#### Study sets matching "biostats"

#### Study sets matching "biostats"

probability=

4 steps of hypothesis testing

null hypothesis

random sampling variation

chance

1. making hypothesis... 2. set criteria for decision... 3. gather da…

there is no difference between your sample and the population…

all observed differences are due to chance

probability=

chance

4 steps of hypothesis testing

1. making hypothesis... 2. set criteria for decision... 3. gather da…

A contingency table is widely used to d…

what is the R code to build a contingen…

risk difference is defined as?

NNT or NNH can or cannot contain a deci…

the association between 2 categorical variables

table(data~independent,data~outcome)

a measure of the difference between two proportions... (a/(a+b))-…

cannot (don't have half a person)... round UP

A contingency table is widely used to d…

the association between 2 categorical variables

what is the R code to build a contingen…

table(data~independent,data~outcome)

Prevalence

Incidence

Crude (Overall) Mortality Rate (CMR)

Cause Specific Mortality Rate

# of ALL cases of a particular disease in a population... # case…

# of NEW cases of a disease in a population... # of new cases in…

Measures the overall death rate within a population. Usually c…

Amount of deaths due to ONE SPECIFIC CAUSE. Gives a measure of…

Prevalence

# of ALL cases of a particular disease in a population... # case…

Incidence

# of NEW cases of a disease in a population... # of new cases in…

Cross sectional study

Case- Control Study

Cohort Study

Phase 1

Data from a group of people to assess the frequency of a disea…

Compares a group with a disease to a group without the disease…

Compares a group with a given exposure or risk factor to a gro…

Small # of healty volunteers- is it safe?

Cross sectional study

Data from a group of people to assess the frequency of a disea…

Case- Control Study

Compares a group with a disease to a group without the disease…

Deviation score

nominal data

ordinal data

interval data

D=X-x... Distance a number is from the mean

data are placed in qualitative groups... ex. based on description…

data are placed in ranking orders ... ex. 1st, 2nd, 3rd ... DOESNOT…

data are in a meaningful order

**without**an absolute zero... ofte…Deviation score

D=X-x... Distance a number is from the mean

nominal data

data are placed in qualitative groups... ex. based on description…

Sensitivity

Specificity

PPV

NPV

probability that a test detects dz when dz is present... proport…

- true-negative rate... - probability that a test indicates no di…

probability that the person actually has the dz when given a p…

- proportion of negative test results that are TN... - probabilit…

Sensitivity

probability that a test detects dz when dz is present... proport…

Specificity

- true-negative rate... - probability that a test indicates no di…

cross-sectional study

case-control study

cohort study

twin concordance study

Assess frequency of disease at a particular point in time. "Wh…

(retrospective) compares group of people with disease to group…

(Prospective [who will develop the disease] or retrospective […

compares the frequency of disease development between monozygo…

cross-sectional study

Assess frequency of disease at a particular point in time. "Wh…

case-control study

(retrospective) compares group of people with disease to group…

population

sampling

sampling methods

simple random sampling

a complete set of individuals, objects, or events, that share…

a portion of a population selected to represent the population…

1) simple random... 2) systematic... 3) stratified... 4) cluster... 5) con…

the simplest form o sampling methods where all members of a gi…

population

a complete set of individuals, objects, or events, that share…

sampling

a portion of a population selected to represent the population…

95% CI

Relative risk/Risk ratio (RR)... Probabil…

Number needed to treat (NNT)

Odds ratio (OR)... Represents that probab…

-When 95% for estimated DIFFERENCE between groups (or within t…

-Probability of an unfavorable event occurring in the tx group…

NNT = 100 / % ARR... MUST ALWAYS around up this number! (e.g. 3.0…

-ratio of two odds, or the ratio of the odds of an event occur…

95% CI

-When 95% for estimated DIFFERENCE between groups (or within t…

Relative risk/Risk ratio (RR)... Probabil…

-Probability of an unfavorable event occurring in the tx group…

What is a type 1 error (alpha)

What is a type 2 error (beta)... What is…

When can a written advance directive be…

In what type of study to you use RR and…

You s

**a**w a difference that didn't exist... You say a drug works…Don't approve a drug when it actually works...

**B**lind to a diffe…Probably never...... For sure not in

**emergency situation**Prospective cohort studies... Case-control studies

What is a type 1 error (alpha)

You s

**a**w a difference that didn't exist... You say a drug works…What is a type 2 error (beta)... What is…

Don't approve a drug when it actually works...

