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Study sets matching "carbohydrates chem"

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Study sets matching "carbohydrates chem"

168 terms
Chemistry carbohydrates, chemistry carbohydrates
Describe the general structure of carb…
Molecules that contain 3, 4, 5, 6, or…
2 monosaccharides linked together with…
Consists of many monosaccharides linke…
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.…
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Describe the general structure of carb…
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.…
Molecules that contain 3, 4, 5, 6, or…
Monosaccharides
157 terms
Chemistry carbohydrates, chemistry carbohydrates
Describe the general structure of carb…
Molecules that contain 3, 4, 5, 6, or…
2 monosaccharides linked together with…
Consists of many monosaccharides linke…
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.…
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Describe the general structure of carb…
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.…
Molecules that contain 3, 4, 5, 6, or…
Monosaccharides
17 terms
chemistry carbohydrates
D - Galactose
D - Glucose
D - Fructose
Alpha - D - Glucose
D - Galactose
D - Glucose
77 terms
chemistry- carbohydrates
4 roles of carbohydrates
carbohydrate is a ?
functional group attached to each carb…
monosaccharide
1.) burned for energy production... 2.) used as carbon sources t…
polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy keytone
glucose and fructose
a single polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy keytone.... ( gluc…
4 roles of carbohydrates
1.) burned for energy production... 2.) used as carbon sources t…
carbohydrate is a ?
polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy keytone
47 terms
Chemistry - Carbohydrates
monosaccharides
how many carbon atoms are in monosacch…
what carbonyl groups are used in monos…
chiral carbon
cannot be split or hydrolyzed into smaller carbohydrates
3-8, 1 in a carbonyl group
CHO - aldose C=O ketose
4 different atoms bonded to a carbon
monosaccharides
cannot be split or hydrolyzed into smaller carbohydrates
how many carbon atoms are in monosacch…
3-8, 1 in a carbonyl group
chemistry of carbohydrates
4 cal/gram
carbohydrates
monosaccharide
disaccharide
amount of energy obtained from carbohydrates
organic substances contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1…
simple sugars that cannot be further hydrolysed. (Trioses, te…
two molecules of the same or different monosaccharide units j…
4 cal/gram
amount of energy obtained from carbohydrates
carbohydrates
organic substances contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1…
65 terms
CHEMISTRY : Carbohydrates
Reducing carbohydrates - must have ket…
Glucose
carbon dioxide and water
Aldose and Ketose
What is the difference between *reducing and non-reducing car…
the only carbohydrates that is directly used for energy or…
The ultimate goal is convert glucose into ....
Reducing carbohydrates - must have ket…
What is the difference between *reducing and non-reducing car…
Glucose
the only carbohydrates that is directly used for energy or…
151 terms
Chemistry carbohydrates
Describe the general structure of carb…
Molecules that contain 3, 4, 5, 6, or…
2 monosaccharides linked together with…
Consists of many monosaccharides linke…
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.…
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Describe the general structure of carb…
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.…
Molecules that contain 3, 4, 5, 6, or…
Monosaccharides
168 terms
Chemistry carbohydrates
Describe the general structure of carb…
Molecules that contain 3, 4, 5, 6, or…
2 monosaccharides linked together with…
Consists of many monosaccharides linke…
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.…
