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Study sets matching "biology molecular"

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Study sets matching "biology molecular"

45 terms
Molecular Biology
double helix
nucleotide
adenine
thymine
determined by watson and crick; structure of DNA
sub unit of nucleic acid (monomer) made of 5 carbon sugar, ph…
purine that pairs with thymine
pyrimidine (single ring) that pairs with adenine
double helix
determined by watson and crick; structure of DNA
nucleotide
sub unit of nucleic acid (monomer) made of 5 carbon sugar, ph…
11 terms
Molecular Biology
DNA
DNA replication
RNA
mRNA
double stranded double helix, ATCG bases, nucleic acid
to copy DNA
single stranded, AUCG bases, nucleic acid
messenger RNA, copies the DNA code and moves it to the ribosome
DNA
double stranded double helix, ATCG bases, nucleic acid
DNA replication
to copy DNA
24 terms
Molecular Biology
molecule
organic
monomer
polymer
2 or more atoms bonded together
Contains carbon
A molecule that can combine with others to form a polymer.
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monom…
molecule
2 or more atoms bonded together
organic
Contains carbon
13 terms
Molecular Biology
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
amino acids
carbon compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; us…
broad class of carbon compounds that are insoluble in water;…
carbon compounds composed of one or more chains of amino acids
subunits of proteins; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, a…
carbohydrates
carbon compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; us…
lipids
broad class of carbon compounds that are insoluble in water;…
14 terms
Molecular Biology
isotope
radioactive isotope
Electron Configuration
polar covalent bonds
A variant of an element that differs only in its number of ne…
an isotope whose nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off par…
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
a type of covalent bond between atoms that differ in electron…
isotope
A variant of an element that differs only in its number of ne…
radioactive isotope
an isotope whose nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off par…
22 terms
Molecular Biology
Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration
Nutrient
ATP
The process in which the cells of plants use light energy fro…
The process by which cells break down sugar to release stored…
The compounds that provide building materials for living thin…
The energy created as a result of cellular respiration (we ma…
Photosynthesis
The process in which the cells of plants use light energy fro…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells break down sugar to release stored…
33 terms
Molecular Biology
Frederick Griffith
transformation
Oswald Avery
bacteriophages/phages
used pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria to discover transf…
Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene…
tested the ability of inactivated DNA, RNA, and protein to tr…
viruses that infect bacteria
Frederick Griffith
used pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria to discover transf…
transformation
Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene…
Molecular Biology
Most frequently occurring chemical ele…
Carbon atoms
Covalent Bonds
Carbohydrates
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
Ability to form long chains of carbon - carbon-carbon bonds a…
Chemical bonds formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons b…
Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen... The…
Most frequently occurring chemical ele…
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
Carbon atoms
Ability to form long chains of carbon - carbon-carbon bonds a…
46 terms
Molecular Biology
Organic chemistry is the chemistry of…
Name that 4 types of molecules that ma…
Carbon atoms can form how many covalen…
What is catabolism?
Carbon compounds
Carbohydrates... Lipids... Proteins... Nucleic Acids
Four
The breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones
Organic chemistry is the chemistry of…
Carbon compounds
Name that 4 types of molecules that ma…
Carbohydrates... Lipids... Proteins... Nucleic Acids
62 terms
Molecular Biology
electronegativity
covalent bonds
non-polar covalent bonds
polar covalent bond
an atoms attraction for its electrons
a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs b…
covalent bonds between atoms where electrons are shared equally
an unequal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond... the pulli…
electronegativity
an atoms attraction for its electrons
covalent bonds
a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs b…
99 terms
IB Biology- Molecular Biology
molecular biology
carbon
organic molecules
inorganic molecules
the study of living processes in terms of the chemicals invol…
forms many different compounds due to four available covalent…
carbon based molecules that are made in living organisms
any molecule that is produced through non-living means, e.g.…
molecular biology
the study of living processes in terms of the chemicals invol…
carbon
forms many different compounds due to four available covalent…
32 terms
Molecular Biology
Nutrient
Carbohydrate
Protein
Calorie
A substance in food that provides the raw materials and energ…
Nutrient composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen that is a m…
Nutrient that contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen,…
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one g…
Nutrient
A substance in food that provides the raw materials and energ…
Carbohydrate
Nutrient composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen that is a m…
92 terms
IB Biology - Molecular Biology
Name the most frequent elements in life
