Study sets matching "cancer biology"

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Study sets matching "cancer biology"

65 terms
Cancer Drugs/ Cancer Biology
What are the chemotherapy options for…
What chemotherapy agent is know for ca…
What is the MOA of Bleomycin?
What are some other side-effects of bl…
Vincristine, Bleomycin, and Cisplatin ... Mnemonic: Very Ballsy…
Bleomycin Baby
Inhibits synthesis of DNA; binds to DNA leading to single- an…
-Many dermatologic issues and hair loss... - Respiratory (rales,…
What are the chemotherapy options for…
Vincristine, Bleomycin, and Cisplatin ... Mnemonic: Very Ballsy…
What chemotherapy agent is know for ca…
Bleomycin Baby
98 terms
Cancer biology
What ratio of people in the UK will ge…
Common cancer in men
Common cancer in women
30% of cancer deaths are due to the fi…
1 in 2
Prostate
Breast
1. High body mass index... 2. Low fruit and vegetable intake... 3.…
What ratio of people in the UK will ge…
1 in 2
Common cancer in men
Prostate
329 terms
Cancer Biology
Cancer is a _______ of diseases
What is the common feature of all canc…
What cell type do cancers mostly affect?
Define neoplasm
Group
Uncontrolled cell growth
Epithelial
Any abnormal proliferation of cells
Cancer is a _______ of diseases
Group
What is the common feature of all canc…
Uncontrolled cell growth
36 terms
Cancer Biology
What is Cancer?
Cell Cycle
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Cyclin-dependent
- Accumulation of mutations (~6-9 gene mutations)... --> Typical…
Interphase: G1, S, G2 (23 hr)... Mitosis, M (1 hr)
G1/S: Environment favorable?... G2/M: DNA replicated, environmen…
Cdk-cyclin binding --> cell cycle progression... Cdk-cycling bin…
What is Cancer?
- Accumulation of mutations (~6-9 gene mutations)... --> Typical…
Cell Cycle
Interphase: G1, S, G2 (23 hr)... Mitosis, M (1 hr)
Cancer Biology
List the top three solid tumor sites i…
List the top three solid tumor sites i…
List the top three cancer related deat…
List the top three cancer related deat…
Prostate... Lung, bronchus... Colon, rectum
Breast... Lung, bronchus... Colon rectum
Lung, bronchus... Prostate... Colon rectum
Lung, bronchus... Breast... Colon, rectum
List the top three solid tumor sites i…
Prostate... Lung, bronchus... Colon, rectum
List the top three solid tumor sites i…
Breast... Lung, bronchus... Colon rectum
29 terms
Cancer Biology
T/F ALL Cancer cells respond the same…
In what ways can cancer cells vary to…
What is hypoxia?
When cell cycle checkpoints are ignore…
FALSE: The group of cells in one tumor will respond different…
Go-Signal recognition (remember cell cycle)... Rate of mitotic c…
Oxygen deficiency in body's tissue
The cell cycle becomes unregulated, cells can multiply endles…
T/F ALL Cancer cells respond the same…
FALSE: The group of cells in one tumor will respond different…
In what ways can cancer cells vary to…
Go-Signal recognition (remember cell cycle)... Rate of mitotic c…
75 terms
Biology of Cancer
What is the major cause of death?
In men, the common sites of cancer is
In women, the common sites of cancer is
Body tissue is made up of
Metastases (migration)
lung... prostate... colorectum... stomach... liver
breast... colorectum... cervix ... stomach
epithelial tissue... connective tissue... cells of the blood & lymp…
What is the major cause of death?
Metastases (migration)
In men, the common sites of cancer is
lung... prostate... colorectum... stomach... liver
64 terms
Biology of Cancer
Neoplasia
Tumor
Benign
Malignant
new abnormal growth; could be either benign or malignant
new abnormal growth; could be either benign or malignant.
"relatively innocent"; remain localized, do not spread distan…
cancer "crab"; can invade and destroy adjacent structures and…
Neoplasia
new abnormal growth; could be either benign or malignant
Tumor
new abnormal growth; could be either benign or malignant.
Cancer Biology
Cancer is a _______ of diseases
What is the common feature of all canc…
What cell type do cancers mostly affect?
