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Study sets matching "cardiology"

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Study sets matching "cardiology"

24 terms
Cardiology
The two upper chambers of the heart ar…
The mitral valve is found between the_…
The word for within the ventricle is__…
The thick, muscular layer that makes u…
atria
left atrium and the left ventricle
Intraventricular
Myocardium
The two upper chambers of the heart ar…
atria
The mitral valve is found between the_…
left atrium and the left ventricle
19 terms
Cardiology
Cardiomegaly
Endocarditis
Arrhythmia
Bradycardia
enlargement of the heart, usually due to congestive heart fai…
inflammation and bacterial infection of the endocardium linin…
any type of irregularity in the rate or rhythm of the heart.
Arrhythmia in which the heart beats too slowly. (A patient wi…
Cardiomegaly
enlargement of the heart, usually due to congestive heart fai…
Endocarditis
inflammation and bacterial infection of the endocardium linin…
107 terms
Cardiology
Congestive Heart Failure
What is the MCC of CHF?
What medication do you never give duri…
What two drug classes reduce mortality…
Two types ... 1. Systolic - decreased pump function, ejection fr…
Coronary Artery Disease
BB
BB and ACE/ARB... Digoxin
Congestive Heart Failure
Two types ... 1. Systolic - decreased pump function, ejection fr…
What is the MCC of CHF?
Coronary Artery Disease
53 terms
Cardiology
Angio-
Arterio-
Cardio-
-cyte
Blood vessel
Artery
Heart
Cell
Angio-
Blood vessel
Arterio-
Artery
84 terms
Cardiology
Cardiac ablation
Atrium
Bradycardia
Cardioversion
nonsurgical procedure that is used to treat some types of rap…
One of two upper chambers in the heart.
Abnormally slow heartbeat.
a procedure in which a patient receives an electrical shock o…
Cardiac ablation
nonsurgical procedure that is used to treat some types of rap…
Atrium
One of two upper chambers in the heart.
24 terms
Cardiology
The two upper chambers of the heart ar…
The mitral valve is found between the_…
The word for within the ventricle is__…
The thick, muscular layer that makes u…
atria
left atrium and the left ventricle
Intraventricular
Myocardium
The two upper chambers of the heart ar…
atria
The mitral valve is found between the_…
left atrium and the left ventricle
24 terms
Cardiology
Cardiology cycles
Systolic/diastolic
More...
More...
Cardiology cycles
Systolic/diastolic
222 terms
Cardiology
Cardiac muscle tissue uses three prima…
Describe absolute refractory period
Describe relative refractoriness period
Describe threshold potential
Potassium... Sodium... Calcium
Cell cannot deplorise under any circumstances
Below threshold but not yet at resting membrane potential the…
The membrane potential at which cells are stimulated to fire
Cardiac muscle tissue uses three prima…
Potassium... Sodium... Calcium
Describe absolute refractory period
Cell cannot deplorise under any circumstances
38 terms
Cardiology
Common carotid artery
Common carotid artery
Marginal branch of RCA
Posterior interventricular branch of t…
Common carotid artery
Common carotid artery
310 terms
Cardiology
How much does lowering diastolic BP by…
Write out equations for BP and CO.
How can TPR be changed to decrease BP?
How can SV be changed to decrease BP?
35-40%
BP= CO x PR... CO= SV x HR
Decrease sympathetic activity to decrease vasoconstriction... Re…
Decrease contractility... Decrease preload via venous tone and b…
How much does lowering diastolic BP by…
35-40%
Write out equations for BP and CO.
