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Study sets matching "biology for mcat"

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Study sets matching "biology for mcat"

534 terms
MCAT: Biology
Domain
Species
Genotype
Phenotype
Three types: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
All organisms that can reproduce fertile offspring with one a…
Part of a trait, describes the chromosomes of an organism.
Part of a trait, describes the product of the genes that can…
Domain
Three types: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Species
All organisms that can reproduce fertile offspring with one a…
480 terms
MCAT Biology
A major reaction that breaks down all…
What is the strongest type of intermol…
Why is water a liquid at high temperat…
What is an ampipathic molecule?
Hydrolysis
Hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen bonding
A molecule with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.
A major reaction that breaks down all…
Hydrolysis
What is the strongest type of intermol…
Hydrogen bonds
152 terms
MCAT Biology
Transformation
Conjugation
Transduction
Binary fission
Integration of foreign genetic material into the host genome…
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells tha…
Transfer of bacterial DNA by a virus (bacteriophage)
Type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates…
Transformation
Integration of foreign genetic material into the host genome…
Conjugation
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells tha…
152 terms
MCAT Biology
Transformation
Conjugation
Transduction
Binary fission
Integration of foreign genetic material into the host genome…
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells tha…
Transfer of bacterial DNA by a virus (bacteriophage)
Type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates…
Transformation
Integration of foreign genetic material into the host genome…
Conjugation
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells tha…
308 terms
MCAT Biology
Hemoglobin
Hepatic Portal Vein
Heterozygous
Homologous chromosomes
protein found in erythrocytes made up of four polypeptide cha…
carries nutrients (monosaccharides, amino acids and small fat…
organisms that contain two different alleles for the same gen…
chromosomes in a diploid cell that contain alleles for the sa…
Hemoglobin
protein found in erythrocytes made up of four polypeptide cha…
Hepatic Portal Vein
carries nutrients (monosaccharides, amino acids and small fat…
40 terms
MCAT Biology
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck/Lamarckian ideas
By which shuttle does acetyl-CoA enter…
Fatty acid synthesis
Enteric nervous system
Most of Lamarck's major theories were incorrect; however, he…
Citrate shuttle
Occurs in the cytosol of the liver; involves the transport of…
Intrinsic nervous system; a network of neurons, neurotransmit…
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck/Lamarckian ideas
Most of Lamarck's major theories were incorrect; however, he…
By which shuttle does acetyl-CoA enter…
Citrate shuttle
502 terms
Biology MCAT
Abductor
absorption
acetylcholine
acrosome
a muscle that moves a limb away from the center of the body
the process by which substances are taken up into or across t…
a neurotransmitter found throughout the nervous system
the large vesicle at the head of a sperm cell containing enzy…
Abductor
a muscle that moves a limb away from the center of the body
absorption
the process by which substances are taken up into or across t…
21 terms
Biology/MCAT
Testosterone
Male Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
Spermatogenesis
Steroid Hormone, released in men (testes), and women. In men:…
Be able to sketch and Label, what do they do, where are they…
Be able to sketch and Label, what do they do, where are they…
Formation of sperm
Testosterone
Steroid Hormone, released in men (testes), and women. In men:…
Male Reproductive System
Be able to sketch and Label, what do they do, where are they…
94 terms
Mcat: Molecular biology techniques
ELISA
immuno-sorbency
ELISA (biochemical technique)
cytokines
Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay
antigen-antibody interactions
utilizes antigen-antibody (immuno-sorbency) to determine the…
broad and loose category for small proteins involved in cell…
ELISA
Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay
immuno-sorbency
antigen-antibody interactions
1,315 terms
Biology MCAT