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Describe the general structure of carb…
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.…
Molecules that contain 3, 4, 5, 6, or…
Monosaccharides
11 terms
Carbohydrates Chemistry
Condensation Reaction
Hydrolysis Reaction
1. Monosaccharide... 2. Disaccharide... 3. P…
Cellulose
Monosaccharide -- (condenses to) --> Disachharide
Monosaccharide <-- (hydrolysis) -- Disaccharide... A hydrolysis…
1. Carbohydrates... 2. Compound Carbs... 3. Complex Carbs
Structural material in plants
Condensation Reaction
Monosaccharide -- (condenses to) --> Disachharide
Hydrolysis Reaction
Monosaccharide <-- (hydrolysis) -- Disaccharide... A hydrolysis…
17 terms
chemistry carbohydrates
D - Galactose
D - Glucose
D - Fructose
Alpha - D - Glucose
D - Galactose
D - Glucose
12 terms
Chemistry Carbohydrates
Calories per gram of carbohydrate
Calories per gram of protein
Calories per gram of lipid
What are the most common number of car…
4
4
9
3,5,6
Calories per gram of carbohydrate
4
Calories per gram of protein
4
43 terms
chemistry of carbohydrates
4 cal/gram
carbohydrates
monosaccharide
disaccharide
amount of energy obtained from carbohydrates
organic substances contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1…
simple sugars that cannot be further hydrolysed. (Trioses, te…
two molecules of the same or different monosaccharide units j…
4 cal/gram
amount of energy obtained from carbohydrates
carbohydrates
organic substances contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1…
13 terms
Chemistry: Carbohydrates
Polyhydric Aldehyde (Aldehexose)... Found…
Polyhydric Ketone (Ketohexose)... Fruit S…
Polyhydric aldehyde ... (Aldehexose)... Comp…
Formed by two alpha glucose ... Alpha 1-4…
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
Maltose
Polyhydric Aldehyde (Aldehexose)... Found…
Glucose
Polyhydric Ketone (Ketohexose)... Fruit S…
Fructose
32 terms
Chemistry carbohydrates
Glycosidic
Oxygen
POLY
-ose
Bond that holds 2 bonds together
"Deoxy" means 1 less ___
Meaning Many
Monosaccharide and disaccharide names end in ____
Glycosidic
Bond that holds 2 bonds together
Oxygen
"Deoxy" means 1 less ___
55 terms
Chemistry - Carbohydrates
Carb biochemistry
Carb Chemistry
Reducing sugars
Nonreducing sugars
General Formula Cx(H2O)y
connect using glycoside bonds through hydrolysis, gain of H2O…
capable of reducing a substance through a redox run, any suga…
Sucrose
Carb biochemistry
General Formula Cx(H2O)y
Carb Chemistry
connect using glycoside bonds through hydrolysis, gain of H2O…
52 terms
Chemistry - Carbohydrates
Discuss the role of digestion in metab…
Discuss the role of glycogenolysis in…
Discuss the roll of gluconeogenesis in…
What is the role of insulin in glucose…
Disacchariddes or polysaccharides can be hydrolyzed into mono…
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of the body's glycogen stores…
Gluconeogenesis involves the synthesis of glucose from amino…
Insulin is the primary hormone that lowers glucose levels in…
Discuss the role of digestion in metab…
Disacchariddes or polysaccharides can be hydrolyzed into mono…
Discuss the role of glycogenolysis in…
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of the body's glycogen stores…
25 terms
Carbohydrate Chemistry
D-Ribose
D-Ribulose
D-Glucose
D-Galactose
Aldopentose
Ketopentose
Aldohexose... Accounts for less than 1% of total structures (mor…
Aldohexose
D-Ribose
Aldopentose
D-Ribulose
Ketopentose
Chemistry of Carbohydrates
1) Monosaccharides (sweetening) 2) Pol…
Carbohydrates.
sugars; starches; dextrins; and glycog…
sugars
What are the four types of carbohydrates and their functions…
Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CH…
What are the four classifications of carbohydrates and the on…
What are the simplest of carbohydrates?
1) Monosaccharides (sweetening) 2) Pol…
What are the four types of carbohydrates and their functions…
Carbohydrates.
Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CH…
11 terms
Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates & Fats
Saccharide
Monosaccharide
Polysaccharide
Glycosidic bond
a ring-shaped hydrocarbon with many pendant hydroxyl groups (…
a single saccharide molecule
a polymer containing only saccharide molecules, ring-shaped h…
the carbon-oxygen-carbon (C-O-C) bond that is created with mo…
Saccharide
a ring-shaped hydrocarbon with many pendant hydroxyl groups (…
Monosaccharide
a single saccharide molecule
27 terms
Chemistry- Carbohydrates
3 major functions of carbohydrates
monosaccharide
glucose
galactose
energy, structure, stored energy
one carbohydrate
blood sugar "dextrose"
part of lactose "milk sugar"
3 major functions of carbohydrates
energy, structure, stored energy
monosaccharide
one carbohydrate
20 terms
Chemistry: Carbohydrates
Monosaccharide
Disaccharide
Polysaccharide
Glycogenesis
Simple sugars; do not hydrolyze to simpler form... e.g glucose,…
Two monosaccharides joined... e.g. maltose, lactose, sucrose
Linkage of many monosaccharide units... e.g. starch, glycogen
Glucose → glycogen... Glucose not needed right away is stored a…
Monosaccharide
Simple sugars; do not hydrolyze to simpler form... e.g glucose,…
Disaccharide
Two monosaccharides joined... e.g. maltose, lactose, sucrose
20 terms
Carbohydrate Chemistry
(1) aldose... (2) aldehyde
(1) ketose... (2) ketone
(1) stereoisomer(s)
(1) enantiomer(s)... (2) R... (3) S... (4) D
This structure is an (1) the functional group on the terminal…
This structure is an (1) the functional group on the terminal…
(1) compounds differ in 3D orientation but have the *same che…
(1) are stereoisomers that are mirror images of eachother. Th…
(1) aldose... (2) aldehyde
This structure is an (1) the functional group on the terminal…
(1) ketose... (2) ketone
This structure is an (1) the functional group on the terminal…
19 terms
Chemistry of Carbohydrates
How many carbons, hydrogens and oxygen…
How many carbons, hydrogens, and oxyge…
Formula for glucose and fructose
The structures that are built, what do…
C12 H12 O6
C6 H12 O6
1:2:1
Different
How many carbons, hydrogens and oxygen…
C12 H12 O6
How many carbons, hydrogens, and oxyge…
C6 H12 O6
11 terms
Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates & Fats
Saccharide
Monosaccharide
Polysaccharide
Glycosidic bond
a ring-shaped hydrocarbon with many pendant hydroxyl groups (…
a single saccharide molecule
a polymer containing only saccharide molecules, ring-shaped h…
the carbon-oxygen-carbon (C-O-C) bond that is created with mo…
Saccharide
a ring-shaped hydrocarbon with many pendant hydroxyl groups (…
Monosaccharide
a single saccharide molecule
9 terms
Chemistry carbohydrates
Carbohydrate
Starch
Glycogen
Cellulose
Commonly referred to as sugars and starches. They are the lar…
A polysaccharide. It is the main carb found in roots and seed…
Major form in which polysaccharides are stored in animals. It…
Found in the cell walls of nearly all plants. Gives support a…
Carbohydrate
Commonly referred to as sugars and starches. They are the lar…
Starch
A polysaccharide. It is the main carb found in roots and seed…
Chemistry- Carbohydrates
Glycosidic Bond
Glycosidases
Homoglycans
Heteroglycans
Bond betwee anomeric C of one monosaccharide and an alcohol.…
Enzymes that digest glycosidic bonds
Composed of the same monosaccharides ex. starch and cellulose
Composed of two or more types of monosacharides
Glycosidic Bond
Bond betwee anomeric C of one monosaccharide and an alcohol.…
Glycosidases
Enzymes that digest glycosidic bonds
11 terms
Chemistry- Carbohydrates
Formula for Carbohydrates
Formula for Glucose
Simple sugars
Polysaccharides
Cx(H₂O)y
C₆H₁₂O₆
Monosaccharides
Formed by joining monosaccharide monomers together
Formula for Carbohydrates
Cx(H₂O)y
Formula for Glucose
C₆H₁₂O₆
28 terms
chemistry of carbohydrates
formula for glucose
formula for fructose
formula for sucrose
a water molecule is lost
c6 h12 o6 (hexagon)
c6 h12 o6 (pentagon)
c12 h22 o11
during bonding process between carbohydrates
formula for glucose
c6 h12 o6 (hexagon)
formula for fructose
c6 h12 o6 (pentagon)
11 terms
Chemistry: Carbohydrates
Starch
Amylose
Amylopectin
Glycogen
Storage form of carbohydrates in plants.... Important sources of…
(15-20%) non branching helical structure responsible for the…
(80-85%) branched chains that gives red color with iodine.... (B…
Storage polysaccharide in animals also called as animal starc…
Starch
Storage form of carbohydrates in plants.... Important sources of…
Amylose
(15-20%) non branching helical structure responsible for the…
99 terms
Chemistry of Carbohydrates
Pyranose
Furanose
Stereoisomers
D sugars
6-membered ring consisting of 5 carbons and 1 oxygen
5-membered ring consisting of 4 carbons and 1 oxygen
have the same functional groups and connectivity, but differ…
naturally occurring sugars and can be metabolized by our body
Pyranose
6-membered ring consisting of 5 carbons and 1 oxygen
Furanose
5-membered ring consisting of 4 carbons and 1 oxygen
47 terms
Chemistry and Carbohydrates
Matter
Elements
Calcium
Carbon
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Basic units of matter
Ca
C
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Elements
Basic units of matter
7 terms
Carbohydrates- Chemistry
Elements
Ratio of elements?
