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Study sets matching "cardiovascular physiology"

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Study sets matching "cardiovascular physiology"

88 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
What is hydrostatic pressire?
How is driving force created in hemody…
What determines the rate of fluid flow?
What force opposes flow? How is it cre…
Force exerted against the walls of its container by fluid
Driving force is created when there are differences in pressu…
Difference in pressure determines the rate of flow
Resistance (R) opposes flow and is created by friction and tu…
What is hydrostatic pressire?
Force exerted against the walls of its container by fluid
How is driving force created in hemody…
Driving force is created when there are differences in pressu…
51 terms
Introduction To Cardiovascular Physiology
circulatory system
heart
blood vessels
blood
consist of three basic components: the heart, blood vessels,…
Serves as pump that establishes the pressure gradient needed…
Passageways through which blood is distributed from heart to…
Transport medium within which materials being transported are…
circulatory system
consist of three basic components: the heart, blood vessels,…
heart
Serves as pump that establishes the pressure gradient needed…
23 terms
Cardiovascular-Physiology
Cardiac Output (CO)
Describe the Fick Principle of CO.
Mean arterial pressure
Pulse pressure
CO = stroke volume (SV) x heart rate (HR) ... During the early…
CO= rate of oxygen consumption / (arterial oxygen content-ven…
The average level of blood pressure over several beats. ... MAP…
=systolic pressure-diastolic pressure ... Pulse pressure if pro…
Cardiac Output (CO)
CO = stroke volume (SV) x heart rate (HR) ... During the early…
Describe the Fick Principle of CO.
CO= rate of oxygen consumption / (arterial oxygen content-ven…
78 terms
Cardiovascular physiology
33 seconds
#1 killer
adequate
Heart (pump), blood vessels (pipes), c…
Every __ _______ someone in the US dies from cardiovascular d…
Since 1900, cardiovascular disease has been the __ ______ in…
CV system purpose: ensure _________ blood flow through capill…
Components of the cardiovascular system
33 seconds
Every __ _______ someone in the US dies from cardiovascular d…
#1 killer
Since 1900, cardiovascular disease has been the __ ______ in…
47 terms
Lab 3: Cardiovascular Physiology
autorhythmicity
cardiac action potential
phase 0
phase 1
heart's ability to trigger its own contractions
short-lasting event in which the membrane potential (the diff…
rapid depolarization; sodium moves in
small repolarization; sodium movement decreases
autorhythmicity
heart's ability to trigger its own contractions
cardiac action potential
short-lasting event in which the membrane potential (the diff…
256 terms
Physiology - Cardiovascular
Atrioventricular (AV) valves
Systemic circulation
Pulmonary circulation
Cardiac output
-The valves connecting the atria to the ventricles ... 1. Tricus…
-The left heart and the systemic arteries, capillaries, and v…
-The right heart and the pulmonary arteries, capillaries, and…
-The rate at which blood is pumped from either ventricle
Atrioventricular (AV) valves
-The valves connecting the atria to the ventricles ... 1. Tricus…
Systemic circulation
-The left heart and the systemic arteries, capillaries, and v…
268 terms
Physiology: Cardiovascular
The cardiovascular system is what type…
What is the transporting medium?
Oxygen and nutrients are carried _____…
What type of information is transported?
Transportation system
Blood
Toward; away
Hormones; from site of secretion to target cells
The cardiovascular system is what type…
Transportation system
What is the transporting medium?
Blood
81 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Demand (ie oxygen use by organs and li…
The heart ... the blood that is .... b…
What is cardiac output?
What is stroke volume?
