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Study sets matching "cardiovascular drugs"

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Study sets matching "cardiovascular drugs"

14 terms
Cardiovascular drugs
P=QR analogous to...?
Lipoproteins
How do statins help our cholesterol le…
How do diuretics work?
V= iR
Cholesterol and fatty acids
decrease liver cholesterol biosynthesis, upregulating liver L…
Work on kidney to increase urine output and reduce cardiac ou…
P=QR analogous to...?
V= iR
Lipoproteins
Cholesterol and fatty acids
395 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs!
...
...
Medication Categories to treat hyperte…
Examples of Centrally Acting Alpha2 Re…
- Adrenergic Drugs ... - Angiotensin-Coverting Enzyme Inhibitors…
- Clonidine (Catapress) ... - Methyldopa (Aldomet)
...
...
104 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Inotrope
Chronotrope
Dromotrope
Digoxin (lanoxin)
improves contraction strength
affects the total heart rate
affecting the electrical conductivity across the heart (speed…
Cardiac Glycosides
Inotrope
improves contraction strength
Chronotrope
affects the total heart rate
32 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Hydro-Diuril
Lasix
Bumex
Aldactone
HCTZ
furosemide
bumetanide
spironolactone
Hydro-Diuril
HCTZ
Lasix
furosemide
104 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Inotrope
Chronotrope
Dromotrope
Digoxin (lanoxin)
improves contraction strength
affects the total heart rate
affecting the electrical conductivity across the heart (speed…
Cardiac Glycosides
Inotrope
improves contraction strength
Chronotrope
affects the total heart rate
8 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Dopamine MOA?... Benefits... Negatives?
Dobutamine MOA?... Benefits? ... Negatives?
Norepinephrine MOA?... Benefits?... Negati…
Phenylephrine MOA?... Benefits?... Negati…
A1, B1 and Dopaminergic. ... 2nd line to Norepi... Hypertension a…
B1 primarily. Some B2 but transient. No dopaminergic activity…
Alpha1 and Beta 1 Activity... 1st line of cardiogenic and septi…
Alpha 1... Vasoconstriction! Can be used if patient develops ta…
Dopamine MOA?... Benefits... Negatives?
A1, B1 and Dopaminergic. ... 2nd line to Norepi... Hypertension a…
Dobutamine MOA?... Benefits? ... Negatives?
B1 primarily. Some B2 but transient. No dopaminergic activity…
40 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Lasix (Diuretics)
Hydrodiuril (Diuretics)
Dyazide; Novo-Triamzide (Diuretics)
Lozide (Diuretics)
furosemide
hydrochlorothiazide
hydrochlorothiazide + triamterene
indapamide
Lasix (Diuretics)
furosemide
Hydrodiuril (Diuretics)
hydrochlorothiazide
34 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Bisoprolol
Atenolol
Amlodipine
Lercandipine
A Beta-Blocker acts on B1 receptors ... Used in stable and unsta…
A Beta-Blocker acts on B1 receptors ... Used in stable and unsta…
A Calcium antagonist acts only upon Vasculature (DHPR derivat…
A Calcium antagonist acts only upon Vasculature (DHPR derivat…
Bisoprolol
A Beta-Blocker acts on B1 receptors ... Used in stable and unsta…
Atenolol
A Beta-Blocker acts on B1 receptors ... Used in stable and unsta…
34 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Inotropic drugs
Inotropic drugs are used for? Mechanism?
Digitalis (digoxin)... Mechanism of actio…
Digoxin:... Pharmacokinetics:
cardiac glycoside (digoxin)... sympathomimetic amines (Dopamine…
Increase the force of ventricular contraction by increasing t…
Ionotropic drug... Mechanical: Improve contractility of a failin…
Loading doses necessary to raise drug concentration into ther…
Inotropic drugs
cardiac glycoside (digoxin)... sympathomimetic amines (Dopamine…
Inotropic drugs are used for? Mechanism?
