Study sets matching "biology molecular"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "biology molecular"

45 terms
Molecular Biology
double helix
nucleotide
adenine
thymine
determined by watson and crick; structure of DNA
sub unit of nucleic acid (monomer) made of 5 carbon sugar, ph…
purine that pairs with thymine
pyrimidine (single ring) that pairs with adenine
double helix
determined by watson and crick; structure of DNA
nucleotide
sub unit of nucleic acid (monomer) made of 5 carbon sugar, ph…
11 terms
Molecular Biology
DNA
DNA replication
RNA
mRNA
double stranded double helix, ATCG bases, nucleic acid
to copy DNA
single stranded, AUCG bases, nucleic acid
messenger RNA, copies the DNA code and moves it to the ribosome
DNA
double stranded double helix, ATCG bases, nucleic acid
DNA replication
to copy DNA
13 terms
Molecular Biology
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
amino acids
carbon compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; us…
broad class of carbon compounds that are insoluble in water;…
carbon compounds composed of one or more chains of amino acids
subunits of proteins; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, a…
carbohydrates
carbon compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; us…
lipids
broad class of carbon compounds that are insoluble in water;…
24 terms
Molecular Biology
molecule
organic
monomer
polymer
2 or more atoms bonded together
Contains carbon
A molecule that can combine with others to form a polymer.
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
molecule
2 or more atoms bonded together
organic
Contains carbon
33 terms
Molecular Biology
Frederick Griffith
transformation
Oswald Avery
bacteriophages/phages
used pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria to discover transf…
Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene…
tested the ability of inactivated DNA, RNA, and protein to tr…
viruses that infect bacteria
Frederick Griffith
used pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria to discover transf…
transformation
Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene…
14 terms
Molecular Biology
isotope
radioactive isotope
Electron Configuration
polar covalent bonds
A variant of an element that differs only in its number of ne…
an isotope whose nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off par…
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
a type of covalent bond between atoms that differ in electron…
isotope
A variant of an element that differs only in its number of ne…
radioactive isotope
an isotope whose nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off par…
62 terms
Molecular Biology
electronegativity
covalent bonds
non-polar covalent bonds
polar covalent bond
an atoms attraction for its electrons
a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs b…
covalent bonds between atoms where electrons are shared equally
an unequal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond... the pulli…
electronegativity
an atoms attraction for its electrons
covalent bonds
a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs b…
22 terms
Molecular Biology
Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration
Nutrient
ATP
The process in which the cells of plants use light energy fro…
The process by which cells break down sugar to release stored…
The compounds that provide building materials for living thin…
The energy created as a result of cellular respiration (we ma…
Photosynthesis
The process in which the cells of plants use light energy fro…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells break down sugar to release stored…
32 terms
Molecular Biology
Nutrient
Carbohydrate
Protein
Calorie
A substance in food that provides the raw materials and energ…
Nutrient composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen that is a m…
Nutrient that contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen,…
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one g…
Nutrient
A substance in food that provides the raw materials and energ…
Carbohydrate
Nutrient composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen that is a m…
99 terms
IB Biology- Molecular Biology
molecular biology
carbon
organic molecules
inorganic molecules
the study of living processes in terms of the chemicals invol…
forms many different compounds due to four available covalent…
carbon based molecules that are made in living organisms
any molecule that is produced through non-living means, e.g.…
molecular biology
the study of living processes in terms of the chemicals invol…
carbon
forms many different compounds due to four available covalent…
46 terms
Molecular Biology
Organic chemistry is the chemistry of…
Name that 4 types of molecules that ma…
Carbon atoms can form how many covalen…
What is catabolism?