Supply (ie oxygen demand responded to by heart)
The heart supplies the blood that is demanded by organs/tissu…
The volume of blood ejected by one ventricle through the aort…
How much blood is ejected from one ventricle in one contracti…
Demand (ie oxygen use by organs and li…
Supply (ie oxygen demand responded to by heart)
The heart ... the blood that is .... b…
The heart supplies the blood that is demanded by organs/tissu…
292 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Functions of the Circulation System
Blood Volume
Blood
Blood cells
1. Transportation (respiratory gases, metabolites, nutrients)…
Males: 5-6 Liters... Females: 4-5 liters
Specialized connective tissue which contains cellular and liq…
formed elements
Functions of the Circulation System
1. Transportation (respiratory gases, metabolites, nutrients)…
Blood Volume
Males: 5-6 Liters... Females: 4-5 liters
30 terms
Physiology - cardiovascular
Afterload
Stroke volume (SV)
Stroke volume (SV)... Equation
Stroke volume (SV)... Normally
Ventricular wall tension required to eject stroke volume duri…
Volume of blood ejected by the ventricle per contraction
SV = CO / HR
70-80ml for 70 kg man at rest
Afterload
Ventricular wall tension required to eject stroke volume duri…
Stroke volume (SV)
Volume of blood ejected by the ventricle per contraction
65 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
P wave
P-R Interval
P-R segment
R wave
atrial depolarization... 1
Span of time from the start of the P wave until the start of…
End of P deflection to start of Q deflection... End of 1 beg. of 2
C
P wave
atrial depolarization... 1
P-R Interval
Span of time from the start of the P wave until the start of…
28 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
The apex is located level with the 5th…
Sustained muscle contraction. The hear…
After the AP initiates, it is unable t…
Increases strength of contraction. Dec…
Heart Location
Define Tetanic Contraction and specify its impact on the hear…
Refractory period
What does a positive inotrope do? And what is its result on t…
The apex is located level with the 5th…
Heart Location
Sustained muscle contraction. The hear…
Define Tetanic Contraction and specify its impact on the hear…
69 terms
Cardiovascular - Physiology
Hemodynamics
1. Sinoatrial (SA) node (acts as pacem…
SA node (pacemaker)
SA node - atria contract - av node (fr…
collection of mechanisms that influence the dynamic (active a…
Conduction system of the heart (Figure 19-2)
1. Initiates each heartbeat and sets its pace... 2. Specialized…
Sequence of cardiac stimulation
Hemodynamics
collection of mechanisms that influence the dynamic (active a…
1. Sinoatrial (SA) node (acts as pacem…
Conduction system of the heart (Figure 19-2)
54 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Functions of the cardiovascular system
Structures of the Cardiovascular System
The Heart
Septum of the heart
Transportation:... - entering the body: oxygen from the lungs &…
-Closed System - no openings, maintains pressure... -Heart - mec…
4 Chambers: 2 atria, 2 ventricles
divides the two halves of the heart
Functions of the cardiovascular system
Transportation:... - entering the body: oxygen from the lungs &…
Structures of the Cardiovascular System
-Closed System - no openings, maintains pressure... -Heart - mec…
17 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Cardiac conduction system
Cardiac Ion channels- Sodium
Calcium channels
Potassium Channels
SA node: main pacemaker of the heart; determines HR; generate…
Vm in cardiac cells (contractile, pacemaker/conduction... 1. Vol…
1. L-type (long-lasting)... -sustained Ca influx when depolariz…
1. Inward rectifier (CARRIES K+ OUT OF CELL)... -opens at negat…
Cardiac conduction system
SA node: main pacemaker of the heart; determines HR; generate…
Cardiac Ion channels- Sodium
Vm in cardiac cells (contractile, pacemaker/conduction... 1. Vol…
60 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Cardiac output
Stroke volume
Stretch of fibers and Contractility (a…
Contractility is affected by
the amount of blood pumped out of the heart per unit time (ml…
volume per beat (ml/beat) ... Also, the ( EDV-ESV / beat )... deter…
affects stroke volume
Ca++, drugs, Norepi
Cardiac output
the amount of blood pumped out of the heart per unit time (ml…
Stroke volume
volume per beat (ml/beat) ... Also, the ( EDV-ESV / beat )... deter…
24 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
normal sinus rhythm
normal sinus rhythm
sinus tachycardia
sinus tachycardia
-PQRST... -nothing extra or missing... -represents 60-100 beats per…
-PQRST... -nothing extra or missing... -greater than 100 bpm
normal sinus rhythm
normal sinus rhythm
-PQRST... -nothing extra or missing... -represents 60-100 beats per…
52 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