Increase the force of ventricular contraction by increasing t…
57 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Lasix
Hydrodiuril
Dyazide
Novo-triamzide
furosemide... loop diuretic
hydrochlorothiazide... thiazide diuretic
hydrochlorothiazide + triamterene... thiazide diuretic
hydrochlorothiazide + triamterene... thiazide diuretic
Lasix
furosemide... loop diuretic
Hydrodiuril
hydrochlorothiazide... thiazide diuretic
19 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Lotensin
Capoten
Vasotec
Monopril
Benazepril
Captopril
Enalapril
Fosinopril
Lotensin
Benazepril
Capoten
Captopril
17 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Lasix
Hydrodiuril
Dyazide
Novo-Triamzide
furosemide
hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)
hydrochlorothiazide & triamterene
hydrochlorothiazide & triamterene
Lasix
furosemide
Hydrodiuril
hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)
49 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
HTN in pregnancy?
Ca++ channel blockers
Ca++ channel blocker mechanism
Ca++ channel blockers use
Hydralazine -- (also increases edema)... B-blockers... Ca++ channel…
Dihydropyridine = vascular selective... - Amlodipine, nimodipine…
Block L-type Ca++ channel to reduce muscular contraction
Dihydropyridine = vascular selective... - HTN and vasospasm... - NO…
HTN in pregnancy?
Hydralazine -- (also increases edema)... B-blockers... Ca++ channel…
Ca++ channel blockers
Dihydropyridine = vascular selective... - Amlodipine, nimodipine…
26 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Lasix
Hydrodiuril
Dyazide, Novo-Triamzide
Lozide
furosemide
hydrochlorothiazide
hydrochlorothiazide & triamterene
indapamide
Lasix
furosemide
Hydrodiuril
hydrochlorothiazide
44 terms
Cardiovascular drugs
What are the three pharmacological age…
How do ionotropic drugs affect the Fra…
Mechanism of action of Digitalis
Adverse effects of digoxin
1) Cardiac glycosides... 2) Sympathomimetic amines... 3) phosphodie…
Ionotropic drugs: Shift a depressed ventricular performance c…
Two desired effects of digoxin:... 1) Improve contractility of t…
Arrhythmias... digitalis-related arrhythmias, rRisk factors: ren…
What are the three pharmacological age…
1) Cardiac glycosides... 2) Sympathomimetic amines... 3) phosphodie…
How do ionotropic drugs affect the Fra…
Ionotropic drugs: Shift a depressed ventricular performance c…
25 terms
Cardiovascular drugs
Lisinopril
Simvastatin
Hydrochlorothiazide
Atenolol
Zestril, provil
Zocar
Hydrodiuril
Tenormin
Lisinopril
Zestril, provil
Simvastatin
Zocar
61 terms
Cardiovascular drugs
Norpace
Cordarone
Betapace, Betapace AF
Inderal
disopryamide
amiodarone
sotalol
propranolol
Norpace
disopryamide
Cordarone
amiodarone
60 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Hydralazine Mechanism
Hydralazine Clinical Use
Hydralazine Toxicity
Calcium channel blocker Examples
increased cGMP --> smooth muscle relaxation. Vasodilates arte…
Severe hypertension, HF. Safe to use during pregnancy.... Freque…
Compensatory tachycardia (contraindicated in angina/CAD), flu…
Amlodipine... clevidipine... nicardipine... nifedipine... nimodipine (dih…
Hydralazine Mechanism
increased cGMP --> smooth muscle relaxation. Vasodilates arte…
Hydralazine Clinical Use
Severe hypertension, HF. Safe to use during pregnancy.... Freque…
127 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Name the leading cause of death in the…
Cardiac patients on whom we defer trea…
Why is this significant for dental tre…
What are benefits of using a VC?
Heart attack... Stroke... Congestive heart failure... Angina pecto…
Recent MI 3months later we can treat or stroke 6 months late…
because a medical emergency can result
...