Who was the first scientist to discove…
Who was the first scientist to see liv…
Who was the scientist that demonstrate…
What are the three original basic tene…
Robert Hooke 1665
anton Van Leeuwenhoek 1674
Rudolph Virchow 1850
1. all living things are composed of cells... 2. Cell is the bas…
Who was the first scientist to discove…
Robert Hooke 1665
Who was the first scientist to see liv…
anton Van Leeuwenhoek 1674
70 terms
MCAT Biology
Competitive inhibition
Non Competitive inhibition
Uncompetitive inhibition
Mixed inhibition
Vmax is unchanged, Km increases
Vmax is decreased, Km unchanged
Km is decreased, Vm is decreased
Vmax is decreased, Km effects vary
Competitive inhibition
Vmax is unchanged, Km increases
Non Competitive inhibition
Vmax is decreased, Km unchanged
884 terms
MCAT Biology
cell theory
why are viruses not considered living…
eukaryotes
cell membrane
-all living things are composed of cells... -the cell is the bas…
they are acellular, cannot repdrouce without the assistance o…
have membrane-bound organelles, a nucleus, and may form multi…
contains phospholipids, which organize to form hydrophilic in…
cell theory
-all living things are composed of cells... -the cell is the bas…
why are viruses not considered living…
they are acellular, cannot repdrouce without the assistance o…
71 terms
Biology MCAT
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Sarcomere
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Schwann Cells
A nucleic acid found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm and mo…
The structural unit of striated muscle. It's composed of thin…
A modified form of endoplasmic reticulum stores calcium that…
Cells that produce myelin in the PNS
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
A nucleic acid found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm and mo…
Sarcomere
The structural unit of striated muscle. It's composed of thin…
63 terms
MCAT Biology
Proteins
Serine (Ser)
Threonine (Thr)
Cysteine (Cys)
Made up of amino acids
Hydrophilic (Non-charged)
Hydrophilic (Non-charged)
Hydrophilic (Non-charged)
Proteins
Made up of amino acids
Serine (Ser)
Hydrophilic (Non-charged)
657 terms
MCAT Biology
the cell theory
are viruses living things?
eukaryotes
cytosol
- all living things are composed of cells... - the cell is the b…
no b/c they are acellular, can't reproduce w/o the assistance…
have membrane-bound organelles, a nucleus, and may form multi…
suspends the organelles and allows diffusion of molecules thr…
the cell theory
- all living things are composed of cells... - the cell is the b…
are viruses living things?
no b/c they are acellular, can't reproduce w/o the assistance…
2,000 terms
MCAT Biology
Central Dogma
Purines... - which bases?... - how many rings?
Pyrimidines... - which bases?... - how many…
Phosphodiester Bond
DNA → RNA → Protein
Remember: "Pyrimidine" has a "y" in it; so does "cytosine" an…
Joins one nucleotide to the next; between the 3rd C of one ri…
Central Dogma
DNA → RNA → Protein
Purines... - which bases?... - how many rings?
2,000 terms
MCAT Biology
Central Dogma
Purines... - which bases?... - how many rings?
Pyrimidines... - which bases?... - how many…
Phosphodiester Bond
DNA → RNA → Protein
Remember: "Pyrimidine" has a "y" in it; so does "cytosine" an…
Joins one nucleotide to the next; between the 3rd C of one ri…
Central Dogma
DNA → RNA → Protein
Purines... - which bases?... - how many rings?
2,000 terms
MCAT Biology
Central Dogma
Purines... - which bases?... - how many rings?
Pyrimidines... - which bases?... - how many…
Phosphodiester Bond
DNA → RNA → Protein
Remember: "Pyrimidine" has a "y" in it; so does "cytosine" an…
Joins one nucleotide to the next; between the 3rd C of one ri…
Central Dogma
DNA → RNA → Protein
Purines... - which bases?... - how many rings?
360 terms
MCAT: Biology
nucleus
mitochondrion
lysosomes
rough ER
contains all of the genetic material necessary for replicatio…
location of many metabolic processes (pyruvate dehydrogenase,…
membrane-bound structures containing hydrolytic enzymes capab…
interconnected membranous structures with ribosomes studding…
nucleus
contains all of the genetic material necessary for replicatio…
mitochondrion
location of many metabolic processes (pyruvate dehydrogenase,…
243 terms
MCAT - Biology
Where is ribosomal DNA (rDNA) synthesi…
What is the significance of the crista…
How do mitochondria replicate
How do mitochondria control apoptosis?
