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Study sets matching "cancer biology"

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Study sets matching "cancer biology"

29 terms
Cancer Biology
T/F ALL Cancer cells respond the same…
In what ways can cancer cells vary to…
What is hypoxia?
When cell cycle checkpoints are ignore…
FALSE: The group of cells in one tumor will respond different…
Go-Signal recognition (remember cell cycle)... Rate of mitotic c…
Oxygen deficiency in body's tissue
The cell cycle becomes unregulated, cells can multiply endles…
T/F ALL Cancer cells respond the same…
FALSE: The group of cells in one tumor will respond different…
In what ways can cancer cells vary to…
Go-Signal recognition (remember cell cycle)... Rate of mitotic c…
329 terms
Cancer Biology
Cancer is a _______ of diseases
What is the common feature of all canc…
What cell type do cancers mostly affect?
Define neoplasm
Group
Uncontrolled cell growth
Epithelial
Any abnormal proliferation of cells
Cancer is a _______ of diseases
Group
What is the common feature of all canc…
Uncontrolled cell growth
65 terms
Cancer Drugs/ Cancer Biology
What are the chemotherapy options for…
What chemotherapy agent is know for ca…
What is the MOA of Bleomycin?
What are some other side-effects of bl…
Vincristine, Bleomycin, and Cisplatin ... Mnemonic: Very Ballsy…
Bleomycin Baby
Inhibits synthesis of DNA; binds to DNA leading to single- an…
-Many dermatologic issues and hair loss... - Respiratory (rales,…
What are the chemotherapy options for…
Vincristine, Bleomycin, and Cisplatin ... Mnemonic: Very Ballsy…
What chemotherapy agent is know for ca…
Bleomycin Baby
98 terms
Cancer biology
What ratio of people in the UK will ge…
Common cancer in men
Common cancer in women
30% of cancer deaths are due to the fi…
1 in 2
Prostate
Breast
1. High body mass index... 2. Low fruit and vegetable intake... 3.…
What ratio of people in the UK will ge…
1 in 2
Common cancer in men
Prostate
329 terms
Cancer Biology
Cancer is a _______ of diseases
What is the common feature of all canc…
What cell type do cancers mostly affect?
Define neoplasm
Group
Uncontrolled cell growth
Epithelial
Any abnormal proliferation of cells
Cancer is a _______ of diseases
Group
What is the common feature of all canc…
Uncontrolled cell growth
69 terms
Biology of Cancer
Neoplasia
Features of a benign neoplasm
Features of malignant neoplasm
Cancer originating from epithelial cells
State of cancerous growth. Mutant cells escape cell regulatio…
Encapsulated, well differentiated, low mitotic rate, noninvas…
Non encapsulated, poorly differentiated, high but variable mi…
Carcinoma
Neoplasia
State of cancerous growth. Mutant cells escape cell regulatio…
Features of a benign neoplasm
Encapsulated, well differentiated, low mitotic rate, noninvas…
53 terms
Biology: Cancer
Cell division
Cell division in cancer cells
stem cells
Types of tumours
gap 1 --> synthesis --> gap 2 --> mitosis --> gap 0
small or no gap 0 phase
A class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differenti…
benign and maligant
Cell division
gap 1 --> synthesis --> gap 2 --> mitosis --> gap 0
Cell division in cancer cells
small or no gap 0 phase
36 terms
Cancer Biology
What is Cancer?
Cell Cycle
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Cyclin-dependent
- Accumulation of mutations (~6-9 gene mutations)... --> Typical…
Interphase: G1, S, G2 (23 hr)... Mitosis, M (1 hr)
G1/S: Environment favorable?... G2/M: DNA replicated, environmen…
Cdk-cyclin binding --> cell cycle progression... Cdk-cycling bin…
What is Cancer?
- Accumulation of mutations (~6-9 gene mutations)... --> Typical…
Cell Cycle
Interphase: G1, S, G2 (23 hr)... Mitosis, M (1 hr)
8 terms
Biology: Cancer
cancer
checkpoint
end of gap 1, end of gap 2, between me…
mutated DNA
when abnormal cells divide without control and are able to in…
a stage in the eukaryotic cell cycle at which the cell decide…
When are the different checkpoints?
What could allow a cell to skip a checkpoint?
cancer
when abnormal cells divide without control and are able to in…
checkpoint
a stage in the eukaryotic cell cycle at which the cell decide…
75 terms
Biology of Cancer
What is the major cause of death?