Name the leading cause of death in the…
Heart attack... Stroke... Congestive heart failure... Angina pecto…
Cardiac patients on whom we defer trea…
Recent MI 3months later we can treat or stroke 6 months late…
28 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers ARBs A…
Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers ARBs C…
Angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE Altace
Angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE Accu…
irbesartan
losartan
ramipril
quinapril
Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers ARBs A…
irbesartan
Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers ARBs C…
losartan
16 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Positive Inotropic Agents indicated fo…
Positive Inotropic Agents
Anti-arrhythmic Agents indicated for...
Anti-arrhythmic Agents
CHF, Atrial tachycardia & fibrillation. (increase strength of…
Digitalis & Digoxin
Ventricular Arrhythmias
Amiodarone, Procainamide, Verapamil, Lidocaine
Positive Inotropic Agents indicated fo…
CHF, Atrial tachycardia & fibrillation. (increase strength of…
Positive Inotropic Agents
Digitalis & Digoxin
99 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Digoxin - indications
Digoxin - MOA
Digoxin - side effects
Digoxin - nursing concerns
heart failure... dysrhythmia
increases contractility - increases effectiveness of each pum…
CV - AV block, dysrhythmias... GI - anorexia, n/v... vision - yel…
has very narrow therapeutic window... precaution with older pat…
Digoxin - indications
heart failure... dysrhythmia
Digoxin - MOA
increases contractility - increases effectiveness of each pum…
28 terms
Cardiovascular drugs
Beta-Adrenergic Blocker
metoprolol / Lopressor. (selective) ... a…
ACE inhibitors
enalapril / Vasotec.... captopril/ Caoten…
metoprolol / Lopressor.... atenolol / Tenormin.
--Anti-anginals, antihypertensives, anti-arrhythmic. ... --For:…
enalapril / Vasotec.... Captopril/ Caoten.
--Antihypertensive. ... --reduction of death or development of C…
Beta-Adrenergic Blocker
metoprolol / Lopressor.... atenolol / Tenormin.
metoprolol / Lopressor. (selective) ... a…
--Anti-anginals, antihypertensives, anti-arrhythmic. ... --For:…
138 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
What is stroke volume?
What is cardiac output?
What is total peripheral resistance?
What is a chronotrope?
The volume of blood moved by a single contraction (usually re…
Volume of blood moved by the heart per unit time... CO = SV x HR…
The total resistance in the circulation, determined by the di…
A drug or endogenous chemical that changes heart rate.... (Posit…
What is stroke volume?
The volume of blood moved by a single contraction (usually re…
What is cardiac output?
Volume of blood moved by the heart per unit time... CO = SV x HR…
126 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Used for HTN, HF, IHD and nephropathy…
Side effects of AT1 receptor blockades
Contraindications AT1 receptor blockades
Interactions for AT1 receptor blockades
AT1 receptor blockade
Hypotension... Hyperkalaemia... RF
Renal artery stenosis... AKI... Pregnancy... Breast feeding... CKD
Potassium supplements... Potassium sparing diuretics
Used for HTN, HF, IHD and nephropathy…
AT1 receptor blockade
Side effects of AT1 receptor blockades
Hypotension... Hyperkalaemia... RF
11 terms
Cardiovascular drugs
Antiplatelet drugs
Anticoagulants pt 1
Anticoagulants pt 2
Beta-blockers
ASPIRIN... - Mechansim: irreversibly acetylates cyclo-oxygenase…
HEPARIN... 1) LMWH (LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARIN) ... - LMW: <5000…
ALTERNATIVES TO LMWH... - Fondaparinux (polysacc Xa inhibitor) -…
- Mech: block beta-adrenoreceptors -> antagonizes sympathetic…
Antiplatelet drugs
ASPIRIN... - Mechansim: irreversibly acetylates cyclo-oxygenase…
Anticoagulants pt 1
HEPARIN... 1) LMWH (LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARIN) ... - LMW: <5000…
23 terms
Cardiovascular drugs
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors... Cholester…
What to watch for with statins
Thiazide Diuretics
What to watch for with hydrochlorothia…
-Statins
monitor LFT's... Give in the evenings... Avoid giving with grapefruit
