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Study sets matching "cancer 5"

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Study sets matching "cancer 5"

31 terms
5-Cancer
•_________: derived from epithelial ce…
•________ symptoms: lumps or swelling,…
Options for... 1-Localized cancer therapy…
The majority of chemotherapy targets _…
Carcinoma... Sarcoma... Lymphoma/Leukemia... Germ cell tumor... Blastoma…
Local... Metastatic... Systemic... Appearance... Instruments... Biomedical
1- Surgery, radio therapy... 2- Chemotherapy, targeted therapy (…
The majority of chemo targets cell proliferation
•_________: derived from epithelial ce…
Carcinoma... Sarcoma... Lymphoma/Leukemia... Germ cell tumor... Blastoma…
•________ symptoms: lumps or swelling,…
Local... Metastatic... Systemic... Appearance... Instruments... Biomedical
11 terms
cancer 5
Oncogenes
Ant-oncogenes
v-onc
C-onc
Genes which are stimulatory for growth and cancer when hypera…
Genes which inhibit cell growth and cause cancer when turned…
Viral oncogene (cancer causing gene, brought by a virus).
Usually encodes a protein that functions in DNA replication o…
Oncogenes
Genes which are stimulatory for growth and cancer when hypera…
Ant-oncogenes
Genes which inhibit cell growth and cause cancer when turned…
129 terms
Cancer 5
Hydroxyurea indication
Hydroxyurea MOA
Hydroxyurea facts
Mitotane indication
CML(chronic myelogenous leukemia), squamous cell carcinoma of…
interferes with DNA replication by inhibiting ribonucleotide…
capsules with rapid absorption, hepatic metabolism/renal excr…
txt inoperable adrenal cortical carcinoma
Hydroxyurea indication
CML(chronic myelogenous leukemia), squamous cell carcinoma of…
Hydroxyurea MOA
interferes with DNA replication by inhibiting ribonucleotide…
132 terms
Cancer 5
affable
agile
aloof
ambidextrous
polite
quick
reserved
able to use both hands
affable
polite
agile
quick
12 terms
Cancer 5
CD20 immunotherapy
Prostate Specific Antigen
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes
NK cells
CD20 Antibodies can be developed to target B-cell derived can…
normal protein that is minute in blood serum but can be eleva…
CD8+ CTL protect against virus born cancers
first line of defense against cancers. Tumors that suppress M…
CD20 immunotherapy
CD20 Antibodies can be developed to target B-cell derived can…
Prostate Specific Antigen
normal protein that is minute in blood serum but can be eleva…
25 terms
Cancer 5
Ifex
Paraplatin
Leukeran
Cytoxan
ifosfamide
carboplatin
chlorambucil
cyclophosphamide
Ifex
ifosfamide
Paraplatin
carboplatin
Cancer 5
which 2 specific antigens are given as…
when the tumor is doing something big…
problem with ulceration
____: tumor protruding into gut lumen…
HER2neu for breast cancer... CD20 for hodgkin lymphoma
mass effect
bleeding and secondary infection
intussusception
which 2 specific antigens are given as…
HER2neu for breast cancer... CD20 for hodgkin lymphoma
when the tumor is doing something big…
mass effect
11 terms
Cancer 5
The genetic basis for cancer... 1. Proto…
1 Proto-Oncogenes... -The___Normal genes…
1 Proto-Oncogenes... Products ____ the c…
1. Proto-Oncogenes ... _______ the cell…
normal
*Growth factors, G. F. receptors, signaling pathaways, Enzyme…
promote
Accelerate
The genetic basis for cancer... 1. Proto…
normal
1 Proto-Oncogenes... -The___Normal genes…
*Growth factors, G. F. receptors, signaling pathaways, Enzyme…
74 terms
5. Cancer
survival rates of what have continued…
self sufficiency in growth signals... ins…
normal genes that regulate cell growth
accerlatte cell growth and divisions
cancer mo fo
characteristics of cancer
proto oncogenes
oncogenes
survival rates of what have continued…
cancer mo fo
self sufficiency in growth signals... ins…
characteristics of cancer
6 terms
(5) Tissue Cancer
Benign
Malignant
Metastasis
Epithelial Cancers
Under control by the body; not cancer
Cancerous
Cancer cells have moved from one part of the body to another
Carcinoma
Benign
Under control by the body; not cancer
Malignant
Cancerous
22 terms
Cancer 5
How does the immune system play a role…
How does hypoxia contribute to innate…
Do innate or adaptive immune compartme…
How does hypoxia contribute to adaptiv…
- selects tumour cells that are able to escape immune destruc…
- shedding of the NKG2D ligand MICA... - mechanism involves HIF-…
- BOTH do!... - cancer cells must avoid both adaptive and innate…
- PD-L1!
