Study sets matching "cardiovascular physiology"

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Study sets matching "cardiovascular physiology"

88 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
What is hydrostatic pressire?
How is driving force created in hemody…
What determines the rate of fluid flow?
What force opposes flow? How is it cre…
Force exerted against the walls of its container by fluid
Driving force is created when there are differences in pressu…
Difference in pressure determines the rate of flow
Resistance (R) opposes flow and is created by friction and tu…
What is hydrostatic pressire?
Force exerted against the walls of its container by fluid
How is driving force created in hemody…
Driving force is created when there are differences in pressu…
51 terms
Introduction To Cardiovascular Physiology
circulatory system
heart
blood vessels
blood
consist of three basic components: the heart, blood vessels,…
Serves as pump that establishes the pressure gradient needed…
Passageways through which blood is distributed from heart to…
Transport medium within which materials being transported are…
circulatory system
consist of three basic components: the heart, blood vessels,…
heart
Serves as pump that establishes the pressure gradient needed…
78 terms
Cardiovascular physiology
33 seconds
#1 killer
adequate
Heart (pump), blood vessels (pipes), c…
Every __ _______ someone in the US dies from cardiovascular d…
Since 1900, cardiovascular disease has been the __ ______ in…
CV system purpose: ensure _________ blood flow through capill…
Components of the cardiovascular system
33 seconds
Every __ _______ someone in the US dies from cardiovascular d…
#1 killer
Since 1900, cardiovascular disease has been the __ ______ in…
Physiology - Cardiovascular
Atrioventricular (AV) valves
Systemic circulation
Pulmonary circulation
Cardiac output
-The valves connecting the atria to the ventricles ... 1. Tricus…
-The left heart and the systemic arteries, capillaries, and v…
-The right heart and the pulmonary arteries, capillaries, and…
-The rate at which blood is pumped from either ventricle
Atrioventricular (AV) valves
-The valves connecting the atria to the ventricles ... 1. Tricus…
Systemic circulation
-The left heart and the systemic arteries, capillaries, and v…
81 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Demand (ie oxygen use by organs and li…
The heart ... the blood that is .... b…
What is cardiac output?
What is stroke volume?
Supply (ie oxygen demand responded to by heart)
The heart supplies the blood that is demanded by organs/tissu…
The volume of blood ejected by one ventricle through the aort…
How much blood is ejected from one ventricle in one contracti…
Demand (ie oxygen use by organs and li…
Supply (ie oxygen demand responded to by heart)
The heart ... the blood that is .... b…
The heart supplies the blood that is demanded by organs/tissu…
47 terms
Lab 3: Cardiovascular Physiology
autorhythmicity
cardiac action potential
phase 0
phase 1
heart's ability to trigger its own contractions
short-lasting event in which the membrane potential (the diff…
rapid depolarization; sodium moves in
small repolarization; sodium movement decreases
autorhythmicity
heart's ability to trigger its own contractions
cardiac action potential
short-lasting event in which the membrane potential (the diff…
268 terms
Physiology: Cardiovascular
The cardiovascular system is what type…
What is the transporting medium?
Oxygen and nutrients are carried _____…
What type of information is transported?
Transportation system
Blood
Toward; away
Hormones; from site of secretion to target cells
The cardiovascular system is what type…
Transportation system
What is the transporting medium?