hydrochlorothiazide
hypokalemia... dehydration... may need potassium supplement
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors... Cholester…
-Statins
What to watch for with statins
monitor LFT's... Give in the evenings... Avoid giving with grapefruit
48 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Gemfibrozil
Ezetimibe
Fenofibrate (nanocrystallized)
Lovastatin
Antihyperlipidemic... - Lopid
Antihyperlipidemic... - Zetia
Antihyperlipidemic... - Tricor
Antihyperlipidemic... - Mevacor
Gemfibrozil
Antihyperlipidemic... - Lopid
Ezetimibe
Antihyperlipidemic... - Zetia
33 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Amlodipine
Amlodipine/Atorvastatin
Amlodipine/Benazepril
Antenolol
Brand: Norvasc... Route: Oral... Class: Antihypertensive
Brand: Caduet... Route: Oral... Class: Antihypertensive/Hypolipemic
Brand: Lotrel... Route: Oral... Class: Antihypertensive
Brand: Tenormin... Route: Oral... Class: Antihypertensive
Amlodipine
Brand: Norvasc... Route: Oral... Class: Antihypertensive
Amlodipine/Atorvastatin
Brand: Caduet... Route: Oral... Class: Antihypertensive/Hypolipemic
26 terms
Cardiovascular drugs
Amiodarone
Amlodopine
Amlodipine and Benazerpril
Atenolol
Cordarone... antiarrhythmias for cardiac arrhythmias
norvasc... calcium channel blocker for hypertension and angina
Lotrel... Ca channel blocker/ACE inhibitor combined for hyperte…
Tenormin... B-blocker used for hypertension, angina, post myoca…
Amiodarone
Cordarone... antiarrhythmias for cardiac arrhythmias
Amlodopine
norvasc... calcium channel blocker for hypertension and angina
10 terms
Cardiovascular drugs
Captopril (CAPOTEN)
Losartan (COZAAR)
Aliskiren (TEKTURNA)
Nifedipine
- "prils"... - ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors... -…
- AT1 receptor blocker (ARBs)... - "sartans"... - Blocks AT1 recept…
- Direct renin inhibitors "kirens"... - Inhibits renin which cat…
- Dihydropyridines (DHPs) "dipines"... - Block L-type Ca channel…
Captopril (CAPOTEN)
- "prils"... - ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors... -…
Losartan (COZAAR)
- AT1 receptor blocker (ARBs)... - "sartans"... - Blocks AT1 recept…
26 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
albumin
dopamine
epinephrine
atorvastatin
blood replacement for shock... causes pulmonary edema, allergic…
inotropic/vasopressor for shock... causes arrhythmias, hypotensi…
vasopressor for shock... causes HTN, reflex bradycardia, dysrhyt…
lipid lowering agent... causes headache, cramping, diarrhea, con…
albumin
blood replacement for shock... causes pulmonary edema, allergic…
dopamine
inotropic/vasopressor for shock... causes arrhythmias, hypotensi…
60 terms
Cardiovascular drugs
Alpha1 adrenergic blockers
Doxazosin
Prazosin
Terazosin
Doxazosin(Cardura)... Prazosin(Minipress)... Terazosin(Hytrin)... MOA:…
T:Cardura... Class:Alpha 1 adrenergic Blocker... PI:hypertension
T:Minipress... Class:Alpha1 Beta Blockers... PI:hypertension
T:Hytrin... Class:Alpha 1 Beta Blockers... Treats:Hypertension
Alpha1 adrenergic blockers
Doxazosin(Cardura)... Prazosin(Minipress)... Terazosin(Hytrin)... MOA:…
Doxazosin
T:Cardura... Class:Alpha 1 adrenergic Blocker... PI:hypertension
62 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Autonomic Nervous System:
Cardiac Performance
Cardiac performance:
Myocardial O^2 consumption:
-BP, HR ... Sympathetic ... -increase contractility ... -increase HR…
-resting muscle fiber length (relating to frank starling law)…
-conduction system abnormalities ... -anatomical abnormalities o…
-heart rate ... -BP... -stroke volume ... -inotropic state (increased…
Autonomic Nervous System:
-BP, HR ... Sympathetic ... -increase contractility ... -increase HR…
Cardiac Performance
-resting muscle fiber length (relating to frank starling law)…
300 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Brand: Pacerone
Brand: Cordarone
Brand: Norvasc
Brand: Lotrel
Generic: amiodarone
Generic: amiodarone
Generic: amlodipine besylate
Generic: amlodipine besylate with benazepril hydrochloride
Brand: Pacerone
Generic: amiodarone
Brand: Cordarone
Generic: amiodarone
Cardiovascular Drugs
Which drugs are chosen for hypertension?