5 other necessary elements for life
Compound
Ionic bonds
CHON (Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and are main elemen…
Sulfur: found in 2 amino acids... Calcium: chemical messenger th…
2 or more elements combined in a fixed ratio
one atom strips valence electrons from another atom (high ele…
Name the most frequent elements in life
CHON (Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and are main elemen…
5 other necessary elements for life
Sulfur: found in 2 amino acids... Calcium: chemical messenger th…
201 terms
Molecular Biology
cftr
what is a cell? What are three compone…
cell -> whole body organization
central dogma of molecular bio
a chloride channel that hydrolyses app to open the channel... ch…
most basic unit of life... 1) obtain energy... 2) respond to enviro…
cell -> tissue -> organ -> organism
DNA-> RNA -> Protein -> Cellular Function
cftr
a chloride channel that hydrolyses app to open the channel... ch…
what is a cell? What are three compone…
most basic unit of life... 1) obtain energy... 2) respond to enviro…
106 terms
Molecular Biology
Atom
Element
Molecule
Compound
Single particle of an element consisting of a positively char…
Chemical substance consisting of atoms
Group of one or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Elements bound together
Atom
Single particle of an element consisting of a positively char…
Element
Chemical substance consisting of atoms
Unit 1 - Molecular Biology
hydrogen bond
Hydrogen bonds and Protein structure
Hydrogen bonds and DNA
Covalent bond
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positiv…
Within the long protein chains there are regions in which the…
Hydrogen bonding also plays an important role in determining…
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons bet…
hydrogen bond
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positiv…
Hydrogen bonds and Protein structure
Within the long protein chains there are regions in which the…
10 terms
Molecular Biology
Permeabillity
Reproduction
Cell Division
Chromosomes
The ability for a substance to pass through a barrier
The ability of cells or organisms to generate others of the s…
When a cell divides to form two cell that are identical, call…
The small bodies that carry genetic material
Permeabillity
The ability for a substance to pass through a barrier
Reproduction
The ability of cells or organisms to generate others of the s…
44 terms
Molecular Biology
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides (Carbohydrate / Carboh…
Glucose (Monosaccharide)
Fructose (Monosaccharide)
Definition: A class of organic molecules containing carbon:hy…
Examples: Glucose, galactose, fructose, verbose... Three Common…
alpha-Glucose is a hexose, with hydroxyl groups at carbon 1,2…
alpha-Fructose is a pentose with the hydroxyl group at carbon…
Carbohydrates
Definition: A class of organic molecules containing carbon:hy…
Monosaccharides (Carbohydrate / Carboh…
Examples: Glucose, galactose, fructose, verbose... Three Common…
159 terms
Molecular Biology
4 biochemical molecules
organic matter
inorganic matter
carbon
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
makes up most of living organisms and always will contain car…
does not contain carbon. it can be found in both nonliving an…
keystone element of life. atomic number 6 with stable inner s…
4 biochemical molecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
organic matter
makes up most of living organisms and always will contain car…
31 terms
molecular biology
absorption
addiction
amino acid
bmi
how drugs get in the body
habitual use of a drug, a disease in itself.... Caused by taking…
Building blocks of protein
Body Mass Index, weight in proportion to... height
absorption
how drugs get in the body
addiction
habitual use of a drug, a disease in itself.... Caused by taking…
84 terms
Molecular Biology
metabolism
What are two types of metabolic reacti…
catabolic reactions
anabolic reactions
the sum of chemical reactions that occur in the body
1.) catabolic reactions... 2.) anabolic reactions
-break down large molecules... -release energy
-build up large molecules... -require energy
metabolism
the sum of chemical reactions that occur in the body
What are two types of metabolic reacti…
1.) catabolic reactions... 2.) anabolic reactions
28 terms
Molecular Biology
Gel electrophoresis: Stationary phase
Gel electrophoresis: Mobile phase
An enzyme that cuts or digests a palin…
Small circular DNA molecules found in…
The gel
The electric field or current
True
Plasmids
Gel electrophoresis: Stationary phase
The gel
Gel electrophoresis: Mobile phase
The electric field or current
83 terms
Molecular Biology
Anabolism
Catabolism
Carbohydrates
Covalent bonds
is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules…
is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules…
any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods…
a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs b…
Anabolism
is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules…
Catabolism
is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules…
23 terms
Molecular Biology
Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration
Nutrient
ATP
The process in which the cells of plants use light energy fro…
The process by which cells break down sugar to release stored…
The compounds that provide building materials for living thin…
The energy created as a result of cellular respiration (we ma…
Photosynthesis
The process in which the cells of plants use light energy fro…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells break down sugar to release stored…
44 terms
Molecular Biology
Absorption
Addiction
Amino Acid
BMI
how drugs get into the body
habitual use of a drug, a disease in itself.... Caused by taking…