P wave
P-R Interval
P-R segment
R wave
atrial depolarization... 1
Span of time from the start of the P wave until the start of…
End of P deflection to start of Q deflection... End of 1 beg. of 2
C
P wave
atrial depolarization... 1
P-R Interval
Span of time from the start of the P wave until the start of…
44 terms
Physiology: Cardiovascular
label the 5 phases of the typical myoc…
what does the dicrotic notch represent…
what happens during phase 2 of typical…
what do myocardial cells lack
4: isoelectric line, resting state, polarized line (-85)... *0…
end of ejection and end of ventricular systole (contraction)
continued slow Ca++ channels open
recruitment and tetanus
label the 5 phases of the typical myoc…
4: isoelectric line, resting state, polarized line (-85)... *0…
what does the dicrotic notch represent…
end of ejection and end of ventricular systole (contraction)
76 terms
Physiology - Cardiovascular
What is the overall structure of the h…
What comprises systemic circulation? H…
What's cardiac output? How about venou…
What are the steps in one complete cir…
Right atrium... Right ventricle... Left atrium... Left ventricle... Atrio…
Systemic circulation includes left heart, systemic arteries,…
Cardiac output is the rate at which blood is ejected from EIT…
1. Oxygenated blood passes from left atrium to left ventricle…
What is the overall structure of the h…
Right atrium... Right ventricle... Left atrium... Left ventricle... Atrio…
What comprises systemic circulation? H…
Systemic circulation includes left heart, systemic arteries,…
26 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
comparisons between skeletal + cardiac…
ionic events in cardiac muscle action…
depolarization (ionic events)
plateau (ionic events in cardiac muscl…
→ *duration* - skeletal muscle takes 1-2ms; cardiac muscle ta…
→ depolarization... → plateau... → repolarization
→ an increase in Na+ permeability... → this opens fast sodium ch…
→ an increase in Ca++ permeability... → opens long lasting L-typ…
comparisons between skeletal + cardiac…
→ *duration* - skeletal muscle takes 1-2ms; cardiac muscle ta…
ionic events in cardiac muscle action…
→ depolarization... → plateau... → repolarization
Cardiovascular Physiology
Cardiovascular system
Function
Two circuits
Blood pathway
Heart, vessels, blood
Transport of nutrients
Blood passes through heart twice;... Pulmonary and Systemic
From tissue (capillaries) to right atrium (venous system;... Fro…
Cardiovascular system
Heart, vessels, blood
Function
Transport of nutrients
14 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Bradycardia
Ventricular tachycardia
Atrial flutter
Ventricular fibrillation
Bradycardia
Ventricular tachycardia
61 terms
Cardiovascular: Physiology
CV Physiology: Overview
1. Cardiac Output
CO =
What maintains CO?... 1. Early exercise:…
1. Cardiac Output... 2. Cardiac Output Variables... 3. Starling Cur…
...
SV x HR
1. Early exercise: increased HR and SV... 2. Late exercise: incr…
CV Physiology: Overview
1. Cardiac Output... 2. Cardiac Output Variables... 3. Starling Cur…
1. Cardiac Output
...
144 terms
Cardiovascular: Physiology
CO=SV*HR
HR, SV
HR (SV plateaus)
CO=rate of O2 consumption/arterial O2…
What is the equation for calculating cardiac output?
In the early stages of exercise, which variable(s) increase t…
In the late stages of exercise, which variable(s) increase to…
What is the equation for cardiac output according to the Fick…
CO=SV*HR
What is the equation for calculating cardiac output?
HR, SV
In the early stages of exercise, which variable(s) increase t…
102 terms
Physiology - Cardiovascular
Resting membrane potentials are determ…
Potassium is _____ outside the cell th…
Sodium is _____ outside the cell than…
Calcium is _____ outside the cell than…
Potassium (K+)
LOWER
HIGHER
HIGHER... (and higher in SR)
Resting membrane potentials are determ…
Potassium (K+)
Potassium is _____ outside the cell th…
LOWER
54 terms
Cardiovascular physiology
Autorhythmicity
Contractile cell action potential ... Pha…
Contractile cell action potential ... Pha…
Contractile cell action potential ... Pha…
Heart's ability to trigger its own contractions
Voltage-gated sodium channels open, Na+ moves in. Peak at +30…
Sodium channels inactivated, initiating a small repolarizatio…
Potassium channels remain closed; Ca++ channels remain open,…
Autorhythmicity
Heart's ability to trigger its own contractions
Contractile cell action potential ... Pha…
Voltage-gated sodium channels open, Na+ moves in. Peak at +30…
17 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
arterial blood pressure
systolic
diasystolic
korotkoff
The driving force behind the flow of blood through tissues. R…
Pressure of blood in the large arteries during ventricular sy…
Pressure of blood in the large arteries during ventricular di…
Tapping noises.