Which drugs are given for hypertension…
Which drugs are given for hypertension…
Which drugs are given for hypertension…
Thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor b…
Diuretics, ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers,…
Hydralazine, labetalol, methyldopa
ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers, Ca2+ channe…
Which drugs are chosen for hypertension?
Thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor b…
Which drugs are given for hypertension…
Diuretics, ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers,…
26 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
List the classes of drugs that can be…
Will the following cause increase or d…
What is the initial recommendation in…
Which antihypertensive class is the be…
Diuretics... Beta Blocikers... ACE inhibitors... Angiotensin II recept…
Increase
Lifestyle modifications
1) Beta Blocker, Ca channel blocker ... 2) ARBs, ACE inhibitor,…
List the classes of drugs that can be…
Diuretics... Beta Blocikers... ACE inhibitors... Angiotensin II recept…
Will the following cause increase or d…
Increase
44 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Cardiovascular drugs are used to manag…
Which drugs are used to treat hyperten…
What is the mechanism of action of ACE…
What are the indications of ACE inhibi…
Hypertension... Hyperlipidemia... Heart failure - acute and chronic…
ACE inhibitors... ARBs ... Beta-blockers... Calcium channel blocker... Th…
ENDS IN -PRIL... Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (A…
ENDS IN -PRIL... Hypertension... Heart failure... Post MI... Diabetic ne…
Cardiovascular drugs are used to manag…
Hypertension... Hyperlipidemia... Heart failure - acute and chronic…
Which drugs are used to treat hyperten…
ACE inhibitors... ARBs ... Beta-blockers... Calcium channel blocker... Th…
69 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Cardiovascular Disease States
Equation to Remember in testing cardia…
Diuretics
Diuretics are used to treat what?
Hypertension - sustained high blood pressure... HEART FAILURE -…
CO = HR * SV... HR - heart rate (beats/min) - is controlled by t…
-Thiazides ... -Loops... -Potassium-Sparing
-Cardiac Hypertension ... -Edema from heart failure, renal failu…
Cardiovascular Disease States
Hypertension - sustained high blood pressure... HEART FAILURE -…
Equation to Remember in testing cardia…
CO = HR * SV... HR - heart rate (beats/min) - is controlled by t…
43 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Vasotec
Altace
Accupril, Accuretic
Lotensin, Lotensin HCT
Enalapril
Ramipril
Quinapril, Quinapril/HCTZ
Benazepril, Ben/HCTZ
Vasotec
Enalapril
Altace
Ramipril
Cardiovascular Drugs
Mechanism of Isosorbide Mononitrate
Drug class of Isosorbide mononitrate
Indications for Isosorbide mononitrate
Contraindications of isosorbide mononi…
GTN is metabolised to NO in smooth muscle cells.... Guanylyl cyc…
Nitrate
Angina... Heart failure
Hypotension... Aortic/mitral stenosis ... Constrictive pericarditis…
Mechanism of Isosorbide Mononitrate
GTN is metabolised to NO in smooth muscle cells.... Guanylyl cyc…
Drug class of Isosorbide mononitrate
Nitrate
48 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Amiodarone
Amlodipine Besylate
Amlodipine Besylate with Benazepril Hy…
Atenolol
Pacerone, Cordarone, Nexterone ... Antiarrythmic
Norvasc ... Anti hypertensive
Lotrel ... Anti hypertensive
Tenormin ... Anti hypertensive
Amiodarone
Pacerone, Cordarone, Nexterone ... Antiarrythmic
Amlodipine Besylate