**B**lind to a diffe…nominal

ordinal

discrete/discontinuous

continuous

qualitative... -gender, zip code, hair color, ethnic group

qualitative... -ordered set of relationships

quantitative... -must be whole integers ... -vital statistics such a…

quantitative... -age, height, weight, serum cholesterol, etc; dat…

nominal

qualitative... -gender, zip code, hair color, ethnic group

ordinal

qualitative... -ordered set of relationships

Central Limit Theorem

Standard Errors (SE)

Standard deviation (s)

Standard error of the mean (SEM)

n must be > 60, if sample size is large, distribution of sampl…

standard deviation of sampling distribution, measures precisio…

measures variability/spread amount individual observations in…

measure of the precision of the sample mean; SEM = s/root(n);…

Central Limit Theorem

n must be > 60, if sample size is large, distribution of sampl…

Standard Errors (SE)

standard deviation of sampling distribution, measures precisio…

adjusted rate (adjustment)

Alpha (α)

alternative hypothesis

analysis of covariance (ANCOVA

A summarizing procedure for a statistical measure in which the…

The probability of a type I error, the error of rejecting a tr…

1. A supposition, arrived at from observation or reflection, t…

Originally used for an extension of the analysis of variance t…

adjusted rate (adjustment)

A summarizing procedure for a statistical measure in which the…

Alpha (α)

The probability of a type I error, the error of rejecting a tr…

Cross Sectional

Case-control

Cohort

Twin concordance

Data from a group of people to assess frequency of dz at a par…

Compares a group of people without a dz to a group with dz.... A…

Compares a group with a given exposure or risk factor to a gro…

Compares frequency with which both monozygotic twins or both d…

Cross Sectional

Data from a group of people to assess frequency of dz at a par…

Case-control

Compares a group of people without a dz to a group with dz.... A…

Cross-sectional Study

Case-control study

Cohort study

Phases of a clinical trial

Disease prevelance... Basically it's like looking at a bunch of p…

Looks for prior exposure or risk factor... uses odds ratio ... Compa…

Compares a group w/ exposure to group w/o - looks to see if ex…

1: yo we healthy, is this shit safe?... 2: Small sick group, is t…

Cross-sectional Study

Disease prevelance... Basically it's like looking at a bunch of p…

Case-control study

Looks for prior exposure or risk factor... uses odds ratio ... Compa…

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Population

Sample

Deals with the enumeration, organization, and graphical repres…

Concerned with reaching conclusions from incomplete informatio…

A set group of individuals having a common observable characte…

A subset of a population.... Example: 100 randomly chosen studen…

Descriptive Statistics

Deals with the enumeration, organization, and graphical repres…

Inferential Statistics

Concerned with reaching conclusions from incomplete informatio…

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio

- Data are coded by a number, name, or letter that is assigned…

- categories are ordered by rank... - Examples: Pain level (e.g.…

- Measurements are ordered (like ordinal data) and have equal…

- Ratio: Measurements have equal intervals & There is a true z…

Nominal

- Data are coded by a number, name, or letter that is assigned…

Ordinal

- categories are ordered by rank... - Examples: Pain level (e.g.…

Scientific Method

Descriptive Statistics is also called

Descriptive Statistics

Statistical Inference is also called

Testing and eliminating hypotheses whose predictions are incon…

Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)

Organization and summarization of data; graphical display to v…

Confirmatory Data Analysis (CDA)

Scientific Method

Testing and eliminating hypotheses whose predictions are incon…

Descriptive Statistics is also called

Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)