BP= CO x PR... CO= SV x HR
25 terms
Cardiology
Allantois--> urachus
Umbilical arterieis
Umbilical vein
Inc pulse pressure
Median umbilical ligament... Urachus is part of all atomic duct…
Medial umbilical ligament
Ligamentum teres hepatis... Contained in falciform ligament
Hyperthyroid... Aortic regurg... Aortic stiffening... Obstructive slee…
Allantois--> urachus
Median umbilical ligament... Urachus is part of all atomic duct…
Umbilical arterieis
Medial umbilical ligament
381 terms
CARDIOLOGY
Which nerves give parasympathetic inne…
Which spinal cord segments via the sym…
What is the course of the sensory fibr…
What is the course of the sensory fibr…
Vagus nerve (X)
T1-4 (or T5)
Sensory fibres travel within the vagus nerve to enter T1-4 (o…
Sensory fibres travel via sympathetic trunks and tener T1-4 (…
Which nerves give parasympathetic inne…
Vagus nerve (X)
Which spinal cord segments via the sym…
T1-4 (or T5)
248 terms
Cardiology
Cardiac muscle tissue uses three prima…
Describe absolute refractory period
Describe relative refractoriness period
Describe threshold potential
Potassium... Sodium... Calcium
Cell cannot deplorise under any circumstances
Below threshold but not yet at resting membrane potential the…
The membrane potential at which cells are stimulated to fire
Cardiac muscle tissue uses three prima…
Potassium... Sodium... Calcium
Describe absolute refractory period
Cell cannot deplorise under any circumstances
176 terms
Cardiology
MOA of Simvastatin
SE of Simvastatin
MOA of Amlodipine
When can you start to see heart beats?
Inhibits HMG-CoA reductase to inhibit cholesterol synthesis
URT infection, headache, abdominal pain, constipation and nau…
Inhibits calcium from entering slow-type L channels of vascul…
4 weeks, US at 6 weeks
MOA of Simvastatin
Inhibits HMG-CoA reductase to inhibit cholesterol synthesis
SE of Simvastatin
URT infection, headache, abdominal pain, constipation and nau…
80 terms
Cardiology
valsalva
standing
squatting
handgrip
↓venous return (during strain)... ↑venous return (during relaxat…
↓venous return... louder: *HCP*,*MVP*... softer: all others
↑venous return... ↑afterload... ↑regurgitant fraction... louder: *AR*…
↑afterload... ↑blood pressure... ↑regurgitant fraction... louder: *AR…
valsalva
↓venous return (during strain)... ↑venous return (during relaxat…
standing
↓venous return... louder: *HCP*,*MVP*... softer: all others
8 terms
cardiology
blood pressure, hypertension
healthy
ECG
weight
blood pressure, hypertension
healthy
304 terms
Cardiology
Introduction... Types of primary heart d…
What is congestive heart failure?
Congestive Heart Failure Pathophysiolo…
Congestive Heart Failure Pathophysiology
We have mechanical disease or electrical disease... Explain to…
Fluid retained in response to... heart disease (typically mechan…
In a normal situation, capillaries are exuding a little bit o…
Dilutional hypoalbuminaemia:
Introduction... Types of primary heart d…
We have mechanical disease or electrical disease... Explain to…
What is congestive heart failure?
Fluid retained in response to... heart disease (typically mechan…
168 terms
Cardiology
Heart tube
Truncus arteriosus
Bulbus cordis
Primitive ventricle
elongates to form bulges... 1) Truncus arteriosis... 2) Bulbus cord…
aorta and pulmonary trunk
Smooth part of L and R ventricles
trabeculated R and L ventricles
Heart tube
elongates to form bulges... 1) Truncus arteriosis... 2) Bulbus cord…
Truncus arteriosus
aorta and pulmonary trunk
207 terms
Cardiology
BP in Shock
HR in Shock
Skin in Shock
Lungs in Shock
Low
High
Cool and Clammy in Cardiogenic, Hypovolemic, Obstructive... War…
Clear in Hypovolemic, Obstructive and Septic... Congested in Ca…
BP in Shock
Low
HR in Shock
High
126 terms
cardiology
>140/90 mmHg... or ... isolated systolic>1…
idiopathic (primary)
significant severe intermitant hyperte…
myocardial infarction
what BP defines HTN
what is the most common cause of HTN
what condition related to HTN can pts. with bilateral renal a…
what is the presenting symptom for more than 1/2 of pts with…
>140/90 mmHg... or ... isolated systolic>1…
what BP defines HTN
idiopathic (primary)
what is the most common cause of HTN
39 terms
Cardiology
CO=
Fick Principle
MAP=
What factors affect stroke volume?