Define neoplasm
Group
Uncontrolled cell growth
Epithelial
Any abnormal proliferation of cells
Cancer is a _______ of diseases
Group
What is the common feature of all canc…
Uncontrolled cell growth
Biology: Cancer
Cancer is a disorder in which some cel…
the scientific study of cancer is...
characteristic of cancer #1
characteristic of cancer #2
lose the ability to control growth and divisions. Such cells…
oncology... - a cancer specialist is an oncologist... - key root: o…
- cancer cells do not respond to signals that regulate growth…
- cancer cells can simulate a process called angiogenesis (or…
Cancer is a disorder in which some cel…
lose the ability to control growth and divisions. Such cells…
the scientific study of cancer is...
oncology... - a cancer specialist is an oncologist... - key root: o…
Cancer Biology - Chapter 6
What are immediate early genes?
What is the function of cycloheximide?
What was proven by growing cells in th…
What are delayed early genes?
Genes that activate first in the presence of growth factors
Cycloheximide shuts down all protein synthesis
Cycloheximide is not required in the production of proteins s…
These are genes that require de novo synthesis in order to form
What are immediate early genes?
Genes that activate first in the presence of growth factors
What is the function of cycloheximide?
Cycloheximide shuts down all protein synthesis
Cancer Biology
External factors that can cause cancer
Internal factors that can cause cancer
What are the top most common cancers i…
What are the top most common cancers i…
- Tobacco (>20x risk for lung cancer) ~170,000 deaths... - Virus…
- Inherited mutations (~5% of all cancers)... - Spontaneous muta…
1. Prostate... 2. Lung & Bronchus... 3. Colon & Rectum
1. Breast... 2. Lung & Bronchus... 3. Colon & Rectum
External factors that can cause cancer
- Tobacco (>20x risk for lung cancer) ~170,000 deaths... - Virus…
Internal factors that can cause cancer
- Inherited mutations (~5% of all cancers)... - Spontaneous muta…
69 terms
Biology of Cancer
Neoplasia
Features of a benign neoplasm
Features of malignant neoplasm
Cancer originating from epithelial cells
State of cancerous growth. Mutant cells escape cell regulatio…
Encapsulated, well differentiated, low mitotic rate, noninvas…
Non encapsulated, poorly differentiated, high but variable mi…
Carcinoma
Neoplasia
State of cancerous growth. Mutant cells escape cell regulatio…
Features of a benign neoplasm
Encapsulated, well differentiated, low mitotic rate, noninvas…
59 terms
Cancer Biology
Benign tumors
Benign:
Malignant tumors
Metastasis
Are named according to the tissues from which they arise and…
localized and of small size
1. Malignant epithelial tumors: Carcinomas... Adenocarcinoma: Du…
Most malignant cells
Benign tumors
Are named according to the tissues from which they arise and…
Benign:
localized and of small size
188 terms
Cancer Biology
what is cancer
How does the DNA demage alter cell nor…
What are the Exogenous genotoxic carci…
What are the things that happen to the…
Cancer is a multistage disease which is invovle accumulation…
1. Alter the cell prolifertion 2.differentiastion paterns.... 3.…
1. Radition... 2. Chemicals... 3. Tobaco smoke... 4.viruses... 5. aflatox…
1. Mutiple DNA mutation
what is cancer
Cancer is a multistage disease which is invovle accumulation…
How does the DNA demage alter cell nor…
1. Alter the cell prolifertion 2.differentiastion paterns.... 3.…
Cancer Biology
cancer
cancer frequencies
cancer deaths
Male mortality
a term used for diseases in which abnormal cells... divide witho…
~80% of the... cancers originated from 5 different... sites, with s…
lung cancer is the leading... cause of cancer death (~1/3); most…
1. lung; 2. prostate;... 3. colon & rectum
cancer
a term used for diseases in which abnormal cells... divide witho…
cancer frequencies
~80% of the... cancers originated from 5 different... sites, with s…
134 terms
Cancer Biology
"Cancer" is derived from =
Benign tumor characteristics - 6
Malignant tumors characteristics - 6
Carcinoma in situ
- the Greek work for crab: karkinoma
- slow growth... - well-defined capsule... - non-invasive... - well di…
- rapid growth... - non encapsulated ... - invasive... - poorly differ…
- pre-invasive epithelial malignant tumors (currently not mal…
"Cancer" is derived from =
- the Greek work for crab: karkinoma
Benign tumor characteristics - 6
- slow growth... - well-defined capsule... - non-invasive... - well di…
225 terms
Biology - Cancer
Cancer Cells
Causes and Prevention of Cancer
Diagnosis of Cancer
Treatment of Cancer
Cancer cells have a number of abnormal characteristics that p…
