#### Study sets matching "biostats"

#### Study sets matching "biostats"

T/F? In a normal standard distrubtion,…

T/F? In a left skewed distribution, the…

T/F? In a left skewed distribution, the…

T/F? In a normal distribution curve, th…

T

F.

T

T

T/F? In a normal standard distrubtion,…

T

T/F? In a left skewed distribution, the…

F.

probability=

4 steps of hypothesis testing

null hypothesis

random sampling variation

chance

1. making hypothesis... 2. set criteria for decision... 3. gather da…

there is no difference between your sample and the population…

all observed differences are due to chance

probability=

chance

4 steps of hypothesis testing

1. making hypothesis... 2. set criteria for decision... 3. gather da…

A contingency table is widely used to d…

what is the R code to build a contingen…

risk difference is defined as?

NNT or NNH can or cannot contain a deci…

the association between 2 categorical variables

table(data~independent,data~outcome)

a measure of the difference between two proportions... (a/(a+b))-…

cannot (don't have half a person)... round UP

A contingency table is widely used to d…

the association between 2 categorical variables

what is the R code to build a contingen…

table(data~independent,data~outcome)

Standard deviation

Prevalence

Incidence

Crude (Overall) Mortality Rate (CMR)

Used for symmetric measured data

# of ALL cases of a particular disease in a population... # case…

# of NEW cases of a disease in a population... # of new cases in…

# of deaths/ total population size... Measures the overall death…

Standard deviation

Used for symmetric measured data

Prevalence

# of ALL cases of a particular disease in a population... # case…

Nominal data

Ordinal data

kinds of data in nonparametric tests

Types of tests associated with ordinal…

Comparing modes between groups

comparing medians between groups

Nominal and Ordinal

Mann-whitney U test... Wilcoxan Signed Rank test ... Kruskai wallis…

Nominal data

Comparing modes between groups

Ordinal data

comparing medians between groups

Cross sectional study

Case- Control Study

Cohort Study

Phase 1

Data from a group of people to assess the frequency of a disea…

Compares a group with a disease to a group without the disease…

Compares a group with a given exposure or risk factor to a gro…

Small # of healty volunteers- is it safe?

Cross sectional study

Data from a group of people to assess the frequency of a disea…

Case- Control Study

Compares a group with a disease to a group without the disease…

cross sectional study

cross sectional study

case control study

case control study

collets data form a group of people to assess frequency of dis…

for disease prevlanece

compares a group of people with disease to a group witout dise…

to calcualte odds ratio

cross sectional study

collets data form a group of people to assess frequency of dis…

cross sectional study

for disease prevlanece

Deviation score

nominal data

ordinal data

interval data

D=X-x... Distance a number is from the mean

data are placed in qualitative groups... ex. based on description…

data are placed in ranking orders ... ex. 1st, 2nd, 3rd ... DOESNOT…

data are in a meaningful order

**without**an absolute zero... ofte…Deviation score

D=X-x... Distance a number is from the mean

nominal data

data are placed in qualitative groups... ex. based on description…

Sensitivity

Specificity

PPV

NPV

probability that a test detects dz when dz is present... proport…

- true-negative rate... - probability that a test indicates no di…

probability that the person actually has the dz when given a p…

- proportion of negative test results that are TN... - probabilit…

Sensitivity

probability that a test detects dz when dz is present... proport…

Specificity

- true-negative rate... - probability that a test indicates no di…

95% CI

Relative risk/Risk ratio (RR)... Probabil…

Number needed to treat (NNT)

Odds ratio (OR)... Represents that probab…

-When 95% for estimated DIFFERENCE between groups (or within t…

-Probability of an unfavorable event occurring in the tx group…

NNT = 100 / % ARR... MUST ALWAYS around up this number! (e.g. 3.0…

-ratio of two odds, or the ratio of the odds of an event occur…

95% CI

-When 95% for estimated DIFFERENCE between groups (or within t…

Relative risk/Risk ratio (RR)... Probabil…

-Probability of an unfavorable event occurring in the tx group…

Cross Sectional Study... (observational)

