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Study sets matching "bushong"

171 terms
Bushong
Who first described photons
Where is electromagnetic energy present
What are the 4 properties of electroma…
Electromagnetic energy exists over a w…
Greeks
everywhere
frequency, wavelength, velocity, and amplitude
energy continuum
Who first described photons
Greeks
Where is electromagnetic energy present
everywhere
73 terms
Bushong
What is the back of a casette made of?
The three primary factors that influen…
What does Compton Scatter contribute to?
What is an autotransformer?
heavy metal to minimize back scatter
kVp, field size, patient thickness
reduced image contrast
an autotransformer has only one winding and varies both volta…
What is the back of a casette made of?
heavy metal to minimize back scatter
The three primary factors that influen…
kVp, field size, patient thickness
Bushong Review
Customary: Roentgen... Si: Air Kerma Gya
Customary: rad... Si: gray
Customary: rem... Si: seivert
Customary: curie ... Si: becquerel
Exposure ... customary unit?... Si Unit?
Absorbed dose... Customary unit?... Si unit?
Effective dose... Customary unit?... Si unit?
Radioactivity ... Customary unit?... Si unit?
Customary: Roentgen... Si: Air Kerma Gya
Exposure ... customary unit?... Si Unit?
Customary: rad... Si: gray
Absorbed dose... Customary unit?... Si unit?
112 terms
Bushong Chap 1 Review
Define matter
Distinguishable characteristic of matter
What is mass?
What is it made of?
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Mass
mass is the quantity of matter contained in any physical obje…
Matter (Atoms ,Molecules)
Define matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Distinguishable characteristic of matter
Mass
150 terms
ch 5: bushong
Which component of the primary circuit…
Devices that in effect convert AC to D…
A step-down transformer is used in wha…
By what process does a transformer cha…
Line compensator
Secondary
Filament
Induction
Which component of the primary circuit…
Line compensator
Devices that in effect convert AC to D…
Secondary
13 terms
Bushong CH 14
1b. central processing unit
1c. modem
1e. byte
1f. operating system
the microprocessor of the computer
a dveice that modulates/demodulates signals to convert digita…
a string of 8bits
computer program that organizes the course of data through th…
1b. central processing unit
the microprocessor of the computer
1c. modem
a dveice that modulates/demodulates signals to convert digita…
109 terms
Bushong Ch 6
The 3 Main Components of an x-ray imag…
the function of the x-ray imaging syst…
used to control the voltage applied to…
Name 3 things the operating console co…
x-ray tube operating console *high-voltage generator
to provide a controlled flow of electrons intense enough to p…
the operating console
the voltage applied to the x-ray tube the current through t…
The 3 Main Components of an x-ray imag…
x-ray tube operating console *high-voltage generator
the function of the x-ray imaging syst…
to provide a controlled flow of electrons intense enough to p…
60 terms
Bushong final
Other terms for immature cells
Fractionation
Protraction
What are the advantages of fractionati…
Stem cells, precursor, undifferentiated
Radiation dose delivered at same dose in equal portions at re…
Dose of radiation that is delivered continuously but at lower…
They cause less effect because time is allows for intercellul…
Other terms for immature cells
Stem cells, precursor, undifferentiated
Fractionation
Radiation dose delivered at same dose in equal portions at re…
Bushong Chapter 10
The random fluctuation in the optical…
What is spatial resolution?
Name two other terms that can be used…
Name the factors that control/affect d…
Radiographic noise.
The ability to image small objects that have high subject con…
Detail and recorded detail
Film speed, focal spot size, SID, OID, motion, and distortion
The random fluctuation in the optical…
Radiographic noise.
What is spatial resolution?
The ability to image small objects that have high subject con…
68 terms
Bushong Chapter 10
The random fluctuation in the optical…
What is spatial resolution?
Name two other terms that can be used…
Name the factors that control/affect d…
Radiographic noise.