Whether cancer develops is partially due to inherited genes,…
Cancer is usually diagnosed by certain screening procedures a…
Surgery involving bone marrow transplants followed by radiati…
Cancer Cells
Cancer cells have a number of abnormal characteristics that p…
Causes and Prevention of Cancer
Whether cancer develops is partially due to inherited genes,…
94 terms
Cancer Biology
Benign tumors
Monoclonal
Cooperativity
Philadelphia Chromosome
Neoplastic gland tubules are held together by fibrous connect…
Tumors tend to be monoclonal-> all cells in tumor derived fro…
Expression of multiple oncogenes increases tumor formation
Results from a translocation from chromosome 22 to chromosome…
Benign tumors
Neoplastic gland tubules are held together by fibrous connect…
Monoclonal
Tumors tend to be monoclonal-> all cells in tumor derived fro…
Biology Cancer
epithelial
anti-mitogens
cell cycle
checkpoints
Type of tissue most commonly associated with cancer
Chemical signals that inhibit mitosis in a cell
Interphase + mitosis/cytokenesis
transition points between different phases of the cell cycle…
epithelial
Type of tissue most commonly associated with cancer
anti-mitogens
Chemical signals that inhibit mitosis in a cell
Cancer Biology
Benign
Malignant
Metastasis
Carcinomas
Cannot move and invade
Forms metastases; actually referred to as cancer
The spread of cancer cells through the blood or lymphatic sys…
Arise from malignancies of the epithelial cells
Benign
Cannot move and invade
Malignant
Forms metastases; actually referred to as cancer
Cancer Biology
Cancer
Cancer definition
Benign Tumors
Malignant tumors
another name for malignant tumor... is an abnormal growth result…
diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and c…
grow slowly... well-defined capsule... not invasive... well differenti…
grow rapidly... not encapsulated; invasive... poorly differentiated…
Cancer
another name for malignant tumor... is an abnormal growth result…
Cancer definition
diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and c…
Biology of Cancer Test 2
Initiation
Promotion
Examokes of Promoters
Carcinogen
an agent (chemical, virus, X-ray) has caused a mutation in DN…
altered gene expression producing clonal expansion of an init…
phenobarbitol, dioxins. Now known that inflammation activates…
a chemical capable of causing cancer that can vary in complex…
Initiation
an agent (chemical, virus, X-ray) has caused a mutation in DN…
Promotion
altered gene expression producing clonal expansion of an init…
39 terms
Biology- Cancer
cancer
tumor
benign
malignant
uncontrolled mitosis, produces excess cells that are abnormal
mass of extra cells created by mitosis
tumor that contains cells that are not invasive and do not mo…
tumor with invasive cells that have potential to move, no lon…
cancer
uncontrolled mitosis, produces excess cells that are abnormal
tumor
mass of extra cells created by mitosis
26 terms
Biology Cancer
Carcinoma
Sarcoma
Leukemia
Lymphoma and Myeloma
cancer that begins in the skin or tissue that lines a body ca…
starts in the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or…
cancer starting in the blood; blood forming tissue such as bo…
cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system
Carcinoma
cancer that begins in the skin or tissue that lines a body ca…
Sarcoma
starts in the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or…
35 terms
Cancer biology
Cancer
Mitotic
Interphase
Mitosis
Disease of the cell cycle... Do not respond normally to the cell…
Mitosis and cytokinesis
Cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cel…
Prophase... Prometaphase... Metaphase... Anaphase... Telophase
Cancer
Disease of the cell cycle... Do not respond normally to the cell…
Mitotic
Mitosis and cytokinesis
58 terms
BIOLOGY OF CANCER!!!!!!!!!!!!
tumor (neoplasm)
benign
malignant
metastasis
an abnormal mass of cells formed through uncontrolled cell di…
confined to a specific site within a tissue and gives no evid…
shows evidence of or potential for invasion to adjacent tissu…
the process by which cancer cells move from the original tumo…
tumor (neoplasm)
an abnormal mass of cells formed through uncontrolled cell di…
benign
confined to a specific site within a tissue and gives no evid…
97 terms
Cancer biology and cancer epidemiology
Neoplasm
Tumor
Benign tumors
Malignant tumor
New groth
Abnormal growth resulting from uncontrolled proliferation
Slow growth, well-defined, not invasive, well differentiated,…
Rapid growth, not encapsulated, invasive, poorly differentiat…
Neoplasm
New groth
Tumor
Abnormal growth resulting from uncontrolled proliferation
Biology of Cancer
What cause decrease in lung cancer?