How does the immune system play a role…
- selects tumour cells that are able to escape immune destruc…
How does hypoxia contribute to innate…
- shedding of the NKG2D ligand MICA... - mechanism involves HIF-…
12 terms
Ch. 5 burns/ cancer
first- degree burn
second- degree burn
third- degree burn
rule of nine
only epidermis is damaged... -skin is red and swollen
-epidermis and upper dermis are damaged ... -skin is red with bl…
-destroys entire skin layer; burned are is painless... -requires…
-way to determine the extent of burn... -body is divided into 11…
first- degree burn
only epidermis is damaged... -skin is red and swollen
second- degree burn
-epidermis and upper dermis are damaged ... -skin is red with bl…
64 terms
Bio of Cancer Ch. 5
Chemical carcinogens were first discov…
How aniline dye industry was born
bladder cancer
important principles that are relevant…
-skin cancer of the scrotum from chimney soot... -snuff (a powde…
-Perkin was attempting to synthesize quinine, a drug treated…
-employees working with 2-naphthylamine developed bladder can…
-involves the long delay that is typically between exposure t…
Chemical carcinogens were first discov…
-skin cancer of the scrotum from chimney soot... -snuff (a powde…
How aniline dye industry was born
-Perkin was attempting to synthesize quinine, a drug treated…
23 terms
Cancer 5
Monoclonal Antibody: Consists of...
Vh/l (variable)- Fab region does what?
Fc - Fab region does what?
2 main classes of MoABs used to Tx can…
2 heavy & 2 light chains
Binds antigens
Determines effector function of the antibody
(1) Unconjugated (naked) (2) Immunoconjugates
Monoclonal Antibody: Consists of...
2 heavy & 2 light chains
Vh/l (variable)- Fab region does what?
Binds antigens
28 terms
5.2- Cancer and Dysplasia
Definition of a tumor
Neoplasm
How are neoplasms named?
Cancer
- strict definition: swelling or lump... - but colloquially, tum…
- abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is…
- neoplasms named according to the type of normal tissues tha…
- generic term for malignant neoplasms of all types ... - * canc…
Definition of a tumor
- strict definition: swelling or lump... - but colloquially, tum…
Neoplasm
- abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is…
60 terms
Genetics 5 - Cancer Genetics
3 Types of Cancer Genes
Cancer
Cancer: Inherited vs Somatic Mutations
Retrovirus Lifecycle
1.) Oncogenes... 2.) Tumor Suppressor Genes... 3.) DNA Repair/Cell…
Cancer is a disease of the genome. There are 3 different type…
Both can be important... Somatic mutations: ast majority of ge…
1.) Retroviruses contain a single RNA strand, copied into DNA…
3 Types of Cancer Genes
1.) Oncogenes... 2.) Tumor Suppressor Genes... 3.) DNA Repair/Cell…
Cancer
Cancer is a disease of the genome. There are 3 different type…
Cancer- Ch. 5
Benign
Malignant
Malignant Neoplasm
Oncology
does not have the capacity to cause death
has the capacity to cause death
cancer
study of neoplasms
Benign
does not have the capacity to cause death
Malignant
has the capacity to cause death
22 terms
Wk5 - Cancer Cells
List the four levels of folding in the…
For reference - SI cell
What is a plica compared to a villus?