Stroke volume x heart rate
CO = Rate of O2 consumption / (arterial O2 content - venous O…
CO x TPR; = 2/3Pd + 1/3Ps
SV CAP - Contractility, afterload, preload ... Afterload decreas…
CO=
Stroke volume x heart rate
Fick Principle
CO = Rate of O2 consumption / (arterial O2 content - venous O…
67 terms
Cardiology:
Hydralazine:
ACE inhibitors and ARBS:
Chronic HTN effect on heart:
Normal ejection fraction:
Vasodilator... -Decrease after load (arterial)
Decrease preload and after load
Increase MAP → LV hypertrophy (to try and decrease wall tensi…
EF = SV/EDV = (EDV-ESV)/ EDV... -Left ventricular EF is a index…
Hydralazine:
Vasodilator... -Decrease after load (arterial)
ACE inhibitors and ARBS:
Decrease preload and after load
127 terms
Cardiology
Cardiac Output
Stroke Volume
Preload
Afterload
Stroke volume x hour
End-diastolic volume (EDV) - End-systolic volume (ESV)
Ventricular end-diastolic volume... Depends on venous tone and b…
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)... Decreased by ACEi, ARB, and vaso…
Cardiac Output
Stroke volume x hour
Stroke Volume
End-diastolic volume (EDV) - End-systolic volume (ESV)
98 terms
Cardiology
What causes the opening snap? What cha…
Bounding femoral and carotid pulses ar…
Head bobbing with carotid pulsations a…
Culture negative causes of bacterial e…
Opening snap is caused by the abrupt tensing of the valvle le…
Aortic regurgitation - LV pumps (pulse increases), blood regu…
Aortic regurgitation - LV pumps (pulse increases), blood regu…
Coxiella burnetti... Bartonella spp... HACEK (Haemophilus, Actinoba…
What causes the opening snap? What cha…
Opening snap is caused by the abrupt tensing of the valvle le…
Bounding femoral and carotid pulses ar…
Aortic regurgitation - LV pumps (pulse increases), blood regu…
40 terms
CARDIOLOGY
What are the three primary reasons for…
Two examples of Heart/ Pump Issues
Two examples of Vessels that lead to a…
Two examples of circulating volume/Blo…
Heart/ Pump... Vessels that lead to and from heart... Circulating v…
Dysrhythmias... EMD... Pericardial Tamponade
Obstructions... Dilation ... Rupture
Blood Loss... Profound dehydration... Relative hypovolemia
What are the three primary reasons for…
Heart/ Pump... Vessels that lead to and from heart... Circulating v…
Two examples of Heart/ Pump Issues
Dysrhythmias... EMD... Pericardial Tamponade
21 terms
Cardiology
Cardiology
Functions of the heart
Pulmonary Blood
Systemic
medical specialty of diagnosing and treating heart disease.
It has 2 pumps. Right side (pulmonary circulation) and left (…
carries deoxygenated blood
has oxygen rich blood
Cardiology
medical specialty of diagnosing and treating heart disease.
Functions of the heart
It has 2 pumps. Right side (pulmonary circulation) and left (…
18 terms
CARDIOLOGY
QT prolongation
LVH etiology
RVH
Atrial tachycardia with AV Block
Anti arrythmics: class 1a procainamide disopyramide cass 3 :…
HTN , AS/AI , HCMP , coactation of aorta
Cor pulmonsle, MS ,TR , congenital (TOF,TGA,PS,ASD VSD)
specific for digoxin toxicity
QT prolongation
Anti arrythmics: class 1a procainamide disopyramide cass 3 :…
LVH etiology
HTN , AS/AI , HCMP , coactation of aorta
44 terms
Cardiology
Right atrium
sinus venarum
interatrial septum
fossa ovalis
10
8
Right atrium
sinus venarum
10
19 terms
Cardiology ***
What do I need to ask to Identify the…
What do inverted T waves mean?