Carbon compounds
Carbohydrates... Lipids... Proteins... Nucleic Acids
Four
The breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones
Organic chemistry is the chemistry of…
Carbon compounds
Name that 4 types of molecules that ma…
Carbohydrates... Lipids... Proteins... Nucleic Acids
92 terms
IB Biology - Molecular Biology
Name the most frequent elements in life
5 other necessary elements for life
Compound
Ionic bonds
CHON (Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and are main elemen…
Sulfur: found in 2 amino acids... Calcium: chemical messenger th…
2 or more elements combined in a fixed ratio
one atom strips valence electrons from another atom (high ele…
Name the most frequent elements in life
CHON (Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and are main elemen…
5 other necessary elements for life
Sulfur: found in 2 amino acids... Calcium: chemical messenger th…
135 terms
Molecular Biology
AMP
too much AMP in cell means
nucleotide
purines
adenosine mono phosphate... ATP converts to AMP by removing a p…
that there is not enough energy in the cell
made up of a phosphate, sugar and nitrogenous base
AG... adenine and guanine... 2-ringed structure
AMP
adenosine mono phosphate... ATP converts to AMP by removing a p…
too much AMP in cell means
that there is not enough energy in the cell
9 terms
Molecular Biology
Elements of life
Water
Glucose
Molecular structure of Starch
living things are composed mainly of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen…
A liquid made of hydrogen and oxygen.
A simple sugar that is an important source of energy.
Elements of life
living things are composed mainly of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen…
Water
A liquid made of hydrogen and oxygen.
23 terms
Molecular Biology
Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration
Nutrient
ATP
The process in which the cells of plants use light energy fro…
The process by which cells break down sugar to release stored…
The compounds that provide building materials for living thin…
The energy created as a result of cellular respiration (we ma…
Photosynthesis
The process in which the cells of plants use light energy fro…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells break down sugar to release stored…
201 terms
Molecular Biology
cftr
what is a cell? What are three compone…
cell -> whole body organization
central dogma of molecular bio
a chloride channel that hydrolyses app to open the channel... ch…
most basic unit of life... 1) obtain energy... 2) respond to enviro…
cell -> tissue -> organ -> organism
DNA-> RNA -> Protein -> Cellular Function
cftr
a chloride channel that hydrolyses app to open the channel... ch…
what is a cell? What are three compone…
most basic unit of life... 1) obtain energy... 2) respond to enviro…
159 terms
Molecular Biology
4 biochemical molecules
organic matter
inorganic matter
carbon
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
makes up most of living organisms and always will contain car…
does not contain carbon. it can be found in both nonliving an…
keystone element of life. atomic number 6 with stable inner s…
4 biochemical molecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
organic matter
makes up most of living organisms and always will contain car…
84 terms
Molecular Biology
metabolism
What are two types of metabolic reacti…
catabolic reactions
anabolic reactions
the sum of chemical reactions that occur in the body
1.) catabolic reactions... 2.) anabolic reactions
-break down large molecules... -release energy
-build up large molecules... -require energy
metabolism
the sum of chemical reactions that occur in the body
What are two types of metabolic reacti…
1.) catabolic reactions... 2.) anabolic reactions
molecular biology
absorption
addiction
amino acid
bmi
how drugs get in the body
habitual use of a drug, a disease in itself.... Caused by taking…
Building blocks of protein
Body Mass Index, weight in proportion to... height
absorption
how drugs get in the body
addiction
habitual use of a drug, a disease in itself.... Caused by taking…
100 terms
Molecular Biology
Difference between deoxyribose vs. rib…
Purines
Pyrimidines
Nuceloside vs. Nucleotide
deoxyribose has no 2' OH
Adenine, guanine
Cytosine, uracil, thymine
Nucleosides have no phosphate groups
Difference between deoxyribose vs. rib…
deoxyribose has no 2' OH
Purines
Adenine, guanine
28 terms
Molecular Biology
Gel electrophoresis: Stationary phase
Gel electrophoresis: Mobile phase
An enzyme that cuts or digests a palin…
Small circular DNA molecules found in…
The gel
The electric field or current
True
Plasmids
Gel electrophoresis: Stationary phase
The gel
Gel electrophoresis: Mobile phase
The electric field or current
17 terms
molecular biology
organism
cell
organelle
eukaryote
A living thing; anything that can carry out life processes in…
The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms.