How many sq meters of epithelia exist…
1. Plica ... 2. Villus... 3. Crypts of Lieberkuhn/ glands... 4. brushb…
A plica is a large fold of SI cells. A villus is one fingerli…
30sq m
List the four levels of folding in the…
1. Plica ... 2. Villus... 3. Crypts of Lieberkuhn/ glands... 4. brushb…
For reference - SI cell
10 terms
OMM 5 Cancer
Fun Facts:
Renal Cell Cancer
Lung Cancer
Multiple Myeloma
2nd leading cause of death in US... Oncology: Tx of cancer... If yo…
2-3% of all cancers... Triad: hematuria, flank pain, abdominal m…
Most common cancer & most common cancer death!... Tobacco respon…
Cancer of plasma cells. Neoplasm of B cells of monoclonal ori…
Fun Facts:
2nd leading cause of death in US... Oncology: Tx of cancer... If yo…
Renal Cell Cancer
2-3% of all cancers... Triad: hematuria, flank pain, abdominal m…
68 terms
5: Upper GI cancer
UGI cancers overview
Lichen Planus
Oral cancer precursors
Advanced oral cancer
In the US, these are relatively infrequent; worldwide gastric…
- chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the skin and muc…
erythroplastic lesion
local extension ... - very advanced ... -reduced prognosis
UGI cancers overview
In the US, these are relatively infrequent; worldwide gastric…
Lichen Planus
- chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the skin and muc…
40 terms
Cancer pt.3.5
Radiation, Biotherapy, Chemo, Internal…
Interferons
Interferons
Interferons
types of cancer therapy
stimulate the patient's immune system to kill the cancer cells
lead to an increase in T4 killer cells
can be done IM at home
Radiation, Biotherapy, Chemo, Internal…
types of cancer therapy
Interferons
stimulate the patient's immune system to kill the cancer cells
26 terms
9.5 Cancer of the Bone
Bone cancer
Osteosarcoma
Myeloma
Osteogenic sarcoma
Persistent pain/swelling/tenderness of a skeletal part... Pathol…
What is the most common primary malignancy of bone, commonly…
"Punched out" areas
"Sun burst" areas
Bone cancer
Persistent pain/swelling/tenderness of a skeletal part... Pathol…
Osteosarcoma
What is the most common primary malignancy of bone, commonly…
29 terms
cancer pp5
oral cavity problems
primary stomatitis
secondary stomatitis
oral tumors
stomatitis, oral tumors, sialadentis
herpes simplex, ulcers
candidiasis
luekoplakia, erythroplakia,
oral cavity problems
stomatitis, oral tumors, sialadentis
primary stomatitis
herpes simplex, ulcers
12 terms
Book 3 Unit 5 - Cancer
cancer
oncology
oncologist
outpatient
a serious disease in which cells in one or more parts of the…
the part of medical science that studies and treats cancer an…
a doctor who specializes in the study and treatment of cancer…
a patient who receives medical treatment in a hospital and do…
cancer
a serious disease in which cells in one or more parts of the…
oncology
the part of medical science that studies and treats cancer an…
12 terms
Book 3 Unit 5 - Cancer
cancer
oncology
oncologist
outpatient
a serious disease in which cells in one or more parts of the…
the part of medical science that studies and treats cancer an…
a doctor who specializes in the study and treatment of cancer…
a patient who receives medical treatment in a hospital and do…
cancer
a serious disease in which cells in one or more parts of the…
oncology
the part of medical science that studies and treats cancer an…
5.3 cancer and chemotherapeutics
percival pott
clunet
Yamagiwa and Ichikawa
Kennaway
- surgeon in england... - attributed chronic exposure to soot as…
exposure to x- rays caused cancer discovery
they produced skin cancer from applying coal tar to rabbit ears
he isolated carcinogenic compounds from coal tar (poly-cyclic…
percival pott
- surgeon in england... - attributed chronic exposure to soot as…
clunet
exposure to x- rays caused cancer discovery
76 terms
cancer 5 maxwell
Objectives for Today
Immune Surveillance
Cancer Immunoediting:
Tumor Antigens
Know the host defenses against tumors... o Immune Surveillance…
- the concept that a normal function of the immune system is…
o Immune system plays not only a protective role in tumor dev…
Products of Mutated Genes (A Result of Genomic Instability)…
Objectives for Today
Know the host defenses against tumors... o Immune Surveillance…