Building blocks of protein
Body Mass Index, weight in proportion to... height
Absorption
how drugs get into the body
Addiction
habitual use of a drug, a disease in itself.... Caused by taking…
110 terms
Molecular Biology
Molecular biology
Reductionist molecular biology view
Vital principle
Synthesis of urea
Explains living processes in terms of the chemical substances…
- view of a molcular biologist is as a reductionist as it con…
- synthesis of organic compounds in plants and animals could…
- can be produced by living organisms, and can also be artifi…
Molecular biology
Explains living processes in terms of the chemical substances…
Reductionist molecular biology view
- view of a molcular biologist is as a reductionist as it con…
132 terms
Molecular Biology
Synthesis of urea by body
Artificial synthesis of urea
Molecular diagram of urea
Carbon compounds
- Urea is a nitrogen containing compound which is a component…
Urea can also be artificially synthesized.... Ammonia + Carbon…
- Are the 15th most abundant element on earth ... - Each carbon…
Synthesis of urea by body
- Urea is a nitrogen containing compound which is a component…
Artificial synthesis of urea
Urea can also be artificially synthesized.... Ammonia + Carbon…
100 terms
Molecular Biology
Difference between deoxyribose vs. rib…
Purines
Pyrimidines
Nuceloside vs. Nucleotide
deoxyribose has no 2' OH
Adenine, guanine
Cytosine, uracil, thymine
Nucleosides have no phosphate groups
Difference between deoxyribose vs. rib…
deoxyribose has no 2' OH
Purines
Adenine, guanine
18 terms
molecular biology
molecular biology
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
Molecular biology concerns the molecular basis of biological…
broken down into simple sugars
broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.
broken down into amino acids.
molecular biology
Molecular biology concerns the molecular basis of biological…
carbohydrates
broken down into simple sugars
17 terms
molecular biology
organism
cell
organelle
eukaryote
A living thing; anything that can carry out life processes in…
The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms.
A specialized structure that performs important cellular func…
a cell with a membrane enclosed nucleus and membrane enclosed…
organism
A living thing; anything that can carry out life processes in…
cell
The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms.
88 terms
Molecular Biology
theory of vitalism
molecular biology
natural selection
atom
the origin and phenomena of life are dependent on a force or…
aims to explain living processes in terms of the chemical sub…
what makes living organisms different from non-living matter
a single particle of an element
theory of vitalism
the origin and phenomena of life are dependent on a force or…
molecular biology
aims to explain living processes in terms of the chemical sub…
84 terms
Molecular Biology
Matter
Subatomic particles
Polar covalent bonds
Covalent bonds
What all living things are made of. All mater is made of atoms.
Protons, +... neutrons... electrons -
Electrons are not shared equally. (O is more electronegative…
join atoms into molecules through electron sharing
Matter
What all living things are made of. All mater is made of atoms.
Subatomic particles
Protons, +... neutrons... electrons -
217 terms
Molecular Biology
restriction nucleases
recombinant DNA
pulsed-field gel electrophoresis makes…
Endonuclease
Enzymes that cut the DNA double helix at specific sites defin…
DNA molecules produced by splicing together two or more DNA f…
extremely long DNA molecules. They reorient themselves before…
cuts within a DNA polymer
restriction nucleases
Enzymes that cut the DNA double helix at specific sites defin…
recombinant DNA
DNA molecules produced by splicing together two or more DNA f…
57 terms
Molecular Biology
atoms are composed of
protons
electrons
neutrons
protons, electrons and neutrons
positively charged, atomic number, found in nucleus, attract…
negatively charged, same as number of protons, orbit around t…
no charge, atomic mass minus atomic number, found in nucleus
atoms are composed of
protons, electrons and neutrons
protons
positively charged, atomic number, found in nucleus, attract…
32 terms
AS Bio Molecular biology
protein
carbohydrate
lipid
peptide bond
A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids.
Class of organic compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen,…
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes,…
The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of on…
protein
A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids.
carbohydrate
Class of organic compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen,…
76 terms
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
What is vitalism?
What was Berzilius's theory?
What did Wöhler show?
How was vitalism falsified?
Vitalism means that living organisms are fundamentally differ…
Suggested that there was a difference between chemicals invol…
It was then a surprise when Wöhler showed that organic chemic…
The theory of vitalism was then falsified when two ordinary c…
What is vitalism?
Vitalism means that living organisms are fundamentally differ…
What was Berzilius's theory?
Suggested that there was a difference between chemicals invol…
9 terms
Molecular Biology
Elements of life
Water
Glucose
Molecular structure of Starch
living things are composed mainly of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen…
A liquid made of hydrogen and oxygen.
A simple sugar that is an important source of energy.
Elements of life
living things are composed mainly of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen…
Water
A liquid made of hydrogen and oxygen.
16 terms
Molecular Biology
Catabolism
Anabolism
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.
Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger mo…
Class of nutrients that include starches, fibers and sugars
Any of a group of complex organic macromolecules that are com…
Catabolism
Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.
Anabolism
Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger mo…
135 terms
Molecular Biology
AMP
too much AMP in cell means
nucleotide
purines
adenosine mono phosphate... ATP converts to AMP by removing a p…
that there is not enough energy in the cell
made up of a phosphate, sugar and nitrogenous base
AG... adenine and guanine... 2-ringed structure
AMP
adenosine mono phosphate... ATP converts to AMP by removing a p…
too much AMP in cell means
that there is not enough energy in the cell
86 terms
Molecular Biology
Metabolism
Catabolic Reactions
Anabolic Reactions
Ingestion
Chemical reactions in living organisms that are necessary to…
Complex molecules are broken down to simpler ones and energy…
REQUIRES ENERGY. chemical reactions in which simpler substanc…
The acquisition and consumption of food and other raw materia…
Metabolism
Chemical reactions in living organisms that are necessary to…
Catabolic Reactions
Complex molecules are broken down to simpler ones and energy…
62 terms
Molecular biology
DNA
Urea
Carbon compounds
Carbohydrates
deoxyribonucleic acid - 1953
proof that life didn't need a vital force to be created
15th most abundant molecule, 4 possible bond sites
Carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid - 1953
Urea
proof that life didn't need a vital force to be created
11 terms
Molecular Biology
plant cell
animal cell
mitochondria
chloroplast
(not in glossary) has cell wall, large vacuoles and chloropla…
(not in glossary) has mitochondria, large nucleus
organelles that release energy from glucose (oxygen is used t…
found in plant cells; captures energy from sunlight and conve…
plant cell
(not in glossary) has cell wall, large vacuoles and chloropla…
animal cell
(not in glossary) has mitochondria, large nucleus
11 terms
Molecular Biology
carbon dioxide
water molecule
ATP
glucose
CO₂
H₂O
energy that is release from cell respiration
C₆H₁₂O₆
carbon dioxide
CO₂
water molecule
H₂O
24 terms
Molecular Biology
active transport
passive transport
diffusion
osmosis
movement of particles against a gradient, from low concentrat…
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low co…
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to…
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
active transport
movement of particles against a gradient, from low concentrat…
passive transport
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low co…
12 terms
Molecular Biology
cellular respiration
glucose
ATP
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the process in which cells produce energy needed to survive
major source of energy for our cells (involved in cellular re…
usable form of energy for our cells
amount of energy required to maintain minimum essential life…
cellular respiration
the process in which cells produce energy needed to survive
glucose
major source of energy for our cells (involved in cellular re…
30 terms
Molecular Biology
Properties of water
Adhesive
Cohesive
High Latent Heat Evaporation
- adhesive ... - cohesive ... - high latent heat... - high boiling poi…
- water molecules are able to attach themselves to other pola…
- water molecules are able to attach themselves to each other…
- water molecules are split by latent heat ... - a lot of latent…
Properties of water
- adhesive ... - cohesive ... - high latent heat... - high boiling poi…
Adhesive
- water molecules are able to attach themselves to other pola…
57 terms
Molecular biology
Describe DNA structure
Describe polynucleotides
Describe the watson-crick model of DNA…
True or false:... 1. If the amount of G…
- DNA and RNA are nucleic acids... - DNA is made from deoxyribo…
- Nucleotides bound together by phosphodiester bonds connecti…
- Cellular DNA is a right-handed double helix held together b…
1. T; 2. F, 3. F, 4. T
Describe DNA structure
- DNA and RNA are nucleic acids... - DNA is made from deoxyribo…
Describe polynucleotides
- Nucleotides bound together by phosphodiester bonds connecti…
34 terms
Molecular Biology
Organic chemistry is the chemistry of…
Name that 4 types of molecules that ma…
Carbon atoms can form how many covalen…
What is catabolism?
Carbon compounds
Carbohydrates... Lipids... Proteins... Nucleic Acids
Four
The breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones
Organic chemistry is the chemistry of…
Carbon compounds
Name that 4 types of molecules that ma…
Carbohydrates... Lipids... Proteins... Nucleic Acids
54 terms
Molecular Biology
Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
organic
biomolecules
carbon
What are the four most important elements to living things?
anything that contains carbon
molecules of life; composed of a backbone of carbon atoms
This element can form up to 4 electrons with atoms of other e…
Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
What are the four most important elements to living things?
organic
anything that contains carbon
21 terms
Molecular Biology
cell
cellular respiration
chloroplast
organism
the basic unit of structure and function in all living things
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose in the…
where photosynthesis occurs in plant and algae cells
a single member of a species
cell
the basic unit of structure and function in all living things
cellular respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose in the…
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