Nucleolus
Increased the surface area to allow for the ETC
Binary fission
Releasing enzymes form ETC
Where is ribosomal DNA (rDNA) synthesi…
Nucleolus
What is the significance of the crista…
Increased the surface area to allow for the ETC
159 terms
MCAT Biology
Homeostasis
Thyroid
Osteoblast
Osteclast
-ability to maintain a constant internal environment in respo…
-stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone
makes bones
break down bones
Homeostasis
-ability to maintain a constant internal environment in respo…
Thyroid
-stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone
195 terms
MCAT Biology
Genetic Drift
Genetic Bottleneck
Founder Effect
Gene Flow
Genetic drift leads to loss/fixation of alleles or genotypes…
Severe reduction in population size
Loss of geneitc diversity when small number of individuals, r…
Movement of alleles between local populations, adds to geneti…
Genetic Drift
Genetic drift leads to loss/fixation of alleles or genotypes…
Genetic Bottleneck
Severe reduction in population size
759 terms
MCAT Biology
5' cap... nucleotide? necessary bc?
A band... regions? gives what appearance…
Absolute refractory period... AP?
Accessory glands... -3?
a methylated guanine nucleotide added to the 5' end of eukary…
The band of the sarcomere that extends the full length of the…
A period of time following an action potential during which n…
The three glands in the male reproductive system that reprodu…
5' cap... nucleotide? necessary bc?
a methylated guanine nucleotide added to the 5' end of eukary…
A band... regions? gives what appearance…
The band of the sarcomere that extends the full length of the…
52 terms
MCAT Biology
Glycolysis products
Krebs Cycle
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
Electron Transport Chain
(per glucose) 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, 2 H2o, 2H+, cytosol
oxaloacetate (4C) combines with acetyl-coA (2 C, derived from…
2 NADH per glucose, makes pyruvate (3C) into acetyl + coenzym…
NADH dehydrogenase, ubiquinone, cytochrome c reductase, cycto…
Glycolysis products
(per glucose) 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, 2 H2o, 2H+, cytosol
Krebs Cycle
oxaloacetate (4C) combines with acetyl-coA (2 C, derived from…
2,000 terms
MCAT Biology
Central Dogma
Purines... - which bases?... - how many rings?
Pyrimidines... - which bases?... - how many…
Phosphodiester Bond
DNA → RNA → Protein
Remember: "Pyrimidine" has a "y" in it; so does "cytosine" an…
Joins one nucleotide to the next; between the 3rd C of one ri…
Central Dogma
DNA → RNA → Protein
Purines... - which bases?... - how many rings?
609 terms
MCAT Biology
Central Dogma
Purines... - which bases?... - how many rings?
Pyrimidines... - which bases?... - how many…
Phosphodiester Bond
DNA → RNA → Protein
Remember: "Pyrimidine" has a "y" in it; so does "cytosine" an…
Joins one nucleotide to the next; between the 3rd C of one ri…
Central Dogma
DNA → RNA → Protein
Purines... - which bases?... - how many rings?
119 terms
MCAT biology
what metabolic processes happen in the…
rough ER
smooth ER
golgi apparatus
pyruvate dehydrogenase... krebs cycle... etc... oxidative phosphorylat…
synthesis of proteins
lipid synthesis and detoxification
post translational modification of protein
what metabolic processes happen in the…
pyruvate dehydrogenase... krebs cycle... etc... oxidative phosphorylat…
rough ER
synthesis of proteins
318 terms
MCAT Biology
define parenchyma
epithelial cells contribute to which o…
Keratin, desmin, vimentin, and lamins…
What cytoskeletal component consists o…
the functional tissue of an organ, as opposed to connective o…
parenchyma
-intermediate filaments... -cell-cell adhesion... -maintenance of…
microtubules... -provide pathways for vesicles to be carried -b…
define parenchyma
the functional tissue of an organ, as opposed to connective o…
epithelial cells contribute to which o…
parenchyma
307 terms
MCAT - Biology
Nucleolus
Two
Lysosomes
Peroxisomes
Subsection of the nucleus where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synth…
How many membranes does the mitochondria have? ___
Membrane-bound structures containing hydrolytic enzymes that…
Contain hydrogen peroxide and breakdown long chain fatty acid…
Nucleolus
Subsection of the nucleus where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synth…
Two
How many membranes does the mitochondria have? ___
485 terms
MCAT (Biology)
What is an Abductor?
What is the biological process of Abso…
What is Acetylcholine? What inactivate…
Where is acetylcholinesterase (AChE) l…
A muscle that moves a limb away from the center of the body.
The process by which substances are taken up into or across t…
A neurotransmitter found throughout the nervous system (ie so…
In the nervous system, located along the postsynaptic neuron,…
What is an Abductor?