The ability to image small objects that have high subject con…
Detail and recorded detail
Film speed, focal spot size, SID, OID, motion, and distortion
The random fluctuation in the optical…
Radiographic noise.
What is spatial resolution?
The ability to image small objects that have high subject con…
92 terms
Bushong Chapter 10
The random fluctuation in the optical…
What is spatial resolution?
Name two other terms that can be used…
Name the factors that control/affect d…
Radiographic noise.
The ability to image small objects that have high subject con…
Detail and recorded detail
Film speed, focal spot size, SID, OID, motion, and distortion
The random fluctuation in the optical…
Radiographic noise.
What is spatial resolution?
The ability to image small objects that have high subject con…
71 terms
Bushong Chapter 5
What are the three main components of…
What does the operating system do?
What does the high voltage generator c…
What portion of the operating console…
1) Tube... 2) Operating console... 3) High voltage generator
It controls the quality and quantity of the x-ray beam
The step up transformer, the step down transformer, and the r…
mA settings
What are the three main components of…
1) Tube... 2) Operating console... 3) High voltage generator
What does the operating system do?
It controls the quality and quantity of the x-ray beam
13 terms
37 bushong
Frequency of X-ray exam is increasing
Patient dose is reported in 3 ways
ESE
Results of TLD are accurate within
18%per year
ESE ... Bone marrow ... Gonad dose
Often referred to as pt dose
5%
Frequency of X-ray exam is increasing
18%per year
Patient dose is reported in 3 ways
ESE ... Bone marrow ... Gonad dose
51 terms
Bushong 6
The three principal parts of an x-ray…
The primary purpose of the glass envel…
The protective housing of an x-ray tub…
A diagnostic x-ray tube is an example…
X-ray tube, control console, and high-voltage genrator
Provide a vacuum
Reduce the hazard of leakage radiation
Diode
The three principal parts of an x-ray…
X-ray tube, control console, and high-voltage genrator
The primary purpose of the glass envel…
Provide a vacuum
21 terms
35 bushong
What do you use to shield for beta par…
Health physics was named during
We get the most radiation comes from
Time =
Plexi glass
Manhattan project
Fluoro and mobile
Exposure/exposure rate
What do you use to shield for beta par…
Plexi glass
Health physics was named during
Manhattan project
54 terms
Sharon, chapter 6 bushong
the X-rays emitted through the window…
we use only X-ray emitted through the…
X-rays that escape through the protect…
_______________ guards of against exce…
the useful beam
the window
leakage radiation
protective housing
the X-rays emitted through the window…
the useful beam
we use only X-ray emitted through the…
the window
87 terms
Ch 1 Physics (Bushong)
True or False: All things can be class…
_______ is anything that occupies pace…
Matter occupies ______ and has _______.
All matter is composed of _______.
True
Matter
space, mass
atoms
True or False: All things can be class…
True
_______ is anything that occupies pace…
Matter
112 terms
Bushong Ch 11
what are remnant x-rays?
what factor that affects scatter can b…
as kVp increases, scatter production w…
what is the percentage of x-rays trans…
x-rays that exit the patient
field size
increase because of more Compton interaction
1%
what are remnant x-rays?
x-rays that exit the patient
what factor that affects scatter can b…
field size
32 terms
Bushong Chapter 33
Partial body exposure
Prodromal stage
Latent period
Hematologic
Diagnostic X-ray beam always results in...
What is the immediate response of radiation sickness?
What is the time after exposure during which there is no sign…
Which syndrome is characterized by a reduction in wbcs rbcs a…
Partial body exposure
Diagnostic X-ray beam always results in...
Prodromal stage
What is the immediate response of radiation sickness?