Blood
292 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Functions of the Circulation System
Blood Volume
Blood
Blood cells
1. Transportation (respiratory gases, metabolites, nutrients)…
Males: 5-6 Liters... Females: 4-5 liters
Specialized connective tissue which contains cellular and liq…
formed elements
Functions of the Circulation System
1. Transportation (respiratory gases, metabolites, nutrients)…
Blood Volume
Males: 5-6 Liters... Females: 4-5 liters
65 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
P wave
P-R Interval
P-R segment
R wave
atrial depolarization... 1
Span of time from the start of the P wave until the start of…
End of P deflection to start of Q deflection... End of 1 beg. of 2
C
P wave
atrial depolarization... 1
P-R Interval
Span of time from the start of the P wave until the start of…
Cardiovascular Physiology
The apex is located level with the 5th…
Sustained muscle contraction. The hear…
After the AP initiates, it is unable t…
Increases strength of contraction. Dec…
Heart Location
Define Tetanic Contraction and specify its impact on the hear…
Refractory period
What does a positive inotrope do? And what is its result on t…
The apex is located level with the 5th…
Heart Location
Sustained muscle contraction. The hear…
Define Tetanic Contraction and specify its impact on the hear…
60 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Cardiac output
Stroke volume
Stretch of fibers and Contractility (a…
Contractility is affected by
the amount of blood pumped out of the heart per unit time (ml…
volume per beat (ml/beat) ... Also, the ( EDV-ESV / beat )... deter…
affects stroke volume
Ca++, drugs, Norepi
Cardiac output
the amount of blood pumped out of the heart per unit time (ml…
Stroke volume
volume per beat (ml/beat) ... Also, the ( EDV-ESV / beat )... deter…
76 terms
Physiology - Cardiovascular
What is the overall structure of the h…
What comprises systemic circulation? H…
What's cardiac output? How about venou…
What are the steps in one complete cir…
Right atrium... Right ventricle... Left atrium... Left ventricle... Atrio…
Systemic circulation includes left heart, systemic arteries,…
Cardiac output is the rate at which blood is ejected from EIT…
1. Oxygenated blood passes from left atrium to left ventricle…
What is the overall structure of the h…
Right atrium... Right ventricle... Left atrium... Left ventricle... Atrio…
What comprises systemic circulation? H…
Systemic circulation includes left heart, systemic arteries,…
Cardiovascular Physiology
Cardiovascular system
Function
Two circuits
Blood pathway
Heart, vessels, blood
Transport of nutrients
Blood passes through heart twice;... Pulmonary and Systemic
From tissue (capillaries) to right atrium (venous system;... Fro…
Cardiovascular system
Heart, vessels, blood
Function
Transport of nutrients
24 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
normal sinus rhythm
normal sinus rhythm
sinus tachycardia
sinus tachycardia
-PQRST... -nothing extra or missing... -represents 60-100 beats per…
-PQRST... -nothing extra or missing... -greater than 100 bpm
normal sinus rhythm
normal sinus rhythm
-PQRST... -nothing extra or missing... -represents 60-100 beats per…
44 terms
Physiology: Cardiovascular
label the 5 phases of the typical myoc…
what does the dicrotic notch represent…
what happens during phase 2 of typical…
what do myocardial cells lack
4: isoelectric line, resting state, polarized line (-85)... *0…
end of ejection and end of ventricular systole (contraction)
continued slow Ca++ channels open
recruitment and tetanus
label the 5 phases of the typical myoc…
4: isoelectric line, resting state, polarized line (-85)... *0…
what does the dicrotic notch represent…
end of ejection and end of ventricular systole (contraction)
Cardiovascular Physiology
P wave
P-R Interval
P-R segment
R wave
atrial depolarization... 1
Span of time from the start of the P wave until the start of…
End of P deflection to start of Q deflection... End of 1 beg. of 2
C
P wave
atrial depolarization... 1
P-R Interval
Span of time from the start of the P wave until the start of…
102 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
CPK (creatine phosphokinase)
C reactive protein
Serum cholestrol
Lub
enzyme released from damage muscles
detects inflamation
indicative of fats that can accumulate as plague inside arter…
louder noise, closure of AV valves
CPK (creatine phosphokinase)
enzyme released from damage muscles
C reactive protein
detects inflamation
Cardiovascular Physiology
Hemodynamics
The relationship between velocity, flo…
Total Peripheral Resistance
Poiseuille Equation
The relationship among blood pressure, blood flow and resista…
v=Q/A where v= velocity of blood flow (cm/sec), Q= flow (ml/s…
The resistance of the entire systemic vasculature is called t…
Describes the relationship between resistance, blood vessel d…
Hemodynamics
The relationship among blood pressure, blood flow and resista…
The relationship between velocity, flo…
v=Q/A where v= velocity of blood flow (cm/sec), Q= flow (ml/s…
34 terms
Cardiovascular - Physiology
What equation represents cardiac outpu…
What is the equation for Fick principle?
What is the equation for mean arterial…
What is the equation for MAP based on…
Cardiac Output (CO) = (Stroke volume) x (heart rate)
CO = rate of O2 consumption / arterial O2 content - venous O2…
MAP = (cardiac output) x (total peripheral resistance)
MAP = 1/3 systolic + 2/3 diastolic
What equation represents cardiac outpu…
Cardiac Output (CO) = (Stroke volume) x (heart rate)
What is the equation for Fick principle?
CO = rate of O2 consumption / arterial O2 content - venous O2…
48 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Transportation
oxygen from lungs, nutrients and water…
wastes to liver, hormones to targets,…
metabolic wastes through kidneys, heat…
Function of the Cardiovascular System
What enters the body?
Transportation between different cells
What leaves the body?
Transportation
Function of the Cardiovascular System
oxygen from lungs, nutrients and water…
What enters the body?