In men, the common sites of cancer is
In women, the common sites of cancer is
Body tissue is made up of
Metastases (migration)
lung... prostate... colorectum... stomach... liver
breast... colorectum... cervix ... stomach
epithelial tissue... connective tissue... cells of the blood & lymp…
What is the major cause of death?
Metastases (migration)
In men, the common sites of cancer is
lung... prostate... colorectum... stomach... liver
48 terms
Cancer Biology
List the top three solid tumor sites i…
List the top three solid tumor sites i…
List the top three cancer related deat…
List the top three cancer related deat…
Prostate... Lung, bronchus... Colon, rectum
Breast... Lung, bronchus... Colon rectum
Lung, bronchus... Prostate... Colon rectum
Lung, bronchus... Breast... Colon, rectum
List the top three solid tumor sites i…
Prostate... Lung, bronchus... Colon, rectum
List the top three solid tumor sites i…
Breast... Lung, bronchus... Colon rectum
56 terms
Cancer Biology
most common cancer among males
most common cancer in females
male breast cancer gene
NM in NMSC
NMSC: 55,600 (prostate =40.900)
Breast: 49,500 (NMSC = 43,900)
BRCA2 (UK 2012 incidence = 397)
Non-melanoma
most common cancer among males
NMSC: 55,600 (prostate =40.900)
most common cancer in females
Breast: 49,500 (NMSC = 43,900)
64 terms
Biology of Cancer
Neoplasia
Tumor
Benign
Malignant
new abnormal growth; could be either benign or malignant
new abnormal growth; could be either benign or malignant.
"relatively innocent"; remain localized, do not spread distan…
cancer "crab"; can invade and destroy adjacent structures and…
Neoplasia
new abnormal growth; could be either benign or malignant
Tumor
new abnormal growth; could be either benign or malignant.
45 terms
Cancer Biology
Anthracyclins
Anthracyclin mode of action
Anthracyclin treats:
Anthracyclin drug
Inhibits DNA replication; intercalating agent
Blocks DNA replication and RNA synthesis... Inhibits topoisomera…
Breast carcinoma... Osteogenic or soft tissue sarcoma... Hodgkin's/…
Doxorubicin
Anthracyclins
Inhibits DNA replication; intercalating agent
Anthracyclin mode of action
Blocks DNA replication and RNA synthesis... Inhibits topoisomera…
54 terms
Cancer Biology - Chapter 6
What are immediate early genes?
What is the function of cycloheximide?
What was proven by growing cells in th…
What are delayed early genes?
Genes that activate first in the presence of growth factors
Cycloheximide shuts down all protein synthesis
Cycloheximide is not required in the production of proteins s…
These are genes that require de novo synthesis in order to form
What are immediate early genes?
Genes that activate first in the presence of growth factors
What is the function of cycloheximide?
Cycloheximide shuts down all protein synthesis
24 terms
cancer biology
smallest detectable tumor... how many gro…
2 things that determine growth rate
list the steps of carcinogens of colon…
BENIGN VS MALIGNANT
% actively growing... time per cycle of growth
APC... APC... K RAS... P53... SMAD 2 AND 4... TELOMERASE
smallest detectable tumor... how many gro…
2 things that determine growth rate
% actively growing... time per cycle of growth
22 terms
Biology: Cancer
Cancer is a disorder in which some cel…
the scientific study of cancer is...
characteristic of cancer #1
characteristic of cancer #2
lose the ability to control growth and divisions. Such cells…
oncology... - a cancer specialist is an oncologist... - key root: o…
- cancer cells do not respond to signals that regulate growth…
- cancer cells can simulate a process called angiogenesis (or…
Cancer is a disorder in which some cel…
lose the ability to control growth and divisions. Such cells…
the scientific study of cancer is...