Norvasc ... Anti hypertensive
48 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Prazosin
Prazosin
Prazosin
Digoxin
Combined vasodilator, blocks alpha-1 adrenoreceptors
Adjunctive treatment of CHF, dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs,…
Minipress
Cardiac Glycoside derived from the foxglove plant
Prazosin
Combined vasodilator, blocks alpha-1 adrenoreceptors
Prazosin
Adjunctive treatment of CHF, dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs,…
31 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Coumadin
Warfarin
Crestor
Rosuvastatin
Anticoagulant (blood clotting)
Anticoagulant (blood clotting)
Antihyperlipidemic (high cholesterol)
Antihyperlipidemic (high cholesterol)
Coumadin
Anticoagulant (blood clotting)
Warfarin
Anticoagulant (blood clotting)
118 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
What do myocardial cells require?
Ions involved w/ cardiac contractility
Preload
Afterload
oxygen
Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Chloride
volume of blood returned to HT through vena cava before it be…
resistance to blood flow including opening of the aortic valv…
What do myocardial cells require?
oxygen
Ions involved w/ cardiac contractility
Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Chloride
59 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
what is an arrhythmia?
what is the usual cause of arrhythmias…
what do antiarrhythmic drugs do?
what are three types of antiarrhythmic…
any abnormal pattern of electrical activity in the heart
an abnormal group of heart muscle cells that depolarize by th…
prevent the autodepolarization of abnormal cells so that depo…
sodium influx inhibitors... calcium channel blockers... beta blockers
what is an arrhythmia?
any abnormal pattern of electrical activity in the heart
what is the usual cause of arrhythmias…
an abnormal group of heart muscle cells that depolarize by th…
Cardiovascular Drugs
Amlodipine Besylate
Amlodipine Besylate & Benazepril HCl
Atenolol
Benazepril HCl
Norvasc
Lotrel
Tenormin
Lotensin
Amlodipine Besylate
Norvasc
Amlodipine Besylate & Benazepril HCl
Lotrel
64 terms
Cardiovascular drugs
Triglycerides
Steroids
Cholesterol
Phospholipids
Neutral fats... 3 fatty acids & glycerol head... Major fat storage,…
Cholesterol, promotes atherosclerosis, in cell membranes
Building block for biochemicals... > amount = greater risk
Form when phosphorus group replaces a fatty acid in a tryglyc…
Triglycerides
Neutral fats... 3 fatty acids & glycerol head... Major fat storage,…
Steroids
Cholesterol, promotes atherosclerosis, in cell membranes
48 terms
Cardiovascular drugs
Angina pectoris
Antianginal drugs
Nitrate
Types of nitrates
Chest pain, occurs because of a mismatch between oxygen suppl…
Nitrates, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, relieve an…
Produced a general vasodilation of systemic veins and arterie…
Nitroglycerin (available in ointment, sublingual and transder…
Angina pectoris
Chest pain, occurs because of a mismatch between oxygen suppl…
Antianginal drugs
Nitrates, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, relieve an…
9 terms
Cardiovascular Drugs
Calcium Channel Blockers
ACE Inhibitors
ARBs
Direct Vasodilators
amlodipine (Norvasc) ... verapamil ... diltiazem (Cardizem)
lisinopril ... enalapril (Vasotec)
losartan (Cozaar)
nitroprusside... hydralazine
Calcium Channel Blockers
amlodipine (Norvasc) ... verapamil ... diltiazem (Cardizem)
ACE Inhibitors
lisinopril ... enalapril (Vasotec)
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