Cardiovascular Physiology
Functions of the cardiovascular system
Structures of the Cardiovascular System
The Heart
Septum of the heart
Transportation:... - entering the body: oxygen from the lungs &…
-Closed System - no openings, maintains pressure... -Heart - mec…
4 Chambers: 2 atria, 2 ventricles
divides the two halves of the heart
Functions of the cardiovascular system
Transportation:... - entering the body: oxygen from the lungs &…
Structures of the Cardiovascular System
-Closed System - no openings, maintains pressure... -Heart - mec…
17 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Cardiac conduction system
Cardiac Ion channels- Sodium
Calcium channels
Potassium Channels
SA node: main pacemaker of the heart; determines HR; generate…
Vm in cardiac cells (contractile, pacemaker/conduction... 1. Vol…
1. L-type (long-lasting)... -sustained Ca influx when depolariz…
1. Inward rectifier (CARRIES K+ OUT OF CELL)... -opens at negat…
Cardiac conduction system
SA node: main pacemaker of the heart; determines HR; generate…
Cardiac Ion channels- Sodium
Vm in cardiac cells (contractile, pacemaker/conduction... 1. Vol…
39 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Cardiovascular Flow
Cardiac action potential
Normal Sinus Rhythm
Resting membrane potential
Q = P/R... Q is "flow", P is pressure, and R is resistance.... Wh…
SA Node (the pacemaker)... Atrial internodal tracts, and atria... A…
Qualifiers:... 1.) Action potential must originate in the SA Nod…
Of cardiac cells is determined primarily by K+, much like ske…
Cardiovascular Flow
Q = P/R... Q is "flow", P is pressure, and R is resistance.... Wh…
Cardiac action potential
SA Node (the pacemaker)... Atrial internodal tracts, and atria... A…
28 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Microanatomy properties of cardiac mus…
Energy Requirements
Mechanism/Characteristics of Contraction
Conductive Tissue / Autorhythmicity
cells are short, fat, branched, and interconnected at junctio…
relies almost exclusively on aerobic metabolism, therefore, b…
contraction of the heart is an "all-or-none" ... stimulation of…
the heart contains two specialized types of cardiac muscle ce…
Microanatomy properties of cardiac mus…
cells are short, fat, branched, and interconnected at junctio…
Energy Requirements
relies almost exclusively on aerobic metabolism, therefore, b…
14 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Bradycardia
Ventricular tachycardia
Atrial flutter
Ventricular fibrillation
Bradycardia
Ventricular tachycardia
Cardiovascular Physiology
Pericardium
Right atrium
Right ventricle
Left atrium
Tough inelastic sheath covering heart (anchors heart).... Acts a…
Receives blood from: venae cavae.... Sends blood to: right ventr…
Receives blood from: right atrium.... Sends blood to: lungs.
Receives blood from: pulmonary veins.... Sends blood to: left ve…
Pericardium
Tough inelastic sheath covering heart (anchors heart).... Acts a…
Right atrium
Receives blood from: venae cavae.... Sends blood to: right ventr…
Cardiovascular Physiology
Baroreceptor Reflex
Long term response to changes in blood…
Aortic Stenosis
Consequences of Aortic Stenosis
Response to small/minute changes in arterial pressure (sec/mi…
Salt and H2O metabolism: changes in excretion by the kidney t…
Valve narrowing >50% causing increased pressure gradient acro…
1. Hypertrophy: dec. compliance during diastole (diastolic dy…
Baroreceptor Reflex
Response to small/minute changes in arterial pressure (sec/mi…
Long term response to changes in blood…
Salt and H2O metabolism: changes in excretion by the kidney t…
Cardiovascular Physiology
Components of the Cardiovascular System
Functions of the CV System
Estimating blood volume
Normal pH for blood
Blood... Heart... Blood Vessels
Transport (respiratory and nutritive)... Regulation (pH and body…
7% of body mass (kg)=approximate blood volume (L)
7.35-7.45
Components of the Cardiovascular System
Blood... Heart... Blood Vessels
Functions of the CV System
Transport (respiratory and nutritive)... Regulation (pH and body…
56 terms
Cardiovascular physiology
site of highest resistance in cardiova…
alpha 2 receptors are found on the
Beta 2 receptors are found on the arte…
Resistance in parallel
arterioles
arterioles of skin, splanchnic, and renal circulations... Veins
skeletal muscles
1/Rtot = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + ......
site of highest resistance in cardiova…
arterioles
alpha 2 receptors are found on the
arterioles of skin, splanchnic, and renal circulations... Veins
23 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Functions of Cardiovascular System
Components of Cardiovascular System
Plasma protiens in blood
Plasma
Transport, Regulation, Protection
Blood, Heart/vessels, Lymph
albumin, globulins, fibrinogen
liquid portion of the blood
Functions of Cardiovascular System
Transport, Regulation, Protection
Components of Cardiovascular System
Blood, Heart/vessels, Lymph
315 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
5 liters
connective tissue
60-70 times per minute
90%... 10%
The total blood volume of an adult human is
Blood is actually a specialized form of
How many times does the heart beat per minute at rest?