Ch 2 Bushong
All matter was composed of four susbst…
Four basic essences
Atom
Dalton Atom
Earth, water, air, and fire
Wet, dry, hot, and cold
Meaning "indivisible". The smallest particle that has all the…
Eye and hook affair
All matter was composed of four susbst…
Earth, water, air, and fire
Four basic essences
Wet, dry, hot, and cold
64 terms
Chapter 29 Bushong
True or False: At nearly every stage i…
If the radiation response increases in…
If the incidence of the radiation resp…
What are the late effects of radiation…
True
Deterministic Effects
Stochastic Effects
Leukemia, Cancer, Local Tissue Damage (skin, gonads, eyes), S…
True or False: At nearly every stage i…
True
If the radiation response increases in…
Deterministic Effects
64 terms
CH 2 Bushong
Atom
Subatomic Particles
Greek Atom
4 Basic Essences
smallest particle that has all the properties of an element
particles smaller than an atom
-Indivisible -Combination of the 4 basic elements
wet, dry, hot, and cold
Atom
smallest particle that has all the properties of an element
Subatomic Particles
particles smaller than an atom
84 terms
Bushong 10
The OD that is inherent in the film is
fraction of light transmitted is 1. wh…
fraction of light transmitted is 1/10.…
fraction of light transmitted is 1/100…
Base Density
0
10
1
The OD that is inherent in the film is
Base Density
fraction of light transmitted is 1. wh…
0
152 terms
chapter 28 bushong
with CT what is not involved?
what happens after the signal from the…
computer reconstruction of the cross s…
what does helical CT provide
no screen film or image intensifier tube, instead a collimate…
the computer reconstructs the image and displays it on a moni…
mathematical equations or algorithms
improved imaging of anatomy compromised by respiratory motion
with CT what is not involved?
no screen film or image intensifier tube, instead a collimate…
what happens after the signal from the…
the computer reconstructs the image and displays it on a moni…
72 terms
Chapter 3 Bushong
Electromagnetic energy properties
electromagnetic energy
James Clerk Maxwell
continuum
frequency, wavelength, velocity, and amplitude
field or state of energy
19th century he showed that visible light had both electric a…
This energy exists over a wide range. uninterrupted (continuo…
Electromagnetic energy properties
frequency, wavelength, velocity, and amplitude
electromagnetic energy
field or state of energy
40 terms
Bushong chapter 9
The number of x rays in the beam
the penetrability of the beam
2 things the x ray quantity is
this sometimes used instead of intensity
x ray quanity
x ray quality
Intensity of the beam... number of xrays in the beam
Radiation exposure
The number of x rays in the beam
x ray quanity
the penetrability of the beam
x ray quality
121 terms
Chapter 4 Bushong
convert electric energy into electroma…
magnitude;signs
mass;energy equivalance;electric charge
electrified
the primary function of the x-ray imaging system is...
electric charges associated with an electron and a proton hav…
matter has _______ and _________ _________. matter may also h…
an object is said to be ________ if it has too few or too man…
convert electric energy into electroma…
the primary function of the x-ray imaging system is...
magnitude;signs
electric charges associated with an electron and a proton hav…
206 terms
Bushong CH 12
an easily observable difference betwee…
the principal characteristic of emulsi…
average silver halide crystal surface…
the radiographic film base appears blue
the thickness & rigidy of the base
sensitivity center
1.0 um
so that image viewing is more confortable
an easily observable difference betwee…
the thickness & rigidy of the base
the principal characteristic of emulsi…
sensitivity center
37 terms
ch 32 bushong
The concept of a key molecule
An area of the cell occupied by the ta…
What is the target molecule?
The interaction between radiation and…
What serves as the basis for target theory?
Target
DNA
random
The concept of a key molecule
What serves as the basis for target theory?
An area of the cell occupied by the ta…
Target
Bushong Ch 4 Test
Speed of light
Invisible
Radiation exposure will increase by a…
8.6
Photon travels at what speed?
Xray radiation is in what spectrum of light?
According to the inverse square law, if you decrease your dis…
If you have a source of radiation that measures 278 R/HR of e…
Speed of light
Photon travels at what speed?
Invisible
Xray radiation is in what spectrum of light?