Immune Surveillance
- the concept that a normal function of the immune system is…
34 terms
Bio of Cancer: ch. 5
Initiation
promotion
Carcinogen
Carcinogenic agent
converts normal cells to a precancerous state (can be reverse…
altered gene expression producing clonal expansion of an init…
chemical capable of causing cancer that can vary in complexit…
any agent that is capable of causing transformation (chemical…
Initiation
converts normal cells to a precancerous state (can be reverse…
promotion
altered gene expression producing clonal expansion of an init…
29 terms
CANCER #5 (IMMUNOLOGY)
ONCOGENES
TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENES
traditional chemotherapies
targeted therapy
genes in which gain of function mutations cause cancer ... ex.…
genes in which loss of function mutations cause cancer... ex. P…
vinblastine, cisplatin, taxol
design drugs that disable oncogenes or restore tumor suppress…
ONCOGENES
genes in which gain of function mutations cause cancer ... ex.…
TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENES
genes in which loss of function mutations cause cancer... ex. P…
9 terms
Cancer 5 (malignancy)
Dysplasia
3 factors present with dysplasia
3 malignancy regional changes
Reduced organ function
Alteration in size, shape, organization
Disorganized, lack of inhibition, altered cell membrane
Compression, infiltration, reduced organ function
Inflammation, loss of normal cells
Dysplasia
Alteration in size, shape, organization
3 factors present with dysplasia
Disorganized, lack of inhibition, altered cell membrane
5. cancer stem cells
cancer progression simplified
normal cells have identical ______ but…
2 hit hypothesis
model of leukaemic progression and age
1. symmetric stem cell division ... 2 assymetric stem cell divis…
genomes ... epigenomes
if first hit is germline mutation , second somatic mutation m…
1. oncogenic lesion ... 2. antiapoptosis ... 3. loss of tumour supr…
cancer progression simplified
1. symmetric stem cell division ... 2 assymetric stem cell divis…
normal cells have identical ______ but…
genomes ... epigenomes
39 terms
5. Cancer Case Studies
CML derives from
in CML there is an inc in these cells
phases of CML (3)
treatment for CML
pluripotent stem cell
granulocytes: neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil... some cases pla…
>chronic = asymptomatic... >accelerated = high no of non differe…
>allogeneic stem cell transplantation... >interferon... >cytoreduct…
CML derives from
pluripotent stem cell
in CML there is an inc in these cells
granulocytes: neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil... some cases pla…
31 terms
5 Oral Cancer
What type of lesion is benign, morphol…
Medical term for Benign callus
What does dysplasia mean
cancer within epithelium in called...
premalignant lesion
hyperkeratosis
abnormal growth of cells, can regress or progress
carcinoma-in-situ (Will progress to invasive carcinoma)
What type of lesion is benign, morphol…
premalignant lesion
Medical term for Benign callus
hyperkeratosis
26 terms
Lecture 8 - Cancer 5
what is the classic example of the mas…
what tumors can produce hormones with…
what is the main reason ulceration can…
which paraneoplastic (non-specific) sy…
pituitary melanoma (benign) pressing on optic chiasm... (pituit…
Pancreatic B-cell tumors
bc angiogenesis didn't get there in time and faced ischemic n…
Cachexia
what is the classic example of the mas…
pituitary melanoma (benign) pressing on optic chiasm... (pituit…
what tumors can produce hormones with…
Pancreatic B-cell tumors
21 terms
Cancer 5: Clinical aspects of prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is detected by
Stage I/II
Stage III
Stage IV
serum PSA... digital rectal exam... transrectal ultrasound
localized cancer with small/resectable sized tumors ... Treated…
Normally not curable but median survival >5 years... go through…
Not curable and metastatic cancer 1-3 year survival
Prostate cancer is detected by
serum PSA... digital rectal exam... transrectal ultrasound
Stage I/II
localized cancer with small/resectable sized tumors ... Treated…
27 terms
The Biology of Cancer Chapter 5
How were signals passed between cells…
What are growth factors?