Plasma is how much percent water?... How much percent protein?
5 liters
The total blood volume of an adult human is
connective tissue
Blood is actually a specialized form of
103 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
D
B
B
D
In addition to blood transportation, functions of cardiovascu…
The aorta possesses higher distensibility because it has ... a.…
The primary resistance blood vessels are... a. large arteries... b.…
Compared with systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation has…
D
In addition to blood transportation, functions of cardiovascu…
B
The aorta possesses higher distensibility because it has ... a.…
Cardiovascular physiology
Action potential duration
Action potential graph
Cardiac depolarization
Cardiac plateau
Much longer in cardiac muscle than skeletal muscle. Skeletal…
Cardiac muscle has an extended phase -depolarization, plateau…
Caused by an increase in Na+ permeability through *fast sodiu…
Increase in Ca++ permeability through L-type calcium channels…
Action potential duration
Much longer in cardiac muscle than skeletal muscle. Skeletal…
Action potential graph
Cardiac muscle has an extended phase -depolarization, plateau…
Cardiovascular Physiology
Frank-Starling Law of the Heart
Stretch (EDV)
Force (SV)
Positive Inotropic Effect
Effect of EDV (end-diastolic volume: volume in ventricle at e…
indicated by ventricular end-diastolic volume
indicated by stroke volume
increases contraction
Frank-Starling Law of the Heart
Effect of EDV (end-diastolic volume: volume in ventricle at e…
Stretch (EDV)
indicated by ventricular end-diastolic volume
Cardiovascular Physiology
arterial blood pressure
systolic
diasystolic
korotkoff
The driving force behind the flow of blood through tissues. R…
Pressure of blood in the large arteries during ventricular sy…
Pressure of blood in the large arteries during ventricular di…
Tapping noises.
arterial blood pressure
The driving force behind the flow of blood through tissues. R…
systolic
Pressure of blood in the large arteries during ventricular sy…
43 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
P wave
QRS wave (complex)
T wave
PR interval
atrial depolarization
ventricular depolarization
ventricular repolarization
delay of AV node, AV conduction time
P wave
atrial depolarization
QRS wave (complex)
ventricular depolarization
22 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
What is the fibrous pericardium?
What are the 3 functions of the fibrou…
Pericardium
What are the layers of the heart in or…
-loosely fitting superficial part of pericardium... -made of tou…
1) protects the heart... 2) anchors it to surrounding structures…
-double layered sac enclosing the heart and forming its super…
-fibrous pericardium... -parietal layer of serous pericardium... -p…
What is the fibrous pericardium?
-loosely fitting superficial part of pericardium... -made of tou…
What are the 3 functions of the fibrou…
1) protects the heart... 2) anchors it to surrounding structures…
68 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
duration of an A.P. in skeletal muscle
duration of an A.P. in cardiac muscle
differences in action potentials betwe…
slow action potential
1-2ms
100-300 ms
duration and shape of action potential
cardiac muscle
duration of an A.P. in skeletal muscle
1-2ms
duration of an A.P. in cardiac muscle
100-300 ms
10 terms
Cardiovascular physiology
right atrium
tricuspid valve
SA node
P wave
The correct route of blood through the heart from the systemi…
If a pulmonary artery catheter is inserted into the vena cava…
The action potential through the heart is initiated within a…
The depolarization of the atria is best characterized by what…
right atrium
The correct route of blood through the heart from the systemi…
tricuspid valve
If a pulmonary artery catheter is inserted into the vena cava…
148 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Formed Elements
Plasma
Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
Component of blood that contains cells and cell fragments.
Liquid portion of blood in which formed elements are suspende…
A cell portion of "formed elements". AKA Red Blood Cells. 99%…
A cell portion of "formed elements". AKA White Blood Cells. P…
Formed Elements
Component of blood that contains cells and cell fragments.