Apoptosis
Autophagy
Lifetime risk of presenting with cancer
Surgeon General announced that Cigarette smoking had a direct…
Genetically-programmed cell death
Inter-cellular "cannibalism"
40%
What cause decrease in lung cancer?
Surgeon General announced that Cigarette smoking had a direct…
Apoptosis
Genetically-programmed cell death
53 terms
Biology: Cancer
Cell division
Cell division in cancer cells
stem cells
Types of tumours
gap 1 --> synthesis --> gap 2 --> mitosis --> gap 0
small or no gap 0 phase
A class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differenti…
benign and maligant
Cell division
gap 1 --> synthesis --> gap 2 --> mitosis --> gap 0
Cell division in cancer cells
small or no gap 0 phase
Cancer Biology
cells exist as a
cells interact to promote
tumors can occur when
cancer is a disease
society
survival of the organism
abnormal cells do not follow normal control mechanisms ... -cell…
in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able t…
cells exist as a
society
cells interact to promote
survival of the organism
15 terms
Cancer Biology
miRNA are small, _______ RNA's --> ___…
Majority of cancer genetics are due to…
Gatekeeper mutations in colorectal can…
4 functions of tumor suppressors: ... 1.…
untranslated ... decrease gene expression ... translation
single base pair substitutions
APC ... MLH1... MSH2
check proliferation ... block cell cycle ... pro-apoptotic ... DNA rep…
miRNA are small, _______ RNA's --> ___…
untranslated ... decrease gene expression ... translation
Majority of cancer genetics are due to…
single base pair substitutions
biology of cancer
define pathology
define oncology
define tumor
define neoplasm
study of disease
study of cancer
abnormal growth of cells; form tissue mass
"new growth" another term for tumor
define pathology
study of disease
define oncology
study of cancer
Cancer Biology
In essence, cancer is a collection of…
The two mediums cancerous cells use to…
What type of cancer is the leading cau…
What does the word "tumour" mean?
cycle control
blood, lymph
lung
swelling
In essence, cancer is a collection of…
cycle control
The two mediums cancerous cells use to…
blood, lymph
56 terms
Cancer Biology
most common cancer among males
most common cancer in females
male breast cancer gene
NM in NMSC
NMSC: 55,600 (prostate =40.900)
Breast: 49,500 (NMSC = 43,900)
BRCA2 (UK 2012 incidence = 397)
Non-melanoma
most common cancer among males
NMSC: 55,600 (prostate =40.900)
most common cancer in females
Breast: 49,500 (NMSC = 43,900)
16 terms
Biology- Cancer
cancer
tumour
benign tumour
Malignant tumour
a broad group off diseases that result in uncontrolled cell d…
a mass of cells that continue to grow and divide without any…
a tumour that does not affect surrounding tissues other than…
a tumour that interferes with the functioning of surrounding…
cancer
a broad group off diseases that result in uncontrolled cell d…
tumour
a mass of cells that continue to grow and divide without any…
107 terms
cancer biology
cancer is a
DNA damage occurs
detox and repair mechanisms
accumulations of multiple DNA mutation…
multistage disease, multiple DNA mutations, loss of normal ti…
continuously in dividing and non-dividing cells, can increase…
may fail especially in environments that promote cell prolife…
uncontrolled cell proliferation/progressive transformation of…
cancer is a
multistage disease, multiple DNA mutations, loss of normal ti…
DNA damage occurs
continuously in dividing and non-dividing cells, can increase…
42 terms
Cancer Biology
Main classes of genes
Hallmarks of cancer
In cancer, what happens with growth su…
In cancer, what happens to the immune…
Proto-oncogenes, tumor supressor genes, DNA repair
Tumor suppressor, oncogenes, DNA repair issues
Evaded
Destroyed
Main classes of genes
Proto-oncogenes, tumor supressor genes, DNA repair
Hallmarks of cancer
Tumor suppressor, oncogenes, DNA repair issues
biology-cancer
mutation in your genes
mutation
cancer
-cell division ... -checkpoints... -the grow…
what is cancer caused by
a change or mistake
what does onco mean?
what do oncogenes affect?
mutation in your genes
what is cancer caused by
mutation
a change or mistake
Cancer Biology
Anthracyclins
Anthracyclin mode of action
Anthracyclin treats:
Anthracyclin drug
Inhibits DNA replication; intercalating agent
Blocks DNA replication and RNA synthesis... Inhibits topoisomera…
Breast carcinoma... Osteogenic or soft tissue sarcoma... Hodgkin's/…
Doxorubicin
Anthracyclins
Inhibits DNA replication; intercalating agent
Anthracyclin mode of action
Blocks DNA replication and RNA synthesis... Inhibits topoisomera…
27 terms
Biology- Cancer
apoptosis
cell size DNA replication chromosomes…
3
contact inhibition
programmed cell death
what do the three checkpoints check for
how many checkpoints are there
external factors that control growth
apoptosis
programmed cell death
cell size DNA replication chromosomes…
what do the three checkpoints check for
Cancer Biology
What are the 6 hallmarks of cancer?