arterial blood pressure
The driving force behind the flow of blood through tissues. R…
systolic
Pressure of blood in the large arteries during ventricular sy…
145 terms
Cardiovascular: Physiology
Cardiac output =
Fick principle
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) =
Pulse pressure
SV x HR
= CO x TPR ... = 2/3 diastolic pressure + 1/3 systolic pressure
systolic pressure - diastolic pressure
Cardiac output =
SV x HR
Fick principle
23 terms
cardiovascular physiology
ear pieces of stethoscope
tube of stethoscope
bell of stethoscope
sphygmomanometer
2 knobs at top
black part
circle at end
ear pieces of stethoscope
2 knobs at top
tube of stethoscope
black part
43 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
P wave
QRS wave (complex)
T wave
PR interval
atrial depolarization
ventricular depolarization
ventricular repolarization
delay of AV node, AV conduction time
P wave
atrial depolarization
QRS wave (complex)
ventricular depolarization
52 terms
Cardiovascular physiology
Blood flow through the heart
Atrioventricular valves
semilunar valves
Cardiac muscle
1. blood comes from body and enters right atrium... 2. R atrium…
in between atrium and ventricles ... Tricuspid valve on right si…
aortic valve: LV -> aorta... pulmonary valve: RV -> pulmonary ar…
similar to skeletal muscle ... actin and myosin create sarcomere…
Blood flow through the heart
1. blood comes from body and enters right atrium... 2. R atrium…
Atrioventricular valves
in between atrium and ventricles ... Tricuspid valve on right si…
61 terms
Cardiovascular: Physiology
CV Physiology: Overview
1. Cardiac Output
CO =
What maintains CO?... 1. Early exercise:…
1. Cardiac Output... 2. Cardiac Output Variables... 3. Starling Cur…
...
SV x HR
1. Early exercise: increased HR and SV... 2. Late exercise: incr…
CV Physiology: Overview
1. Cardiac Output... 2. Cardiac Output Variables... 3. Starling Cur…
1. Cardiac Output
...
102 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
CPK (creatine phosphokinase)
C reactive protein
Serum cholestrol
Lub
enzyme released from damage muscles
detects inflamation
indicative of fats that can accumulate as plague inside arter…
louder noise, closure of AV valves
CPK (creatine phosphokinase)
enzyme released from damage muscles
C reactive protein
detects inflamation
66 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Systole
Diastole
When will there be blood flow?
During the diastole of the LV, what ha…
Contraction of the ventricles ... Blood goes from the ventricles…
The relaxation and refilling of the chambers of the heart. ... V…
Blood will flow when there is a pressure gradient. If the pre…
The left atrium will have an average pressure of 10mmHg... Durin…
Systole
Contraction of the ventricles ... Blood goes from the ventricles…
Diastole
The relaxation and refilling of the chambers of the heart. ... V…
315 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Draw the action potential for the SA N…
Draw and label the AP for ventricular…
How do volatile anesthetics affect the…
How do opioids affect the heart?
Volatile agents depress automaticity of SA node
Opioids ↑ AV conduction times, have a lesser affect on SA Nodes
Draw the action potential for the SA N…
Draw and label the AP for ventricular…
Cardiovascular Physiology
Components of the Cardiovascular System
what is cardiovascular system
Function of cardiovascular system
Physiology of the heart
Heart= pump blood... Blood= transport medium... Blood vessel= passa…
is a closed system of the heart and blood vessels/The heart p…
The function of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxyge…
Located in the thorax; flanked by lungs and rests on diaphrag…
Components of the Cardiovascular System
Heart= pump blood... Blood= transport medium... Blood vessel= passa…
what is cardiovascular system
is a closed system of the heart and blood vessels/The heart p…
Cardiovascular Physiology
cardiac output X peripheral resistance
it rises
it rises
-pressure in artery when ventricles ar…
Arterial Blood Pressure
What happens to BP is CO rises?
What happens to BP is PR rises?
Systolic Pressure
cardiac output X peripheral resistance
Arterial Blood Pressure
it rises
What happens to BP is CO rises?
64 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
cardiac cycle
What marks the changes in the cardiac…
How many times do the atrium and ventr…
Systole
one complete heart cycle. lasts 0.8 sec and is commonly calle…
Changes in blood pressure and volume in the heart
they contract once and they relax once
The contraction phase
cardiac cycle
one complete heart cycle. lasts 0.8 sec and is commonly calle…
What marks the changes in the cardiac…
Changes in blood pressure and volume in the heart
18 terms
Cardiovascular physiology
Basic arterial and venous circuits
Heart, great vessels and valves
Coronary blood flow occur when?
wiggers diagram
Diastole
Basic arterial and venous circuits
Heart, great vessels and valves
315 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Draw the action potential for the SA N…
Draw and label the AP for ventricular…
How do volatile anesthetics affect the…
How do opioids affect the heart?