What do peaked T waves mean?
What do Flat T waves mean?
Regular Rhythm?... Heart Rate?... P waves?... PR Interval btwn 0.12-0.…
ischemia (lack of Oxygen)
hypERkalemia (too much potassium)
hyPOkalemia (too little potassium)
What do I need to ask to Identify the…
Regular Rhythm?... Heart Rate?... P waves?... PR Interval btwn 0.12-0.…
What do inverted T waves mean?
ischemia (lack of Oxygen)
46 terms
Cardiology
Myocardial Infarction
Acetylsalicylic Acid
Angina Pectoris
Sputum
Death of a portion of the heart muscle from prolonged depriva…
Fancy name for aspirin...
"pain in the chest"
A mixture of saliva and mucus coughed up from the respiratory…
Myocardial Infarction
Death of a portion of the heart muscle from prolonged depriva…
Acetylsalicylic Acid
Fancy name for aspirin...
305 terms
Cardiology
MCC death in US
RF For CAD coronary artery disease (8)
CAD ... 1. Presents with chest pain that…
1.Plerutic pain / changes with respira…
Coronary Artery disease CAD
DM ... HTN ... Tabacco use ... Hyperlipidemia ... Peripheral artery disea…
1. body position , respiration , or plapation
MCC death in US
Coronary Artery disease CAD
RF For CAD coronary artery disease (8)
DM ... HTN ... Tabacco use ... Hyperlipidemia ... Peripheral artery disea…
142 terms
Cardiology
What organs have resistance in series?
What organs have resistance in parallel?
What organ has the highest A -V02 diff…
What organ has the highest A-V02 diffe…
Liver, kidney, spleen
All the rest
Heart
Muscle
What organs have resistance in series?
Liver, kidney, spleen
What organs have resistance in parallel?
All the rest
93 terms
Cardiology
Electrophysiology of the Heart:
Blood Flow through the Heart:
Atrial depolarization occurs when...
Atrial depolarization is shown by the…
SA node fires -- AV node -- Bundle of His -- L and R bundle b…
Returning unoxygenated blood from cranial and caudal vena cav…
the SA node fires
P wave
Electrophysiology of the Heart:
SA node fires -- AV node -- Bundle of His -- L and R bundle b…
Blood Flow through the Heart:
Returning unoxygenated blood from cranial and caudal vena cav…
Cardiology
Describe EKG changes seen for ventricu…
What is 1st finding on EKG in ischemia?
After reperfusion of a STEMI, what doe…
Describe significant Q waves
ST elev (tombstone shape-convex, or concave) *without recipro…
hyperacute T waves... (Tall and BROAD-BASED)... vs hyperK+ where…
Good prognostic sign
1 box wide... 1/3 of height of R wave
Describe EKG changes seen for ventricu…
ST elev (tombstone shape-convex, or concave) *without recipro…
What is 1st finding on EKG in ischemia?
hyperacute T waves... (Tall and BROAD-BASED)... vs hyperK+ where…
96 terms
Cardiology
which type of HF is associated with a…
which type of HF is associated with S3…
what are signs of right HF?
what are signs of left HF?
Diastolic HF has a normal or increased EF and S4 gallop ... sys…
Systolic = S3... Diastolic=s4
signs of systemic fluid retention: peripheral edema, JVD, GI/…
PUlmonary signs= dyspnea, pulmonary congestion,
which type of HF is associated with a…
Diastolic HF has a normal or increased EF and S4 gallop ... sys…
which type of HF is associated with S3…
Systolic = S3... Diastolic=s4
156 terms
CARDIOLOGY
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein... -u…
Biomarkers of Cardiac Injury ... -Troponi…
Troponin levels:... -when are they elevat…
Troponin... -disadvantages?