Cross Sectional Study measures

Case Control Study... (observational and r…

Case Control Study measures...

collects data from group of people to assess frequency of dise…

disease prevalence... shows risk factor association with disease,…

compares a group of people with disease to a group without dis…

odds ratio... Ex: patients with COPD have higher odds of a histor…

Cross Sectional Study... (observational)

collects data from group of people to assess frequency of dise…

Cross Sectional Study measures

disease prevalence... shows risk factor association with disease,…

nominal

ordinal

discrete/discontinuous

continuous

qualitative... -gender, zip code, hair color, ethnic group

qualitative... -ordered set of relationships

quantitative... -must be whole integers ... -vital statistics such a…

quantitative... -age, height, weight, serum cholesterol, etc; dat…

nominal

qualitative... -gender, zip code, hair color, ethnic group

ordinal

qualitative... -ordered set of relationships

Scientific Method

Descriptive Statistics is also called

Descriptive Statistics

Statistical Inference is also called

Testing and eliminating hypotheses whose predictions are incon…

Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)

Organization and summarization of data; graphical display to v…

Confirmatory Data Analysis (CDA)

Scientific Method

Testing and eliminating hypotheses whose predictions are incon…

Descriptive Statistics is also called

Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)

Central Limit Theorem

Standard Errors (SE)

Standard deviation (s)

Standard error of the mean (SEM)

n must be > 60, if sample size is large, distribution of sampl…

standard deviation of sampling distribution, measures precisio…

measures variability/spread amount individual observations in…

measure of the precision of the sample mean; SEM = s/root(n);…

Central Limit Theorem

n must be > 60, if sample size is large, distribution of sampl…

Standard Errors (SE)

standard deviation of sampling distribution, measures precisio…

adjusted rate (adjustment)

Alpha (α)

alternative hypothesis

analysis of covariance (ANCOVA

A summarizing procedure for a statistical measure in which the…

The probability of a type I error, the error of rejecting a tr…

1. A supposition, arrived at from observation or reflection, t…

Originally used for an extension of the analysis of variance t…

adjusted rate (adjustment)

A summarizing procedure for a statistical measure in which the…

Alpha (α)

The probability of a type I error, the error of rejecting a tr…

Two sample t-test

Two sample z-test

ANOVA

Chi-square

compare the means of two groups of subjects

compare two means, but population (not sample) variances are e…

Analysis of variances --> used to compare three or more means

Appropriate for categorical data and proportions

Two sample t-test

compare the means of two groups of subjects

Two sample z-test

compare two means, but population (not sample) variances are e…

Cross Sectional

Case-control

Cohort

Twin concordance

Data from a group of people to assess frequency of dz at a par…

Compares a group of people without a dz to a group with dz.... A…

Compares a group with a given exposure or risk factor to a gro…

Compares frequency with which both monozygotic twins or both d…

Cross Sectional

Data from a group of people to assess frequency of dz at a par…

Case-control

Compares a group of people without a dz to a group with dz.... A…

Cross-sectional Study

Case-control study

Cohort study

Phases of a clinical trial

Disease prevelance... Basically it's like looking at a bunch of p…

Looks for prior exposure or risk factor... uses odds ratio ... Compa…

Compares a group w/ exposure to group w/o - looks to see if ex…

1: yo we healthy, is this shit safe?... 2: Small sick group, is t…

Cross-sectional Study

Disease prevelance... Basically it's like looking at a bunch of p…

Case-control study

Looks for prior exposure or risk factor... uses odds ratio ... Compa…

No implication of relationship

Info on what proportion of population i…

Information on time (how fast disease i…

Rate as it pertains to total population…

Ratio

Proportion

Rate

Crude Rate

No implication of relationship

Ratio

Info on what proportion of population i…

Proportion