92 terms
Bushong Chapter 10
The random fluctuation in the optical…
What is spatial resolution?
Name two other terms that can be used…
Name the factors that control/affect d…
Radiographic noise.
The ability to image small objects that have high subject con…
Detail and recorded detail
Film speed, focal spot size, SID, OID, motion, and distortion
The random fluctuation in the optical…
Radiographic noise.
What is spatial resolution?
The ability to image small objects that have high subject con…
27 terms
Chapter 31 Bushong
In vitro
In vivo
Point lesions
main-chain scission
Irradiation outside of the cell or body
Irradiation within the body
What are considered to be the cellular radiation damage that…
if a macromolecule has a ____ _____, it will break down into…
In vitro
Irradiation outside of the cell or body
In vivo
Irradiation within the body
121 terms
Chapter 4 Bushong
the primary function of the x-ray imag…
electric charges associated with an el…
matter has _______ and _________ _____…
an object is said to be ________ if it…
convert electric energy into electromagnetic energy
magnitude;signs
mass;energy equivalance;electric charge
electrified
the primary function of the x-ray imag…
convert electric energy into electromagnetic energy
electric charges associated with an el…
magnitude;signs
50 terms
Chapter 12 Bushong Review
image blur is generally increased by a…
film should be stored at a temperature…
direct exposure film has a ____ emulsi…
a disadvantage of the speed of rare ea…
speed/sensitivity/intensification factor
68 degrees F (20 degrees C), 40%
thicker, more
blur (and more noise)
image blur is generally increased by a…
speed/sensitivity/intensification factor
film should be stored at a temperature…
68 degrees F (20 degrees C), 40%
36 terms
Bushong Ch 1
anything that occupies space; the mate…
the fundamental, complex building bloc…
the scientific unit of mass
the way in which a unit of energy is m…
matter
atoms and molecules
kilogram
joules (J)
anything that occupies space; the mate…
matter
the fundamental, complex building bloc…
atoms and molecules
60 terms
Bushong Chapter 10
The random fluctuation in the optical…
What is spatial resolution?
Name two other terms that can be used…
Name the factors that control/affect d…
Radiographic noise.
The ability to image small objects that have high subject con…
Detail and recorded detail
Film speed, focal spot size, SID, OID, motion, and distortion
The random fluctuation in the optical…
Radiographic noise.
What is spatial resolution?
The ability to image small objects that have high subject con…
89 terms
Bushong Chapter 10
The random fluctuation in the optical…
What is spatial resolution?
Name two other terms that can be used…
Name the factors that control/affect d…
Radiographic noise.
The ability to image small objects that have high subject con…
Detail and recorded detail
Film speed, focal spot size, SID, OID, motion, and distortion
The random fluctuation in the optical…
Radiographic noise.
What is spatial resolution?
The ability to image small objects that have high subject con…
60 terms
Bushong Ch 4
Electrostatics
Electrification
Ionization
Electrification Def
The study of stationary electric charges
A gain or loss by matter
A gain or loss by an atom
Process of electrons being added or subtracted from an object
Electrostatics
The study of stationary electric charges
Electrification
A gain or loss by matter
76 terms
ch 6 Bushong
Most frequently used support system, 2…
Preferred detent pos
single column with rollers at each end…
Support Systems:
Ceiling support system
xray tube is centered above the exam table at standard SID
floor to ceiling support system
Ceiling mounted, floor to ceiling, c arm support (L or U arm…
Most frequently used support system, 2…
Ceiling support system
Preferred detent pos
xray tube is centered above the exam table at standard SID
66 terms
Ch 5 Bushong
xray tables are made of
3 principal parts of an xray system
xray techs are most familiar with
operating console
carbon fiber
xray tube, operating console, high voltage generator
operating console
controls tube current and voltage
xray tables are made of
carbon fiber
3 principal parts of an xray system
xray tube, operating console, high voltage generator
39 terms
Bushong Ch17
Define spatial frequency...