group:... -Intermediate risk*... -Framingham risk= 10-20%... procedur…
*No troponin in smooth muscle ... Troponin I/ Troponin T... - card…
1.) Elevated as soon as 1-3 hours ... 2.) Stay elevated as long…
1.) May be caused other than MI:... Myocarditis, CVD cocaine, se…
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein... -u…
group:... -Intermediate risk*... -Framingham risk= 10-20%... procedur…
Biomarkers of Cardiac Injury ... -Troponi…
*No troponin in smooth muscle ... Troponin I/ Troponin T... - card…
83 terms
Cardiology
Heart's Anatomy
Mediastinum
Heart's Location
Pericardium
-12 cm long, 9cm wide and 6cm thick
mass of tissue that extends from sternum to vertebral column…
-Rests of diaphragm near the midline of the thoracic cavity... -…
-Membrane that surrounds the heart... 1) Fibrous Pericardium... 2)…
Heart's Anatomy
-12 cm long, 9cm wide and 6cm thick
Mediastinum
mass of tissue that extends from sternum to vertebral column…
145 terms
Cardiology
Pt comes in w/ chest pain... - - best…
positive EKG findings for STEMI?... (name…
LBBB criteria?
Emergency reperfusion post-MI
1) EKG... 2) Cardiac enzymes... - NSTEMI if (+) w/ normal EKG... - Che…
1) 2mm ST elevation... - ST elevation immediately... - T wave inver…
1) QRS > 120ms... 2) notched R... 3) no Q wave in V5/6
1) Go to CATH LAB (w/in 90 min)... OR ... 2) Can give thrombolytics…
Pt comes in w/ chest pain... - - best…
1) EKG... 2) Cardiac enzymes... - NSTEMI if (+) w/ normal EKG... - Che…
positive EKG findings for STEMI?... (name…
1) 2mm ST elevation... - ST elevation immediately... - T wave inver…
10 terms
Cardiology
The tricuspid and mitral valves are al…
The pulmonic and aortic valves are als…
Injury/occlusion of the circumflex cor…
ST elevation in leads II, III, and aVF…
Since these valves lie between the atria and ventricles, they…
These valves can also be referred to as the "semilunar" valve…
Leads I, aVL, V5, and V6. ... The circumflex branch of the LCA…
The RCA supplies circulation to the inferior and posterior le…
The tricuspid and mitral valves are al…
Since these valves lie between the atria and ventricles, they…
The pulmonic and aortic valves are als…
These valves can also be referred to as the "semilunar" valve…
381 terms
LA Cardiology
What are characteristics about pericar…
What are characteristics of thoracic e…
What makes up lympocytic effusion?
What makes up chylous effusion?
1.color: brown/yellow with flecks... 2.transparency: cloudy... Prot…
1.color: light tan... 2.transparency: hazy ... Protein rich transud…
1.predominate cells are lymphocytes... 2.lymph origin other than…
1.lymphocytes and high triglyceride concentration... 2.lymph ori…
What are characteristics about pericar…
1.color: brown/yellow with flecks... 2.transparency: cloudy... Prot…
What are characteristics of thoracic e…
1.color: light tan... 2.transparency: hazy ... Protein rich transud…
7 terms
cardiology
v1
V2
V3
V4
4th intercostal space to the right of the sternum
4th intercostal space to the left of the sternum
Midway between v2 and v4
5th intercostal space in the midclavicular line
v1
4th intercostal space to the right of the sternum
V2
4th intercostal space to the left of the sternum
21 terms
Cardiology
Cardiology
Functions of the heart
Pulmonary Blood
Systemic
medical specialty of diagnosing and treating heart disease.
It has 2 pumps. Right side (pulmonary circulation) and left (…
carries deoxygenated blood
has oxygen rich blood
Cardiology
medical specialty of diagnosing and treating heart disease.