oncology... - a cancer specialist is an oncologist... - key root: o…
59 terms
Cancer Biology
Benign tumors
Benign:
Malignant tumors
Metastasis
Are named according to the tissues from which they arise and…
localized and of small size
1. Malignant epithelial tumors: Carcinomas... Adenocarcinoma: Du…
Most malignant cells
Benign tumors
Are named according to the tissues from which they arise and…
Benign:
localized and of small size
23 terms
Hallmarks of Cancer and Intro to Cancer biology
Self_
Evade_
Insensitive to_
Angio_
_Sufficiency
_Apoptosis
_Anti growth signals
_Genesis
Self_
_Sufficiency
Evade_
_Apoptosis
133 terms
Cancer Biology
cancer
cancer frequencies
cancer deaths
Male mortality
a term used for diseases in which abnormal cells... divide witho…
~80% of the... cancers originated from 5 different... sites, with s…
lung cancer is the leading... cause of cancer death (~1/3); most…
1. lung; 2. prostate;... 3. colon & rectum
cancer
a term used for diseases in which abnormal cells... divide witho…
cancer frequencies
~80% of the... cancers originated from 5 different... sites, with s…
134 terms
Cancer Biology
"Cancer" is derived from =
Benign tumor characteristics - 6
Malignant tumors characteristics - 6
Carcinoma in situ
- the Greek work for crab: karkinoma
- slow growth... - well-defined capsule... - non-invasive... - well di…
- rapid growth... - non encapsulated ... - invasive... - poorly differ…
- pre-invasive epithelial malignant tumors (currently not mal…
"Cancer" is derived from =
- the Greek work for crab: karkinoma
Benign tumor characteristics - 6
- slow growth... - well-defined capsule... - non-invasive... - well di…
26 terms
Biology Cancer
Carcinoma
Sarcoma
Leukemia
Lymphoma and Myeloma
cancer that begins in the skin or tissue that lines a body ca…
starts in the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or…
cancer starting in the blood; blood forming tissue such as bo…
cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system
Carcinoma
cancer that begins in the skin or tissue that lines a body ca…
Sarcoma
starts in the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or…
29 terms
Cancer Biology
T/F ALL Cancer cells respond the same…
In what ways can cancer cells vary to…
What is hypoxia?
When cell cycle checkpoints are ignore…
FALSE: The group of cells in one tumor will respond different…
Go-Signal recognition (remember cell cycle)... Rate of mitotic c…
Oxygen deficiency in body's tissue
The cell cycle becomes unregulated, cells can multiply endles…
T/F ALL Cancer cells respond the same…
FALSE: The group of cells in one tumor will respond different…
In what ways can cancer cells vary to…
Go-Signal recognition (remember cell cycle)... Rate of mitotic c…
20 terms
Cancer Biology
stages of cancer
crisis
immortalization
transformation
crisis, immortalization, transformation, metastasis
majority of cells die, a few grow out
established cell line divides indefinitly, but cells continue…
independent of anchorage, serum and contact inhbition; change…
stages of cancer
crisis, immortalization, transformation, metastasis
crisis
majority of cells die, a few grow out
58 terms
BIOLOGY OF CANCER!!!!!!!!!!!!
tumor (neoplasm)
benign
malignant
metastasis
an abnormal mass of cells formed through uncontrolled cell di…
confined to a specific site within a tissue and gives no evid…
shows evidence of or potential for invasion to adjacent tissu…
the process by which cancer cells move from the original tumo…
tumor (neoplasm)
an abnormal mass of cells formed through uncontrolled cell di…
benign
confined to a specific site within a tissue and gives no evid…
39 terms
Biology- Cancer
cancer
tumor
benign
malignant
uncontrolled mitosis, produces excess cells that are abnormal
mass of extra cells created by mitosis
tumor that contains cells that are not invasive and do not mo…
tumor with invasive cells that have potential to move, no lon…
cancer
uncontrolled mitosis, produces excess cells that are abnormal
tumor
mass of extra cells created by mitosis
21 terms
Cancer Biology
Benign
Malignant
Metastasis
Carcinomas
Cannot move and invade
Forms metastases; actually referred to as cancer
The spread of cancer cells through the blood or lymphatic sys…
Arise from malignancies of the epithelial cells
Benign
Cannot move and invade
Malignant
Forms metastases; actually referred to as cancer
49 terms
biology of cancer
define pathology
define oncology
define tumor
define neoplasm
study of disease
study of cancer
abnormal growth of cells; form tissue mass
"new growth" another term for tumor
define pathology
study of disease
define oncology
study of cancer
15 terms
Cancer Biology
miRNA are small, _______ RNA's --> ___…
Majority of cancer genetics are due to…
Gatekeeper mutations in colorectal can…
4 functions of tumor suppressors: ... 1.…
untranslated ... decrease gene expression ... translation
single base pair substitutions
APC ... MLH1... MSH2
check proliferation ... block cell cycle ... pro-apoptotic ... DNA rep…
miRNA are small, _______ RNA's --> ___…
untranslated ... decrease gene expression ... translation
Majority of cancer genetics are due to…
single base pair substitutions
84 terms
Cancer Biology
In essence, cancer is a collection of…
The two mediums cancerous cells use to…
What type of cancer is the leading cau…
What does the word "tumour" mean?