What occurs when platelets encounter g…
What are mitogens?
The signals were carried by proteins, requiring the ability b…
Small proteins that are released by certain cells.
They release platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which sti…
Growth factors with the ability to induce cell proliferation.
How were signals passed between cells…
The signals were carried by proteins, requiring the ability b…
What are growth factors?
Small proteins that are released by certain cells.
26 terms
(5) Rajurkar: Lung Cancer
Lung cancer: Epidemiology? Causes?
How many years do you need to quit smo…
What are two broad categories of lung…
What are the types of non-small cell c…
1. Epidemiology: Most common cause of cancer related death (C…
1. Quit smoking for 15 years ... 2. Risk double that of non-smok…
1. Small cell carcinoma (Tx with chemotherapy) (~15%)... 2. Non-…
1. Adenocarcinoma (~40%) ... 2. Squamous cell carcinoma (~30%)…
Lung cancer: Epidemiology? Causes?
1. Epidemiology: Most common cause of cancer related death (C…
How many years do you need to quit smo…
1. Quit smoking for 15 years ... 2. Risk double that of non-smok…
19 terms
5-11 Ovarian cancer
What are the symptoms of ovarian cancer?
Risk factors for epithelial ovarian ca…
What chromosome is BRCA1 located on?
What chromosome is BRCA2 located on?
-bloating... -pelvic/abdominal pain... -difficulty eating/ feeling…
-increased age... -family history of breast/ovarian cancer... -gene…
-chromosome 17
-chromosome 13
What are the symptoms of ovarian cancer?
-bloating... -pelvic/abdominal pain... -difficulty eating/ feeling…
Risk factors for epithelial ovarian ca…
-increased age... -family history of breast/ovarian cancer... -gene…
26 terms
General Cancer 5-6
Cancer
Benign
Malignant
First Stage of Cancer: Initiation
Change in the cell. (1) defective cell proliferation (growth)…
Neoplasms that are well-differentiated.
Neoplasms range from well-differentiated to undifferentiated.
Mutation in the cell's DNA genetic structure following exposu…
Cancer
Change in the cell. (1) defective cell proliferation (growth)…
Benign
Neoplasms that are well-differentiated.
26 terms
Biology of Cancer Lecture #5
Initiation
Promotion
Precarcinogen
Monooxygenases
an agent (chemical, virus, X-ray) has caused a mutation in DN…
altered gene expression producing clonal expansion of an init…
chemicals which can't react with DNA until after after conver…
- are enzymes found in all cells, but in high concentration i…
Initiation
an agent (chemical, virus, X-ray) has caused a mutation in DN…
Promotion
altered gene expression producing clonal expansion of an init…
8 terms
Drugs for Cancer, Wk 5
*cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
*methotrexate (Folex, Mexate, Rheumatr…
doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
vincristine (Oncovin)
Prototype Drug... -Pharmacological Class: Alkylating Agent... -T…
Prototype Drug... -Pharmacological Class: Anti-metabolite, fo…
Prototype Drug... -Pharmacological Class: *Anti-tumor Antibioti…
Prototype Drug... -Pharmacological Class: Natural Product... -T…
*cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
Prototype Drug... -Pharmacological Class: Alkylating Agent... -T…
*methotrexate (Folex, Mexate, Rheumatr…
Prototype Drug... -Pharmacological Class: Anti-metabolite, fo…
69 terms
5 - Cancer - Internal Medicine
Most cancer recurrence happens in the…
__________ increases risk of cancer re…
Big causes of throat cancer in adults
Best drug for chemo-induced N/V *$*…
2
Smoking
Smoking... HPV
Serotonin antagonists (Ondansetron/Zofran) *$*
Most cancer recurrence happens in the…
2
__________ increases risk of cancer re…
Smoking
25 terms
week 5 cancer
Ifex
Paraplatin
Leukeran
Cytoxan
ifosfamide
carboplatin