Functions of the heart
It has 2 pumps. Right side (pulmonary circulation) and left (…
17 terms
cardiology
cardiology
heart
heart layers
epicardium
study of heart
4 chambers, left & right atrium, left and right ventricles (s…
epicadium, myocardium, and endocardium
firmly affixed to the outer wall of the heart
cardiology
study of heart
heart
4 chambers, left & right atrium, left and right ventricles (s…
138 terms
Cardiology
angi/o
aort/o
arteri/o
arteriol/o
vessel
aorta
artery
arteriole
angi/o
vessel
aort/o
aorta
20 terms
Cardiology
Acute pulmonary edema - management
Chronic heart failure - management
Heart failure - NYHA classifications
Rheumatic fever/RHD - aetiology
- sit pt up + high flow O2 +/- CPAP... - IV/buccal nitrates... - IV…
- ACE-I/ARB... - B-blocker... - spironolactone... (diuretics for sympt…
Class I - no limitation of physical activity... Class II - comfo…
Anti-Streptococcal Ag Ab cross-react w/ endocardium, myocardi…
Acute pulmonary edema - management
- sit pt up + high flow O2 +/- CPAP... - IV/buccal nitrates... - IV…
Chronic heart failure - management
- ACE-I/ARB... - B-blocker... - spironolactone... (diuretics for sympt…
9 terms
Cardiology
Arteriosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
Embolus
Myocardial Infarction
hardening or the artery walls... S/S:aging... Tx:lower blood pressu…
Occurs when fatty plaques are deposited on the walls the arte…
A foreign substance circulating in the bloodstream... S/S: short…
Heart attack... S/S: severe crushing pain,pressure in the chest,…
Arteriosclerosis
hardening or the artery walls... S/S:aging... Tx:lower blood pressu…
Atherosclerosis
Occurs when fatty plaques are deposited on the walls the arte…
31 terms
Cardiology
Atherosclerosis
Stable Angina
Unstable Angina
NSTEMI
Pathophysiology leading to Ischaemic Heart Disease... Limiting b…
Pain on exertion (relived with rest)... 75% occlusion... No biomark…
Rest pain... 90% occlusion... GTN Spray relieves... Still needs treatm…
Heart damage - biomarkers raised (Troponin)... ST Depression... T w…
Atherosclerosis
Pathophysiology leading to Ischaemic Heart Disease... Limiting b…
Stable Angina
Pain on exertion (relived with rest)... 75% occlusion... No biomark…
18 terms
Cardiology
Arteriosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
Embolus
myocardial infarction
Cause: aging ... S/s: high BP, HTN, anuerysm, cerebal hemerroge…
Cause: high cholesterol and fat ... S/s: high BP... Tx: angioplasty…
Foreign substance in blood stream such as air, bacterial clum…
Blockage keeping blood from reaching heart ... S/s: severe crush…
Arteriosclerosis
Cause: aging ... S/s: high BP, HTN, anuerysm, cerebal hemerroge…
Atherosclerosis
Cause: high cholesterol and fat ... S/s: high BP... Tx: angioplasty…
23 terms
Cardiology
Major risk factors for ischemic heart…
Minor risk factors for ischemic heart…
Prognostic factors for CAD
Benefits female patient's risk of coro…
Diabetes... Hyperlipidemia... Hypertension... Cigarette smoking... Age (m…
obesity... sedentary lifestyle... stress... excessive EtOH use... insuffi…
Left Ventricular EF <50= poor... Left main coronary artery= poor…
Exercise (increasing heart rate), not estrogen or relaxation
Major risk factors for ischemic heart…
Diabetes... Hyperlipidemia... Hypertension... Cigarette smoking... Age (m…
Minor risk factors for ischemic heart…
obesity... sedentary lifestyle... stress... excessive EtOH use... insuffi…
90 terms
Cardiology
coronary sinus
left ventricle (LV)
right ventricle (RV)
tricuspid valve
A collection of cardiac veins joined together to form a large…
Most important part of the heart. 3 times thicker than right…
Anterior to the LV and attached to it. Pumps blood from the r…
Heart valve between right atrium and right ventricle. Largest…
coronary sinus
A collection of cardiac veins joined together to form a large…
left ventricle (LV)
Most important part of the heart. 3 times thicker than right…
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