A muscle that moves a limb away from the center of the body.
What is the biological process of Abso…
The process by which substances are taken up into or across t…
25 terms
MCAT Biology
Michaelis Menton Equation
Lineweaver Burke Equation
Start Codon
Stop codons
AUG
UGA... UAA... UAG
Michaelis Menton Equation
Lineweaver Burke Equation
299 terms
MCAT Biology
Taxonomy Order
Three Domains
Kingdoms in Eukarya
Species
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species ... King P…
Bacteria... Archaea... Eukarya
Protists, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
All organisms that can reproduce fertile offspring with one a…
Taxonomy Order
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species ... King P…
Three Domains
Bacteria... Archaea... Eukarya
152 terms
MCAT Biology
Transformation
Conjugation
Transduction
Binary fission
Integration of foreign genetic material into the host genome…
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells tha…
Transfer of bacterial DNA by a virus (bacteriophage)
Type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates…
Transformation
Integration of foreign genetic material into the host genome…
Conjugation
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells tha…
480 terms
MCAT Biology
A major reaction that breaks down all…
What is the strongest type of intermol…
Why is water a liquid at high temperat…
What is an ampipathic molecule?
Hydrolysis
Hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen bonding
A molecule with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.
A major reaction that breaks down all…
Hydrolysis
What is the strongest type of intermol…
Hydrogen bonds
81 terms
MCAT Biology
Autotrophs
Heterotrophs
anabolic processes
catabolic processes
An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eatin…
Organisms that can only get the organic molecules and energy…
Consumes energy (endothermic) to create a complex molecule fr…
breakdown of complex molecules to smaller molecules to releas…
Autotrophs
An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eatin…
Heterotrophs
Organisms that can only get the organic molecules and energy…
MCAT Biology
chromosome
homologous
allele
locus
24 types, 22 autosomal pairs + x/ y = 46 chromosomes in total
same type of gene for ex. hair, but from each parent ... brown h…
different versions of the same gene, ex gene for hair color h…
specific location in the gene
chromosome
24 types, 22 autosomal pairs + x/ y = 46 chromosomes in total
homologous
same type of gene for ex. hair, but from each parent ... brown h…
145 terms
MCAT Biology
Mitochondria
Lysosome
Rough ER
Smooth ER
Power house, metabolic functions of cell, inner membrane - in…
Hydrolytic enzymes, break down materials in the cell
Contiguous with nuclear envelope, folds where make proteins t…
Lipid synthesis, detox
Mitochondria
Power house, metabolic functions of cell, inner membrane - in…
Lysosome
Hydrolytic enzymes, break down materials in the cell
580 terms
MCAT BIOLOGY
What are the tenets of cell theory?
What are the major organelles in a euk…
What are the membranes of eukrayote ce…
How is DNA separate from RNA?
1.) Cells come from pre-existing cells... 2.) cells contain deox…
*Cytosol*= semifluid substance where organelles are suspended…
phospholipid bilayer
DNA is in nucleus... RNA is nucleolus (takes up 25% of nucleus)
What are the tenets of cell theory?
1.) Cells come from pre-existing cells... 2.) cells contain deox…
What are the major organelles in a euk…
*Cytosol*= semifluid substance where organelles are suspended…
680 terms
Biology MCAT
Chapter 1
Cell theory
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes have what?
The cell
Proposed by Robert Hooke... -all living things are composed of…
Eukaryotic cells can be unicellular or multicellular, and con…
have a membrane-bound organelles, a nucleus, and may form mul…
Chapter 1
The cell
Cell theory
Proposed by Robert Hooke... -all living things are composed of…
480 terms
MCAT Biology
A major reaction that breaks down all…
What is the strongest type of intermol…
Why is water a liquid at high temperat…
What is an ampipathic molecule?
Hydrolysis
Hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen bonding
A molecule with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.
A major reaction that breaks down all…
Hydrolysis
What is the strongest type of intermol…
Hydrogen bonds
71 terms
MCAT - Biology
Prokaryotic Viruses enter cell through…
Positive RNA Viruses (+) and Negative…
Adsorption
Penetration
Prok Viruses enter through injection of viral contents, becau…
(+) RNA Viruses are 5'3 and can be directly translated and ar…
Attachment (viral entry)
Eclipse (viral entry)
Prokaryotic Viruses enter cell through…
Prok Viruses enter through injection of viral contents, becau…
Positive RNA Viruses (+) and Negative…
(+) RNA Viruses are 5'3 and can be directly translated and ar…
208 terms
MCAT Biology
what is denaturation?
what can cause denaturation?