cycle control
blood, lymph
lung
swelling
In essence, cancer is a collection of…
cycle control
The two mediums cancerous cells use to…
blood, lymph
16 terms
Biology- Cancer
cancer
tumour
benign tumour
Malignant tumour
a broad group off diseases that result in uncontrolled cell d…
a mass of cells that continue to grow and divide without any…
a tumour that does not affect surrounding tissues other than…
a tumour that interferes with the functioning of surrounding…
cancer
a broad group off diseases that result in uncontrolled cell d…
tumour
a mass of cells that continue to grow and divide without any…
35 terms
Cancer biology
Cancer
Mitotic
Interphase
Mitosis
Disease of the cell cycle... Do not respond normally to the cell…
Mitosis and cytokinesis
Cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cel…
Prophase... Prometaphase... Metaphase... Anaphase... Telophase
Cancer
Disease of the cell cycle... Do not respond normally to the cell…
Mitotic
Mitosis and cytokinesis
42 terms
Cancer Biology
Main classes of genes
Hallmarks of cancer
In cancer, what happens with growth su…
In cancer, what happens to the immune…
Proto-oncogenes, tumor supressor genes, DNA repair
Tumor suppressor, oncogenes, DNA repair issues
Evaded
Destroyed
Main classes of genes
Proto-oncogenes, tumor supressor genes, DNA repair
Hallmarks of cancer
Tumor suppressor, oncogenes, DNA repair issues
16 terms
Cancer Biology
A disease caused by uncontrolled divis…
Characteristics of Cancer cells:
Cancer cells that cannot metastasis.
Cancer cells that can metastasis.
-Cancer
-Unregulated cell cycle... -Endless mitotic cell division... -Incre…
-Benign tumors
-Malignant Tumors
A disease caused by uncontrolled divis…
-Cancer
Characteristics of Cancer cells:
-Unregulated cell cycle... -Endless mitotic cell division... -Incre…
13 terms
Biology Cancer
How many types
Cancer cycle
Control division
Causes
200
Mutation, growth, tumour, expands, angiogenisis and metastasis
DNA checked,chemical signals and contact inhibition
5
How many types
200
Cancer cycle
Mutation, growth, tumour, expands, angiogenisis and metastasis
25 terms
Cancer biology
benign
malignant
metastasis
low mitotic index
not harmful
invasive, uncontrollable
development of new tumor away from primary site
benign tumor
benign
not harmful
malignant
invasive, uncontrollable
21 terms
Biology: Cell Cycle & Cancer
Genes
Nucleotides
DNA
RNA
Used to make RNA
Nucleic acid building blocks... Phosphate... Sugar... Base
Deoxyribose... Nitrogen Bases... Adenine... Cytosine... Guanine... Th…
Single Stranded... Ribose (Sugar)... Uracil (U) Instead of Thymine…
Genes
Used to make RNA
Nucleotides
Nucleic acid building blocks... Phosphate... Sugar... Base
Cancer Biology
What are the 6 hallmarks of cancer?
How do cancer cells gain growth signal…
What is the most commonly mutated onco…
What kind of protein is RAS?
1. Self-sufficiency in growth signals... 2. Insensitivity to ant…
1. Alterations in EC GS (autocrine signaling is predominant)…
RAS
GTPase in the MAPK pathway
What are the 6 hallmarks of cancer?
1. Self-sufficiency in growth signals... 2. Insensitivity to ant…
How do cancer cells gain growth signal…
1. Alterations in EC GS (autocrine signaling is predominant)…
92 terms
Cancer Biology
Smallest clinically detectable tumor m…
By the time a solid tumor is clinicall…
What is the maximum size compatible wi…
The growth rate of a tumor correlates…
10^9 cells & approx 1 gram
It has already completed a major portion of its life span
Up to 1 kilogram in weight is the maximum size compatible wit…
With the level of differentiation
Smallest clinically detectable tumor m…
10^9 cells & approx 1 gram
By the time a solid tumor is clinicall…
It has already completed a major portion of its life span
18 terms
Biology - Le Cancer
Qu'est ce que c'est le cancer?
Les types de cancer
Qu'est-ce que c'est un tumeur?
Tumeur Bénigne
-se caractérise par une croissance incontollé des cellules... -u…
héréditaire et environnementaux
-un tumeur est une masse de cellules privées de leurs fonctions
tumeur qui ne nuit pas aux cellules qui l'entourent
Qu'est ce que c'est le cancer?