A specialized structure that performs important cellular func…
a cell with a membrane enclosed nucleus and membrane enclosed…
organism
A living thing; anything that can carry out life processes in…
cell
The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms.
Molecular Biology
Most frequently occurring chemical ele…
Carbon atoms
Covalent Bonds
Carbohydrates
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
Ability to form long chains of carbon - carbon-carbon bonds a…
Chemical bonds formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons b…
Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen... The…
Most frequently occurring chemical ele…
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
Carbon atoms
Ability to form long chains of carbon - carbon-carbon bonds a…
83 terms
Molecular Biology
Anabolism
Catabolism
Carbohydrates
Covalent bonds
is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules…
is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules…
any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods…
a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs b…
Anabolism
is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules…
Catabolism
is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules…
Molecular Biology
Matter
Subatomic particles
Polar covalent bonds
Covalent bonds
What all living things are made of. All mater is made of atoms.
Protons, +... neutrons... electrons -
Electrons are not shared equally. (O is more electronegative…
join atoms into molecules through electron sharing
Matter
What all living things are made of. All mater is made of atoms.
Subatomic particles
Protons, +... neutrons... electrons -
217 terms
Molecular Biology
restriction nucleases
recombinant DNA
pulsed-field gel electrophoresis makes…
Endonuclease
Enzymes that cut the DNA double helix at specific sites defin…
DNA molecules produced by splicing together two or more DNA f…
extremely long DNA molecules. They reorient themselves before…
cuts within a DNA polymer
restriction nucleases
Enzymes that cut the DNA double helix at specific sites defin…
recombinant DNA
DNA molecules produced by splicing together two or more DNA f…
110 terms
Molecular Biology
Molecular biology
Reductionist molecular biology view
Vital principle
Synthesis of urea
Explains living processes in terms of the chemical substances…
- view of a molcular biologist is as a reductionist as it con…
- synthesis of organic compounds in plants and animals could…
- can be produced by living organisms, and can also be artifi…
Molecular biology
Explains living processes in terms of the chemical substances…
Reductionist molecular biology view
- view of a molcular biologist is as a reductionist as it con…
76 terms
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
What is vitalism?
What was Berzilius's theory?
What did Wöhler show?
How was vitalism falsified?
Vitalism means that living organisms are fundamentally differ…
Suggested that there was a difference between chemicals invol…
It was then a surprise when Wöhler showed that organic chemic…
The theory of vitalism was then falsified when two ordinary c…
What is vitalism?
Vitalism means that living organisms are fundamentally differ…
What was Berzilius's theory?
Suggested that there was a difference between chemicals invol…
88 terms
Molecular Biology
theory of vitalism
molecular biology
natural selection
atom
the origin and phenomena of life are dependent on a force or…
aims to explain living processes in terms of the chemical sub…
what makes living organisms different from non-living matter
a single particle of an element
theory of vitalism
the origin and phenomena of life are dependent on a force or…
molecular biology
aims to explain living processes in terms of the chemical sub…
57 terms
Molecular Biology
atoms are composed of
protons
electrons
neutrons
protons, electrons and neutrons
positively charged, atomic number, found in nucleus, attract…
negatively charged, same as number of protons, orbit around t…
no charge, atomic mass minus atomic number, found in nucleus
atoms are composed of
protons, electrons and neutrons
protons
positively charged, atomic number, found in nucleus, attract…
Molecular Biology
Metabolism
Catabolic Reactions
Anabolic Reactions
Ingestion
Chemical reactions in living organisms that are necessary to…
Complex molecules are broken down to simpler ones and energy…
REQUIRES ENERGY. chemical reactions in which simpler substanc…
The acquisition and consumption of food and other raw materia…
Metabolism
Chemical reactions in living organisms that are necessary to…
Catabolic Reactions
Complex molecules are broken down to simpler ones and energy…
27 terms
Molecular Biology- DNA & RNA
double helix
nucleotide
adenine
thymine
the twisted ladder structure of DNA.