Monomer?
Polymer?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
1:2:1 (c,H,O)
Monosaccharide
Polysaccahride
Elements
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Ratio of elements?
1:2:1 (c,H,O)
10 terms
Chemistry: Carbohydrates
What 3 elements?
What is the monomer?
List 2 monosaccharides
List 2 dissacharides
C, H, O
Saccharide
Glucose, fructose
Sucrose, Lactose
What 3 elements?
C, H, O
What is the monomer?
Saccharide
46 terms
Chemistry - Carbohydrates
What are the nutritional sources of ca…
What are the monosaccharides examples?
What are the Disaccharides examples?
What are the Polysaccarides examples?
simple cars... grains... starchy veggies... legumes
D-galactose... D-glucose... D-fructose
maltose... lactose... sucrose
starch - amyloses and amylopectin... glycogen... cellulose
What are the nutritional sources of ca…
simple cars... grains... starchy veggies... legumes
What are the monosaccharides examples?
D-galactose... D-glucose... D-fructose
8 terms
Chemistry of Carbohydrates
Glucose, fructose, and galactose
Monosaccharide
Disaccharide
Sucrose
What are the 3 different kinds of monosaccharides ?
Single molecule sugars
Double molecule sugars
Fructose and glucose joined togther
Glucose, fructose, and galactose
What are the 3 different kinds of monosaccharides ?
Monosaccharide
Single molecule sugars
26 terms
Chemistry and carbohydrates
Matter
Element
Atom
Proton
Anything that takes up space
Basic unit of matter, can't be broken down by ordinary means
Basic unit of elements, all atoms in an element are the same
Positive charge
Matter
Anything that takes up space
Element
Basic unit of matter, can't be broken down by ordinary means
22 terms
chemistry-carbohydrates
following the overnight fasting, hypog…
the preparation of a patient for stand…
if a fasting glucose was a 90 mg/dL wh…
a healthy person with a blood glucose…
<,= 45 mmol/L
a high carbohydrate diet for 3 days
100 mg/dL
50 mg/dL
following the overnight fasting, hypog…
<,= 45 mmol/L
the preparation of a patient for stand…
a high carbohydrate diet for 3 days
12 terms
Chemistry of carbohydrates
What three elements are present in car…
Molecular formula for three monosaccha…
Ratio of three monosaccharides
Dehydration
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
C6 H12 06
1:2:1
Removal of water molecules
What three elements are present in car…
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Molecular formula for three monosaccha…
C6 H12 06
23 terms
Chemistry: Carbohydrates
The most abundant of all organic compo…
What is the process that forms glucose?
Where does the energy come from for th…
The metabolic reactions that oxidize g…
Carbohydrates
Photosynthesis
Sunlight
Respirations
The most abundant of all organic compo…
Carbohydrates
What is the process that forms glucose?