How do cancer cells gain growth signal…
What is the most commonly mutated onco…
What kind of protein is RAS?
1. Self-sufficiency in growth signals... 2. Insensitivity to ant…
1. Alterations in EC GS (autocrine signaling is predominant)…
RAS
GTPase in the MAPK pathway
What are the 6 hallmarks of cancer?
1. Self-sufficiency in growth signals... 2. Insensitivity to ant…
How do cancer cells gain growth signal…
1. Alterations in EC GS (autocrine signaling is predominant)…
Cancer biology
benign
malignant
metastasis
low mitotic index
not harmful
invasive, uncontrollable
development of new tumor away from primary site
benign tumor
benign
not harmful
malignant
invasive, uncontrollable
24 terms
cancer biology
smallest detectable tumor... how many gro…
2 things that determine growth rate
list the steps of carcinogens of colon…
BENIGN VS MALIGNANT
% actively growing... time per cycle of growth
APC... APC... K RAS... P53... SMAD 2 AND 4... TELOMERASE
smallest detectable tumor... how many gro…
2 things that determine growth rate
% actively growing... time per cycle of growth
92 terms
Cancer Biology
Smallest clinically detectable tumor m…
By the time a solid tumor is clinicall…
What is the maximum size compatible wi…
The growth rate of a tumor correlates…
10^9 cells & approx 1 gram
It has already completed a major portion of its life span
Up to 1 kilogram in weight is the maximum size compatible wit…
With the level of differentiation
Smallest clinically detectable tumor m…
10^9 cells & approx 1 gram
By the time a solid tumor is clinicall…
It has already completed a major portion of its life span
10 terms
Biology Cancer
Cancer
Causes of cancer
Why does cancer increase with age?
2 Genes most often associated with can…
Uncontrolled cellular proliferation (do not know when to stop…
damage to DNA since regulation of cellular division is gone
a person has been exposed to a lot more things (sun, smoke) t…
Oncogenes and Tumor suppressors
Cancer
Uncontrolled cellular proliferation (do not know when to stop…
Causes of cancer
damage to DNA since regulation of cellular division is gone
70 terms
Cancer Biology
Characteristics of Cancer...... There are…
Formation of tumor cells can be divide…
What induces apoptosis and what happen…
Tumor supressor genes (3 main ones)
-self-sufficiency in growth factors... -insensitivity to growth-…
1) tumor initiation... 2) tumorigenesis and tumor promotion... 3) t…
Tumor suppressor genes - protects from becoming a cancer cell…
p53, p21, p16, p27... pRb (retinoblastoma protein)... PTEN (Phospha…
Characteristics of Cancer...... There are…
-self-sufficiency in growth factors... -insensitivity to growth-…
Formation of tumor cells can be divide…
1) tumor initiation... 2) tumorigenesis and tumor promotion... 3) t…
11 terms
Biology-Cancer
Mutations in __________ genes can lead…
Carcinogens
Proto-oncogenes
Tumor-supressor
Apoptosis
Cause mutations which make you more likely to get cancer
Encourage cell division
Stops cell division
Mutations in __________ genes can lead…
Apoptosis
Carcinogens
Cause mutations which make you more likely to get cancer
Biology of cancer
what is codominance
what is incomplete dominance
what is the gene pool
how much of a mammals genomic DNA code…
when the phenotype is a mix of both dominant and recessive al…
When a phenotype expresses the recessive allele even though i…
the collection of alleles present in the genomes of all membe…
1.5%
what is codominance
when the phenotype is a mix of both dominant and recessive al…
what is incomplete dominance
When a phenotype expresses the recessive allele even though i…
46 terms
Biology of Cancer
What is lifetime risk of getting cance…
What is lifetime risk of getting cance…
Which cancer are men mostly likely to…
Which cancer are women mostly likely t…
50%
33%
Prostate cancer
Breast cancer
What is lifetime risk of getting cance…
50%
What is lifetime risk of getting cance…
33%
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