What interactions are characteristic o…
What interactions are characteristic o…
disruption of a protein's shape without breaking bonds
1. urea... 2. pH extremes... 3. temp extremes... 4. changes in tonicit…
peptide bonds between AA's
hydrogen bonds... creation of alpha helices and beta sheets
what is denaturation?
disruption of a protein's shape without breaking bonds
what can cause denaturation?
1. urea... 2. pH extremes... 3. temp extremes... 4. changes in tonicit…
79 terms
MCAT Biology
Elastic Potential Energy
Hooke's Law
What are the 4 tenets of the Cell Theory
Virus
****
F=-kx ... Relationship between elastic force, spring constant, a…
1. All living things composed of cells ... 2. Cell is the basic…
Contain genetic material... Violates 3rd tenet -- unable to rep…
Elastic Potential Energy
****
Hooke's Law
F=-kx ... Relationship between elastic force, spring constant, a…
419 terms
Mcat Biology
three basic tenets of cell theory
differences between function of rough…
function of peroxisomes
structure and function of microtubules
all living things are made of cells... cell is the basic functio…
rough ER is studded with ribosomes and used for protein synth…
break down long chain fatty acids
hollow polymers of tubulin, provide pathway that kinesin and…
three basic tenets of cell theory
all living things are made of cells... cell is the basic functio…
differences between function of rough…
rough ER is studded with ribosomes and used for protein synth…
262 terms
MCAT - Biology
Nonpolar aa (9)
Polar, Neutral aa (6)
Polar, Acidic/Basic aa (2-acidic, 3-ba…
Where do kinases usually act (where on…
glycine... alanine... valine... methionine... leucine... isoleucine... proline…
serine... threonine... asparagine... glutamine... cysteine... tyrosine
aspartic acid (~4)... glutamic acid (~4)... histidine (6.5)... argini…
OH groups of serine, threonine, and tyrosine
Nonpolar aa (9)
glycine... alanine... valine... methionine... leucine... isoleucine... proline…
Polar, Neutral aa (6)
serine... threonine... asparagine... glutamine... cysteine... tyrosine
152 terms
MCAT Biology
Transformation
Conjugation
Transduction
Binary fission
Integration of foreign genetic material into the host genome…
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells tha…
Transfer of bacterial DNA by a virus (bacteriophage)
Type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates…
Transformation
Integration of foreign genetic material into the host genome…
Conjugation
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells tha…
650 terms
MCAT: Biology
Cell theory
nucleolus
smooth ER (SER)
peroxisomes
1. All living things are composed of cells... 2. The cell is the…
• dense body that is visible in a nondividing nucleus... • site…
• utilized primarily for lipid synthesis and the detoxificati…
one of its primary functions is the breakdown of very long ch…
Cell theory
1. All living things are composed of cells... 2. The cell is the…
nucleolus
• dense body that is visible in a nondividing nucleus... • site…
152 terms
MCAT Biology
Transformation
Conjugation
Transduction
Binary fission
Integration of foreign genetic material into the host genome…
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells tha…
Transfer of bacterial DNA by a virus (bacteriophage)
Type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates…
Transformation
Integration of foreign genetic material into the host genome…
Conjugation
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells tha…
480 terms
MCAT Biology
A major reaction that breaks down all…
What is the strongest type of intermol…
Why is water a liquid at high temperat…
What is an ampipathic molecule?
Hydrolysis
Hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen bonding
A molecule with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.
A major reaction that breaks down all…
Hydrolysis
What is the strongest type of intermol…
Hydrogen bonds
102 terms
MCAT Biology
Central Dogma
Violations of the Central Dogma
Peptide bond
Acid hydrolysis cleavage
The transfer of genetic information. ... DNA is transcribed to R…
Reverse transcription, because it involves RNA converting to…
Formed between amino acids.
Non-specific cleavage of a polypeptide chain
Central Dogma
The transfer of genetic information. ... DNA is transcribed to R…
Violations of the Central Dogma
Reverse transcription, because it involves RNA converting to…
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