Photosynthesis
49 terms
Carbohydrate Chemistry
empirical formula
D-Glyceraldehyde
L-Glyceraldehyde
D-Glucose (FP)
(CH2O)n
empirical formula
(CH2O)n
D-Glyceraldehyde
14 terms
Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates
Monomer
Macromolecule
Organic compounds
Polymer
A small molecule that can bond to other like molecules to for…
Large molecules that make up living organisms
Chemical compounds that contain carbon and make up living org…
Long chain of monomers
Monomer
A small molecule that can bond to other like molecules to for…
Macromolecule
Large molecules that make up living organisms
36 terms
chemistry of carbohydrates
nutritive sweeteners
trehalose
tagatose
dextrose
1. trehalose... 2. tagatose... 3. dextrose
disaccharide of two glucose units with complete metabolism... -s…
monosaccharide naturally present in some fruits and dairy pro…
name for any sugar that is derived from starch hydrolysis... -bo…
nutritive sweeteners
1. trehalose... 2. tagatose... 3. dextrose
trehalose
disaccharide of two glucose units with complete metabolism... -s…
65 terms
Chemistry of Carbohydrates
Commonly identified sweeteners on nutr…
Less known and/or misrepresented nutri…
Trehalose
Natural food sources of trehalose
anhydrous dextrose honey... brown sugar invert sugar... confect. po…
trehalose... tagatose... dextrose
-synthesized by bacteria, yeast, plants, invertebrates... -disac…
honey, mushrooms, shellfish, anything with yeast
Commonly identified sweeteners on nutr…
anhydrous dextrose honey... brown sugar invert sugar... confect. po…
Less known and/or misrepresented nutri…
trehalose... tagatose... dextrose
16 terms
Carbohydrate Chemistry
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Recognize the Fischer projections of D…
A simple sugar that consists of a single polyhydroxyl aldehyd…
two monosaccharides join covalently by an O-glycosidic bond w…
linkage of multiple monosaccharide units results in the forma…
...
Monosaccharides
A simple sugar that consists of a single polyhydroxyl aldehyd…
Disaccharides
two monosaccharides join covalently by an O-glycosidic bond w…
109 terms
Carbohydrate Chemistry
Please feel free to correct mistakes
Formula carbohydrates
Which two chemical groups can carbohyd…
What are the two ways that we classify…
...
1) Polyhydroxyl Aldehydes... 2) Ketones
1) size (pentose/hexose)... 2) nature of carbonyl group (aldoses…
Please feel free to correct mistakes
...
Formula carbohydrates
22 terms
B.4 Carbohydrates (Chemistry)
Carbohydrate
Carbohydrate General Formula
Monosaccharide
Monosaccharide Properties
Compounds containing C, H, O
Cx(H₂O)y, with H and O always in 2 : 1 ratio
Single sugar unit of carbohydrates, sugar monomers
Soluble in water due to H-bonding, form crystalline solids fr…
Carbohydrate
Compounds containing C, H, O
Carbohydrate General Formula
Cx(H₂O)y, with H and O always in 2 : 1 ratio
40 terms
Carbohydrate Chemistry
Excipient
Carbohydrates are...
Monosaccharides are defined by...
Isomerism
Any inactive compound (both small and low molecular weight ag…
polyhydroxy aldehydes, polyhydroxy ketones, and variations of…
the ring size and functional group
Compounds that have the same structural formula but are diffe…
Excipient
Any inactive compound (both small and low molecular weight ag…
Carbohydrates are...
polyhydroxy aldehydes, polyhydroxy ketones, and variations of…
53 terms
carbohydrate chemistry
monosaccharides
oligosaccharides
dissacharides
polysaccharides
most important carbohydrate, one sugar, includes glucose
less than 20 sugar units, includes dissacharides, most consis…
2 sugars linked together (lactose and sucrose)
can be in chains or in branches (glycogen, storage form)
monosaccharides
most important carbohydrate, one sugar, includes glucose
oligosaccharides
less than 20 sugar units, includes dissacharides, most consis…
43 terms
carbohydrate chemistry
What is the general formula for carboh…
How many carbons do monosaccharides co…
What are the 5 important monosaccharid…
Glucose (fisher projection)
(CH2O)n
3-9
Glucose (Glc)... Mannose (Man)... Galactose (Gal)... Fructose (Fru)... Ri…
What is the general formula for carboh…
(CH2O)n
How many carbons do monosaccharides co…
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