All cells have...
smallest unit of life
the theory that explains that all living organisms are made p…
1. All living things are made up of cells ... 2. Cells are the b…
1. Cell Membrane... 2.Cytoplasm... 3. DNA, RNA, proteins and other…
Cells
smallest unit of life
Cell theory
the theory that explains that all living organisms are made p…
100 terms
Biology Exam 2
Skeletal System
Circulatory System
Respiratory System
206
Supports body and anchors muscles
transports substances throughout body
Exhanges O2 and CO2 between blood and air
How many bones are in the Skeletal system?
Skeletal System
Supports body and anchors muscles
Circulatory System
transports substances throughout body
187 terms
Biology 140 Exam 2
Kinetic energy
potential energy
first law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
heat and thermal energy... energy of motion
bond, chemical, and stored energy
energy can be transformed from one form to another or transfe…
every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy…
Kinetic energy
heat and thermal energy... energy of motion
potential energy
bond, chemical, and stored energy
200 terms
Biology Exam 2
Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration... 4 pr…
Glycolysis
Pyruvate Processing
Citric Acid Cycle
1. Glycolysis (cytosol) ... 2. Pyruvate Processing (mitochondria…
1 molecule of glucose yields: ... - 2 ATPs from phosphorylation…
2 Pyruvates( 3-C) yields:... - 2 COs ... - 2 NADH from reduction of…
2 Acetyl CoAs (4-C) are oxidized to yield: ... - 6 NADH ... - 2 FAD…
Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration... 4 pr…
1. Glycolysis (cytosol) ... 2. Pyruvate Processing (mitochondria…
Glycolysis
1 molecule of glucose yields: ... - 2 ATPs from phosphorylation…
59 terms
Biology Vocab Exam 2
Metabolism
Metabolic Pathways
Catabolic Pathway
Anabolic Pathway
the totality of an organisms chemical reactions
chain of chemical reactions beginning with a specific molecul…
chemical properties that release energy and break things down…
pathway that uses energy to build things up (protein synthesis)
Metabolism
the totality of an organisms chemical reactions
Metabolic Pathways
chain of chemical reactions beginning with a specific molecul…
93 terms
Biology Exam 2
Nucleic Acids
DNA
RNA
Nucleotides
polymers that store, transmit, and express genetic information
deoxyribonucleic acid(polymers)-master copy to keep safe, ins…
ribonucleic acid(polymer)... photocopy, we can make another copy…
monomers:... pentose sugar + N-containing base + phosphate group
Nucleic Acids
polymers that store, transmit, and express genetic information
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid(polymers)-master copy to keep safe, ins…
135 terms
Biology 171 Exam 2
chlorophyll
mesophyll
stomata
thylakoids
green pigment within chloroplasts
interior tissue of the leaf in which chloroplasts are mainly…
microscopic pores through which CO2 enters and O2 exits
membranous sacs in chloroplasts whose membranes house chlorop…
chlorophyll
green pigment within chloroplasts
mesophyll
interior tissue of the leaf in which chloroplasts are mainly…
342 terms
Biology 142 Exam 2
Capillaries, Veins and Arteries
Of all the blood vessels, only the cap…
Carry blood toward the heart. They are…
Carry blood away from the heart. They…
Three Primary Types of Blood Vessels
Capillaries
Veins
Arteries
Capillaries, Veins and Arteries
Three Primary Types of Blood Vessels
Of all the blood vessels, only the cap…
Capillaries
65 terms
Biology Exam 2
monad
diad
haploid
diploid
one set of information; chromosome which has NOT duplicated i…
two sets of information; chromosome which has duplicated itse…
CELLS which only have one chromosome of each homologous pair…
CELLS which have two chromosomes of each homologous pair (2n)
monad
one set of information; chromosome which has NOT duplicated i…
diad
two sets of information; chromosome which has duplicated itse…
56 terms
Biology 102 Exam 2
how DNA is replicated
names associated with the discovery of…
DNA double-helix structure
differences between DNA and RNA
The double helix is unwound and each strand acts as a templat…
James Watson... Francis Crick... Maurice Wilkins... Rosalind Franklin
A DNA molecule consists of two strands that wind around each…
-Function: information in DNA determines which traits are to…
how DNA is replicated
The double helix is unwound and each strand acts as a templat…
names associated with the discovery of…
James Watson... Francis Crick... Maurice Wilkins... Rosalind Franklin
119 terms
Biology 1407: Exam 2
land plants have a complex life cycle…
the sporophyte of a nonvascular plant…
the life cycle of nonvascular plants i…
nonvascular plants have true leaves bu…
true
false
true
false
land plants have a complex life cycle…
true
the sporophyte of a nonvascular plant…
false
196 terms
Cell Biology Exam 2
ATP-powered pumps... Ion Channels... Transpo…
H+
conformational change must occur from…
Pump INTO CELL 4 H+ while converting A…
channels (3) that input E to help create a concentration grad…
the Trans-Glgi gradient contains __ on the inside of the Golgi
why are transporters slower than channels?
what does the F type ATP proton pump do?
ATP-powered pumps... Ion Channels... Transpo…
channels (3) that input E to help create a concentration grad…
H+
the Trans-Glgi gradient contains __ on the inside of the Golgi
56 terms
Biology Exam 2
photoautotroph
photoheterotroph
chemoautotroph
chemoheterotroph
An organism that harnesses light energy to drive the synthesi…
Takes in organic molecules from environment or other organism…
An organism (typically a bacterium or a protozoan) that obtai…
An organism deriving energy by ingesting intermediates or bui…
photoautotroph
An organism that harnesses light energy to drive the synthesi…
photoheterotroph
Takes in organic molecules from environment or other organism…
67 terms
Biology Exam 2
Ch.3
Passive Transport
Osmosis
Diffusion
...
A method of transporting material that *does not require ener…
The transport of water through a semipermeable membrane from…
A passive process of transport of low-molecular weight materi…
Ch.3
...
Passive Transport
A method of transporting material that *does not require ener…
93 terms
Biology 315 exam 2
Fluid Mosaic
Selectively Permeable
General Phospholipid
Role of Cholesterol
Flexible lipid bi layer with proteins and substances (cholest…
Allows only certain molecules and ion through (based on size…
Choline/Serine/ethanolamine attached at top
Increases membrane fluidity and stabilization, decreases perm…
Fluid Mosaic
Flexible lipid bi layer with proteins and substances (cholest…
Selectively Permeable
Allows only certain molecules and ion through (based on size…
510 terms
Biology 172 Exam 2
Diffusion
Hypertonic
Isotonic
Hypotonic
movement of molecules across a membrane down a concentration…
Water exits cell, cell implodes
Equilibrium, cell is normal
Water enters cell, cell explodes
Diffusion
movement of molecules across a membrane down a concentration…
Hypertonic
Water exits cell, cell implodes
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