Plasma
Liquid portion of blood in which formed elements are suspende…
30 terms
cardiovascular physiology
skeletal muscle vs. cardiac muscle dur…
cardiac muscle depol step of cardiac m…
Plateau step of cardiac muscle AP
Repolarization step of cardiac muscle AP
Skeletal muscle - quick spike (1-2ms) ... cardiac muscle - depol…
increased na permeability... Open fast Na+ (same as skel muscle)
increased Ca++ perm... Open L type Ca+ channels (long lasting) -…
Decreased Ca+ Perm... Increased K+ Perm
skeletal muscle vs. cardiac muscle dur…
Skeletal muscle - quick spike (1-2ms) ... cardiac muscle - depol…
cardiac muscle depol step of cardiac m…
increased na permeability... Open fast Na+ (same as skel muscle)
26 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Depolarization of the heart is
Intrinsic cardiac conduction system
Conduction system of the heart
The cells act as one unit so
rhythmic and spontaneous
a network of non-contractile cells that initiate and distribu…
consists of specialized muscle fibers which initiates the hea…
impulses are conducted from cell to cell
Depolarization of the heart is
rhythmic and spontaneous
Intrinsic cardiac conduction system
a network of non-contractile cells that initiate and distribu…
52 terms
cardiovascular physiology
fick equation
carries oxygen, hormones, nutrients, a…
Sinoatrial node (SA node)
atrioventricular node
VO2=Qx(a-vO2)
Why we need blood
pacemaker in the right atrium
allows blood to empty from atrium to ventricle
fick equation
VO2=Qx(a-vO2)
carries oxygen, hormones, nutrients, a…
Why we need blood
Cardiovascular Physiology
The three components of the Cardiovasc…
The _____ is the medium of which mater…
The _____ sets up the pressure gradien…
_____ are blood vessels that carry blo…
blood, heart, blood vessels
blood
heart
arteries
The three components of the Cardiovasc…
blood, heart, blood vessels
The _____ is the medium of which mater…
blood
62 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology
Cardiac Muscle
Cardiac Muscle
Late Diastole
Atrial systole
-myocytes are smaller than skeletal muscle, with a single nuc…
-T-tubules are larger, branch more, fewer in number... -Sarcopla…
-Passive filling of ventricles and atria... -AV valves open... -Sem…
-Atria contract... -Forcefully fills ventricles
Cardiac Muscle
-myocytes are smaller than skeletal muscle, with a single nuc…
Cardiac Muscle
-T-tubules are larger, branch more, fewer in number... -Sarcopla…
144 terms
Cardiovascular: Physiology
CO=SV*HR
HR, SV
HR (SV plateaus)
CO=rate of O2 consumption/arterial O2…
What is the equation for calculating cardiac output?
In the early stages of exercise, which variable(s) increase t…
In the late stages of exercise, which variable(s) increase to…
What is the equation for cardiac output according to the Fick…
CO=SV*HR
What is the equation for calculating cardiac output?
HR, SV
In the early stages of exercise, which variable(s) increase t…
102 terms
Physiology - Cardiovascular
Resting membrane potentials are determ…
Potassium is _____ outside the cell th…
Sodium is _____ outside the cell than…
Calcium is _____ outside the cell than…
Potassium (K+)
LOWER
HIGHER
HIGHER... (and higher in SR)
Resting membrane potentials are determ…
Potassium (K+)
Potassium is _____ outside the cell th…
LOWER
27 terms
Cardiovascular Physiology.
Smooth Muscle Contraction
Calcium Sources for Contraction
Compare table 12.3
Classifying Neural Reflex Pathways
Phasic: muscles undergo contraction and relaxation... Tonic: mu…
Skeletal muscle: sarcoplasmic reticulum only... Smooth muscle:…
...
1) By the efferent division of the nervous system that contro…
Smooth Muscle Contraction
Phasic: muscles undergo contraction and relaxation... Tonic: mu…
Calcium Sources for Contraction
Skeletal muscle: sarcoplasmic reticulum only... Smooth muscle:…
Cardiovascular Physiology
roles of cardiac system
gas transport
nutrient transport
endocrine role
gas transport, nutrient transport, waste transport, endocrine…
carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
glucose, amino acids, etc. are carried in the plasma
hormones are transported in the plasma
roles of cardiac system
gas transport, nutrient transport, waste transport, endocrine…
gas transport
carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
61 terms
Cardiovascular: Physiology
CV Physiology: Overview
1. Cardiac Output
CO =
What maintains CO?... 1. Early exercise:…
1. Cardiac Output... 2. Cardiac Output Variables... 3. Starling Cur…
...
SV x HR
1. Early exercise: increased HR and SV... 2. Late exercise: incr…
CV Physiology: Overview
1. Cardiac Output... 2. Cardiac Output Variables... 3. Starling Cur…
1. Cardiac Output
...
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