sub unit of nucleic acid (monomer) made of 5 carbon sugar, ph…
purine that pairs with thymine
pyrimidine (single ring) that pairs with adenine
double helix
the twisted ladder structure of DNA.
nucleotide
sub unit of nucleic acid (monomer) made of 5 carbon sugar, ph…
21 terms
Molecular Biology
cell
cellular respiration
chloroplast
organism
the basic unit of structure and function in all living things
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose in the…
where photosynthesis occurs in plant and algae cells
a single member of a species
cell
the basic unit of structure and function in all living things
cellular respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose in the…
10 terms
Molecular Biology
Permeabillity
Reproduction
Cell Division
Chromosomes
The ability for a substance to pass through a barrier
The ability of cells or organisms to generate others of the s…
When a cell divides to form two cell that are identical, call…
The small bodies that carry genetic material
Permeabillity
The ability for a substance to pass through a barrier
Reproduction
The ability of cells or organisms to generate others of the s…
12 terms
Molecular Biology
carbohydrate
toxic substance
glucose
protein
provides most of our energy. built of sugars
something that can harm or poison the body
sugar. The most important simple sugar in human metabolism
builds, maintains, and replaces tissues. built from amino acids
carbohydrate
provides most of our energy. built of sugars
toxic substance
something that can harm or poison the body
44 terms
Molecular Biology
Absorption
Addiction
Amino Acid
BMI
how drugs get into the body
habitual use of a drug, a disease in itself.... Caused by taking…
Building blocks of protein
Body Mass Index, weight in proportion to... height
Absorption
how drugs get into the body
Addiction
habitual use of a drug, a disease in itself.... Caused by taking…
Molecular Biology
Polypeptides
Genes
Molecular Biology
Bio-Molecules
amino acids linked by condensation reactions
coding sections of a genome
explains living processes in terms of the chemical substances…
lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, water
Polypeptides
amino acids linked by condensation reactions
Genes
coding sections of a genome
19 terms
Molecular Biology
What are the four most common elements…
What are Organic compounds
What are inorganic compounds?
What are the four major groups of orga…
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
Counpounds that contain carbon, but excluding carbonates, hyd…
All other compounds are inorganic. ex. water
Carbohydrates, lipids, protiens, nucleic acid
What are the four most common elements…
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
What are Organic compounds
Counpounds that contain carbon, but excluding carbonates, hyd…
Molecular Biology
Nucleoside
Nucleotides
Adenine
Guanine
Ribose with a purine or pyrimidine linked to the primary carb…
Phosphate esters of nucleosides; phosphate groups attached vi…
Lacks oxygen
Contains oxygen
Nucleoside
Ribose with a purine or pyrimidine linked to the primary carb…
Nucleotides
Phosphate esters of nucleosides; phosphate groups attached vi…
Molecular Biology
Define molecular biology
List 4 common chemical elements in liv…
List the carbon based compounds in bio…
Define metabolism
Explains living processes with reference to the chmeical proc…
1. Hydrogen... 2. Oxygen... 3. Nitrogen ... 4. Carbon
1. Carbohydrates... 2. Lipids... 3. Proteins... 4. Nucleic acids
All enzyme-catalysed reactions in cells an dorganisms
Define molecular biology
Explains living processes with reference to the chmeical proc…
List 4 common chemical elements in liv…
1. Hydrogen... 2. Oxygen... 3. Nitrogen ... 4. Carbon
8 terms
molecular biology
nucleotides
Deoxyribonucleic acid
ribonucleic acid
Monomers
Complex chemicals made up of an organic base, a sugar and pho…
DNA
RNA
Monomers are the building blocks of more complex molecules
nucleotides
Complex chemicals made up of an organic base, a sugar and pho…
Deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA
Molecular Biology
macromolecules
amino acids
nucleic acids
proteins
very large molecules consisting of many smaller structural un…