-se caractérise par une croissance incontollé des cellules... -u…
Les types de cancer
héréditaire et environnementaux
72 terms
Biology of cancer
Who is Alfred Knudson?
Is retinoblastoma an oncogene or TSG?
In an fertilized zygote:... what happens…
Is a mutation on a single allele of a…
*Realized the incidence of sporadic Rb after two random event…
Rb is a TSG ... is Inactive in Retinoblastoma ... Inactive gene is…
If you pass an oncogene to the zygote it will be dominant and…
Yes... If in proto-oncogene one allele is mutated to make it an…
Who is Alfred Knudson?
*Realized the incidence of sporadic Rb after two random event…
Is retinoblastoma an oncogene or TSG?
Rb is a TSG ... is Inactive in Retinoblastoma ... Inactive gene is…
27 terms
Biology- Cancer
apoptosis
cell size DNA replication chromosomes…
3
contact inhibition
programmed cell death
what do the three checkpoints check for
how many checkpoints are there
external factors that control growth
apoptosis
programmed cell death
cell size DNA replication chromosomes…
what do the three checkpoints check for
70 terms
Cancer Biology
Characteristics of Cancer...... There are…
Formation of tumor cells can be divide…
What induces apoptosis and what happen…
Tumor supressor genes (3 main ones)
-self-sufficiency in growth factors... -insensitivity to growth-…
1) tumor initiation... 2) tumorigenesis and tumor promotion... 3) t…
Tumor suppressor genes - protects from becoming a cancer cell…
p53, p21, p16, p27... pRb (retinoblastoma protein)... PTEN (Phospha…
Characteristics of Cancer...... There are…
-self-sufficiency in growth factors... -insensitivity to growth-…
Formation of tumor cells can be divide…
1) tumor initiation... 2) tumorigenesis and tumor promotion... 3) t…
11 terms
Biology-Cancer
Mutations in __________ genes can lead…
Carcinogens
Proto-oncogenes
Tumor-supressor
Apoptosis
Cause mutations which make you more likely to get cancer
Encourage cell division
Stops cell division
Mutations in __________ genes can lead…
Apoptosis
Carcinogens
Cause mutations which make you more likely to get cancer
29 terms
Biology of Cancer
hallmark
metastasis
metastasize
inflammation
próba
przerzut
"przerzucać się"
zapalenie
hallmark
próba
metastasis
przerzut
10 terms
Biology Cancer
Cancer
Causes of cancer
Why does cancer increase with age?
2 Genes most often associated with can…
Uncontrolled cellular proliferation (do not know when to stop…
damage to DNA since regulation of cellular division is gone
a person has been exposed to a lot more things (sun, smoke) t…
Oncogenes and Tumor suppressors
Cancer
Uncontrolled cellular proliferation (do not know when to stop…
Causes of cancer
damage to DNA since regulation of cellular division is gone
7 terms
Biology Cancer
Two basic types of genes that control…
Tumor supresor gene
Proto-onco genes
What is cancer?
tumor supresor gene, proto-onco genes
break pedal
gas pedals of cell division
-a group of cells dividing without control (tumor)... -everyone…
Two basic types of genes that control…
tumor supresor gene, proto-onco genes
Tumor supresor gene
break pedal
15 terms
Biology - cancer
Define cell differentiation
Group of cells makes tissue which make…
Define peroxisomes
what causes cancer
When newly formed cells change their properties and beCome sp…
...
Contain enzymes involved in a variety of metabolic reactions
DNA mutation whether that be a single nucleotide (A OR T OR C…
Define cell differentiation
When newly formed cells change their properties and beCome sp…
Group of cells makes tissue which make…
...
16 terms
Cancer Biology
What is cancer the result of?
What does a cancer cell not listen to?
the formation of a mass of cells
What happens if there is a change to t…
one of the cells in an organ or tissue becomes damaged or alt…
signals- they will divide when they do not receive appropriat…
tumor
genes fail to preform their job and causes problems for the a…
What is cancer the result of?
one of the cells in an organ or tissue becomes damaged or alt…
What does a cancer cell not listen to?
signals- they will divide when they do not receive appropriat…
21 terms
Biology: Cancer
Undifferentiated
Differentiated
Tissue specific cells
Pluripotent stem cells
A cell that doesn't have a job yet
To acquire a specific job and characteristic
"Somatic stem cells" or "adult stem cells" ... Found in all peop…
Includes embryonic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells... Thes…
Undifferentiated
A cell that doesn't have a job yet
Differentiated
To acquire a specific job and characteristic
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