Volatile agents depress automaticity of SA node
Opioids ↑ AV conduction times, have a lesser affect on SA Nodes
Draw the action potential for the SA N…
Draw and label the AP for ventricular…
70 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Hemodynamics
The relationship between velocity, flo…
Total Peripheral Resistance
Poiseuille Equation
The relationship among blood pressure, blood flow and resista…
v=Q/A where v= velocity of blood flow (cm/sec), Q= flow (ml/s…
The resistance of the entire systemic vasculature is called t…
Describes the relationship between resistance, blood vessel d…
Hemodynamics
The relationship among blood pressure, blood flow and resista…
The relationship between velocity, flo…
v=Q/A where v= velocity of blood flow (cm/sec), Q= flow (ml/s…
22 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Heart rate at rest?
Tachycardia
Bradycardia
Heart rate above___ to ____ is never s…
55 to 85 beats/minute
100 beats/minute
under 60 beats/minute
180 200
Heart rate at rest?
55 to 85 beats/minute
Tachycardia
100 beats/minute
81 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Demand (ie oxygen use by organs and li…
The heart ... the blood that is .... b…
What is cardiac output?
What is stroke volume?
Supply (ie oxygen demand responded to by heart)
The heart supplies the blood that is demanded by organs/tissu…
The volume of blood ejected by one ventricle through the aort…
How much blood is ejected from one ventricle in one contracti…
Demand (ie oxygen use by organs and li…
Supply (ie oxygen demand responded to by heart)
The heart ... the blood that is .... b…
The heart supplies the blood that is demanded by organs/tissu…
38 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Cardiovascular Physiology
The Cardiac Cycle
Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
Cardiac conduction system
...
One complete heart cycle is called a Cardiac Cycle, lasts abo…
A cycle begins with Atrial Systole - 0.1s... ---Fills relaxed ve…
The heart beats originate within the heart itself... ... how the C…
Cardiovascular Physiology
...
The Cardiac Cycle
One complete heart cycle is called a Cardiac Cycle, lasts abo…
34 terms
Cardiovascular - Physiology
What equation represents cardiac outpu…
What is the equation for Fick principle?
What is the equation for mean arterial…
What is the equation for MAP based on…
Cardiac Output (CO) = (Stroke volume) x (heart rate)
CO = rate of O2 consumption / arterial O2 content - venous O2…
MAP = (cardiac output) x (total peripheral resistance)
MAP = 1/3 systolic + 2/3 diastolic
What equation represents cardiac outpu…
Cardiac Output (CO) = (Stroke volume) x (heart rate)
What is the equation for Fick principle?
CO = rate of O2 consumption / arterial O2 content - venous O2…
175 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
what is the equation for Co?
what is the fick principle?
what is mean arterial pressure = to?
what is the pulse pressure? what is it…
SV*HR
(rate of O2 consumption/arterial O2 content-venous O2 content)
CO*TPR... 2/3 diastolic pressure+1/3 systolic pressure
systolic pressure-diastolic pressure... proportional to SV... inver…
what is the equation for Co?
SV*HR
what is the fick principle?
(rate of O2 consumption/arterial O2 content-venous O2 content)
16 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
blood pressure
systolic arterial pressure
diastolic arterial pressure
local autoregulation
force that blood exerts on vessel walls
highest pressure in the artery
lowest pressure in the artery
increased oxygen consumption or pH changes associated with an…
blood pressure
force that blood exerts on vessel walls
systolic arterial pressure
highest pressure in the artery
53 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Right vs. Left Heart
Pipes whose main function is to keep blood under pressure and…
Control valves that decide which tissues get blood
Site of O₂/Glucose exchange for CO₂
RIGHT - Pumps blood to the Lungs... LEFT - Pumps blood to the Bo…
Arteries
Pipes whose main function is to keep blood under pressure and…
Arterioles
Control valves that decide which tissues get blood
132 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
The following valves are between which…
How do you calculate cardiac output?
What is the full equation for calculat…
What does high pulmonary venous pressu…
-Tricuspid - Between right atrium and right ventricle... -Pulmon…
CO = SV x HR... (cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate)
AP - VP = CO x SVR... (Arterial blood pressure - Venous blood pr…
Accumulation of fluid in the lungs leading to shortness of br…
The following valves are between which…
-Tricuspid - Between right atrium and right ventricle... -Pulmon…
How do you calculate cardiac output?
CO = SV x HR... (cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate)
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