building blocks of proteins
carry genetic code in DNA & RNA; DNA, RNA, ATP, and nucleotid…
folded (tangled) chains of amino acids
macromolecules
very large molecules consisting of many smaller structural un…
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
Molecular Biology
DNA
mRNA
Chromosome
nucleus
Deoxyribose nucleic Acid... A double-stranded, helical nucleic a…
messenger Ribonucleic Acid... A type of RNA, synthesized from DN…
Genetic material found in nucleus... A threadlike, gene-carrying…
control center of the cell... A part of the cell containing DNA…
DNA
Deoxyribose nucleic Acid... A double-stranded, helical nucleic a…
mRNA
messenger Ribonucleic Acid... A type of RNA, synthesized from DN…
57 terms
Molecular biology
Describe DNA structure
Describe polynucleotides
Describe the watson-crick model of DNA…
True or false:... 1. If the amount of G…
- DNA and RNA are nucleic acids... - DNA is made from deoxyribo…
- Nucleotides bound together by phosphodiester bonds connecti…
- Cellular DNA is a right-handed double helix held together b…
1. T; 2. F, 3. F, 4. T
Describe DNA structure
- DNA and RNA are nucleic acids... - DNA is made from deoxyribo…
Describe polynucleotides
- Nucleotides bound together by phosphodiester bonds connecti…
54 terms
Molecular Biology
Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
organic
biomolecules
carbon
What are the four most important elements to living things?
anything that contains carbon
molecules of life; composed of a backbone of carbon atoms
This element can form up to 4 electrons with atoms of other e…
Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
What are the four most important elements to living things?
organic
anything that contains carbon
Molecular Biology
Nucleotide
Nitrogen Base
Mutations
Genome
-the basic sub unit of the DNA molecule... -made out of a deoxyr…
-adenine / thymine / uracil... -guanine / cytosine
-point : change one base... -frameshift : addition or deletion o…
-a haploid set of chromosomes
Nucleotide
-the basic sub unit of the DNA molecule... -made out of a deoxyr…
Nitrogen Base
-adenine / thymine / uracil... -guanine / cytosine
40 terms
Molecular Biology
element
isotopes
atomic weight
compounds
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substa…
Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutro…
Mass of a single atom/= to the # of protons plus the # of neu…
Combination of 2 or more elements.
element
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substa…
isotopes
Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutro…
35 terms
Molecular Biology
Central Dogma
Nucleotides
DNA
RNA
DNA -> RNA -> Proteins -> Traits, metabolism, homeostasis
- DNA / RNA... - Nitrogen Base... - Sugar... - Phosphate
- Deoxyribose Sugar... - Bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytos…
- protein synthesis ... - ribose sugar ... - Bases (adenine, uracil…
Central Dogma
DNA -> RNA -> Proteins -> Traits, metabolism, homeostasis
Nucleotides
- DNA / RNA... - Nitrogen Base... - Sugar... - Phosphate
36 terms
molecular biology
SSBP (single stranded binding proteins)
topoisomerase
ORI (origin of replication)
primase
protect DNA that has been unpackaged in preparation for repli…
Enzymes that cut one or both strands and unwrap the helix, re…
specific location (sequence of nucleotides) on the chromosome…
an RNA primer is synthesized for each strand; primosome (prot…
SSBP (single stranded binding proteins)
protect DNA that has been unpackaged in preparation for repli…
topoisomerase
Enzymes that cut one or both strands and unwrap the helix, re…
85 terms
Molecular Biology
Griffith
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty
Hershey and Chase
Chargaff
A scientist who in 1927 discovered that non-virulent bacteria…
Three scientists who in 1944 discovered that DNA was the mole…
Two scientists who in 1952 discovered that DNA from the nucle…
A scientist who realized that there must be complementary bas…
Griffith
A scientist who in 1927 discovered that non-virulent bacteria…
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty
Three scientists who in 1944 discovered that DNA was the mole…
1 of 10