chlorambucil
cyclophosphamide
Ifex
ifosfamide
Paraplatin
carboplatin
21 terms
5-13 Endometrial cancer
What is the gold standard for sampling…
What is the typical patient with endom…
What are the typical symptoms and sign…
How do you make a diagnosis of endomet…
-D&C (Dilation and curettage)... -false negative rate 2-6%
-mean age of 60 years... -more common in post menopausal women... -…
-abnormal uterine bleeding in 80-90%... -vaginal discharge (80-9…
-pelvic exam... -pelvic/vaginal ultrasound... -biopsy
What is the gold standard for sampling…
-D&C (Dilation and curettage)... -false negative rate 2-6%
What is the typical patient with endom…
-mean age of 60 years... -more common in post menopausal women... -…
65 terms
5 - Colorectal Cancer
--What is the 2nd leading cause of can…
--What are the risk factors of colorec…
--What components of a diet can decrea…
--What is the proposed mechanism for f…
Colorectal cancer
Age - >50 y/o;... Genetic factors - Familial adenomatous polypos…
High fiber intake, calcium and vitamin D, NSAIDs, ASA, COX-2…
Decrease fecal bile acids, decrease transit time, binds to fe…
--What is the 2nd leading cause of can…
Colorectal cancer
--What are the risk factors of colorec…
Age - >50 y/o;... Genetic factors - Familial adenomatous polypos…
57 terms
Cancer pt.5
Cervical Cancer
Cervical Cancer
Internal Radiation
Rods are Removed
treated with implanted seeds or rods leading the patient to b…
when treated with internal radiation, the patient must be on…
used to treat cervical cancer
Internal radiation for cervical cancer requires a catheter un…
Cervical Cancer
treated with implanted seeds or rods leading the patient to b…
Cervical Cancer
when treated with internal radiation, the patient must be on…
27 terms
Ch.5 Cancer
Cancer Cells
Normal cells
cancer
growth factor
-Ignore cell signals that tell them to stop dividing,to diffe…
-communicate using chemical signals that influence many behav…
a disease of uncontrolled cell proliferation
a signal molecule that enables normal cells to divide... **Growt…
Cancer Cells
-Ignore cell signals that tell them to stop dividing,to diffe…
Normal cells
-communicate using chemical signals that influence many behav…
38 terms
Cancer test 2.5 head/neck cancer
Head/Neck Cancer symptoms
Head/Neck Cancer risks
Head/Neck Cancer stage 1/2
Head/Neck Cancer stage 3/4
hoarse voice, neck pain, coughing, lumps
tobacco, alcohol, mate, betel quid, HPV-16
small primary tumors with lymph involvement
larger tumors +/- regional lymph nodes. Distant mestastases a…
Head/Neck Cancer symptoms
hoarse voice, neck pain, coughing, lumps
Head/Neck Cancer risks
tobacco, alcohol, mate, betel quid, HPV-16
45 terms
MCB 5-3 Cancer
Neoplasm
Normal Epithelial cell => stimulus cau…
Malignant vs Benign Tumor
Malignant tumors metastasize, invade,…
An abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and i…
...
Malignant:... -Rapid growth rate... -Invades surrounding tissue... -Me…
...
Neoplasm
An abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and i…
Normal Epithelial cell => stimulus cau…
...
12 terms
5. Complications and Treatment of Cancer
Gastrointestinal System Problems
Stomatitis, Mucositis, Esophagitis: Nu…
Nausea and Vomiting
Diarrhea
Stomatitis, Mucositis, Esophagitis... Nausea and Vomiting... Anorex…
Asses oral mucosa daily... Encourage nutritional supplements... Be…
Patient should eat and drink when NOT nauseated (obviously th…
Low-fiber, low-residue diet... Fluid intake of at least 3L-day
Gastrointestinal System Problems
Stomatitis, Mucositis, Esophagitis... Nausea and Vomiting... Anorex…
Stomatitis, Mucositis, Esophagitis: Nu…
Asses oral mucosa daily... Encourage nutritional supplements... Be…
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