Spatial frequency is measure in ____ _…
One line pair is equal to ......
Spatial frequency is limited in digita…
The measure of fine detail in an optical image in terms of li…
Line pairs
One black line and one interstate of the same width
Pixel size
Define spatial frequency...
The measure of fine detail in an optical image in terms of li…
Spatial frequency is measure in ____ _…
Line pairs
156 terms
Bushong Chapter 3
Define electromagnetic energy
Define photon
Photon is used interchangeably with wh…
What is the smallest quantity of any t…
Energy that has both electric and magnetic properties, that i…
Energy disturbances that move through space at the speed of l…
Electromagnetic energy
A photon
Define electromagnetic energy
Energy that has both electric and magnetic properties, that i…
Define photon
Energy disturbances that move through space at the speed of l…
24 terms
chapter 37 bushong
Frequency of X-ray exam is increasing
Patient dose is reported in 3 ways
ESE
Results of TLD are accurate within
18%per year
ESE ... Bone marrow ... Gonad dose
Often referred to as pt dose... most common way to report dose... e…
5%
Frequency of X-ray exam is increasing
18%per year
Patient dose is reported in 3 ways
ESE ... Bone marrow ... Gonad dose
53 terms
Ch 36 bushong
Radiation output from a diagnostic X-r…
The X-ray beam and the light beam must…
Attenuation by shutters must be equiva…
PBL
Gy
2%
Protective housing
Positive beam limitation
Radiation output from a diagnostic X-r…
Gy
The X-ray beam and the light beam must…
2%
103 terms
Bushong Chapter 2
earth, water, air, and fire
wet, dry, hot, and cold
Atom
Subatomic particles
four basic substances of matter according to greeks
four basic essences according to greeks
the smallest particle that has all the properties of an element
particles smaller than an atom
earth, water, air, and fire
four basic substances of matter according to greeks
wet, dry, hot, and cold
four basic essences according to greeks
72 terms
Ch 5 Bushong
xray tables are made of
3 principal parts of an xray system
xray techs are most familiar with
operating console
carbon fiber
xray tube, operating console, high voltage generator
operating console
controls tube current and voltage
xray tables are made of
carbon fiber
3 principal parts of an xray system
xray tube, operating console, high voltage generator
131 terms
Bushong Chapter 1
In a physical analysis, all things can…
Define matter
What is matter composed of?
Define mass
matter or energy
anything that occupies space and has mass
atoms
the quantity of matter contained in any physical object
In a physical analysis, all things can…
matter or energy
Define matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
Bushong Chapter 12
What is the difference between x-ray f…
What characteristic of emulsion makes…
silver halide size
Why is film blue
The thickness and rigidity of the base
sensitivity center
1.0um
so image viewing is more comfortable
What is the difference between x-ray f…
The thickness and rigidity of the base
What characteristic of emulsion makes…
sensitivity center
151 terms
Bushong chapter 1
What is used to account for the differ…
According to the Natinal Council on Ra…
A time of 1.5 minutes is required for…
If the exposure rate to an individual…
A. 1 only
B. 5 mSv
D. 6.87 mR... 275/60= x/1.5... 60x/60= 412.5/60 ... = 6.875
D. 1.48 mR... 10/x= 36/16... 36x=160... x=4.44 (60 minutes)... 4.44/3=…
What is used to account for the differ…
A. 1 only
According to the Natinal Council on Ra…
B. 5 mSv
23 terms
bushong ch 30.
law of bergonie and tribondeau
linear energy transfer (LET)
LET
relative biologic effectiveness
in 1906 two french scientists, theorized and observed that ra…
measure of the rate at which energy is transmitted from ioniz…
expressed in unites of kilo-electron volt of energy transferr…
as LET increase, the ability to produce biologic damage also…
law of bergonie and tribondeau
in 1906 two french scientists, theorized and observed that ra…
linear energy transfer (LET)
measure of the rate at which energy is transmitted from ioniz…
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