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Study sets matching "cell ap biology"

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Study sets matching "cell ap biology"

77 terms
AP Biology - Cells
plasma membrane
saturated fatty acid membrane
unsaturated fatty acid membrane
selectively permeable
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
packed tight; rigid membrane
not packed tight; flexible membrane
allows: small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecu…
plasma membrane
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
saturated fatty acid membrane
packed tight; rigid membrane
27 terms
Ap Biology Cell Organelles
Chloroplast
Peroxisomes
Amyloplast
Chromoplast
Site of photosynthesis ... Converts solar energy into potential…
makes hydrogen peroxide to detoxify alcohol or convert lipids…
Stores starch amylose and turns in into glucosec... some plant c…
Responsible for the colors in plant... 4 to 5 um... plant cells only
Chloroplast
Site of photosynthesis ... Converts solar energy into potential…
Peroxisomes
makes hydrogen peroxide to detoxify alcohol or convert lipids…
20 terms
Cell Membrane - AP Biology
Selectively permeability
Osmosis
turgid
Amphipathic molecule
it allows some things to come through and some not
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
swollen as from a fluid; bloated
A molecule that has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophob…
Selectively permeability
it allows some things to come through and some not
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
20 terms
Cell Membrane - AP Biology
Selectively permeability
Osmosis
turgid
Amphipathic molecule
it allows some things to come through and some not
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
swollen as from a fluid; bloated
A molecule that has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophob…
Selectively permeability
it allows some things to come through and some not
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
23 terms
Cell Respiration - AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
ATP
Glycolysis
Fermentation
The process by which cells break down organic molecules and u…
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
The first stage in cellular respiration or fermentation that…
Partial degradation (break down) of sugars in the absence of…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells break down organic molecules and u…
ATP
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
29 terms
Cell Respiration - AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
ATP
Glycolysis
Fermentation
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
Anaerobic phase of cellular respiration that breaks down gluc…
A process that produces a small amount of energy in the absen…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
ATP
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
77 terms
AP Biology - Cells
plasma membrane
saturated fatty acid membrane
unsaturated fatty acid membrane
selectively permeable
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
packed tight; rigid membrane
not packed tight; flexible membrane
allows: small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecu…
plasma membrane
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
saturated fatty acid membrane
packed tight; rigid membrane
41 terms
AP Biology Cell Structure
Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell
Organelle
Bacterial genome
Simple, no nucleus, many have cell wall with peptidoglycan, b…
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
"little organ" - compartmentalized structures that perform sp…
Very short, single circular chromosome that floats in the nuc…
Prokaryotic cell
Simple, no nucleus, many have cell wall with peptidoglycan, b…
Eukaryotic cell
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
57 terms
AP Biology Cell Division
Cell Cycle
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
Cell Division
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a cell
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells. Produces g…
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter c…
The reproduction of cells
Cell Cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a cell
Mitosis
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells. Produces g…
77 terms
AP Biology - Cells
plasma membrane
saturated fatty acid membrane
unsaturated fatty acid membrane
selectively permeable
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
packed tight; rigid membrane
not packed tight; flexible membrane
allows: small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecu…
plasma membrane
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
saturated fatty acid membrane
packed tight; rigid membrane
19 terms
AP Biology - Cell Cycle
G1 Phase
S Phase
G2 Phase
Interphase
Primary growth phase of the cell
Phase where genome is replicated
Preparation made for separation of genomes; organelles replic…
Collective name for G1, S, and G2 Phases
G1 Phase
Primary growth phase of the cell
S Phase
Phase where genome is replicated
35 terms
Cell Energy: AP Biology
Catabolism
Anabolism
Enthalpy
Entropy
Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy
Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.
total energy
total disorder
Catabolism
Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy
Anabolism
Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.
29 terms
Cell Respiration - AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
ATP
Glycolysis
Fermentation
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
Anaerobic phase of cellular respiration that breaks down gluc…
A process that produces a small amount of energy in the absen…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
ATP
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
77 terms
AP Biology - Cells
plasma membrane
saturated fatty acid membrane
unsaturated fatty acid membrane
selectively permeable
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
packed tight; rigid membrane
not packed tight; flexible membrane
allows: small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecu…
plasma membrane
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
saturated fatty acid membrane
packed tight; rigid membrane
34 terms
AP Biology Cell Structure
Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell
Organelle
Cell
Simple, no nucleus, many have cell wall with peptidoglycan, b…
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
"little organ" - compartmentalized structures that perform sp…
Basic functional unit of all living things
Prokaryotic cell
Simple, no nucleus, many have cell wall with peptidoglycan, b…
Eukaryotic cell
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
34 terms
Cells - AP Biology
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
Theory of Endosymbiosis
Nucleus
Cells with no nuclear or internal membranes
Cells with internal membranes (e.g., nucleus, organelles)
Chloroplasts and mitochondria were formerly tiny prokaryotes…
Contains chromosomes; surrounded by selectively permeable mem…
Prokaryotes
Cells with no nuclear or internal membranes
Eukaryotes
Cells with internal membranes (e.g., nucleus, organelles)
23 terms
Chycota AP Biology: Cells
prokaryotic cell
eukaryotic cell
plasma membrane
cell wall
a simple cell with no nucleus and no membrane-bound organelle…
a complex cell containing a nucleus and membrane-bound organe…
a selective barrier around a cell composed of a double layer…
a wall or barrier that functions to shape and protect cells.…
prokaryotic cell
a simple cell with no nucleus and no membrane-bound organelle…
eukaryotic cell
a complex cell containing a nucleus and membrane-bound organe…
29 terms
Cell Respiration - AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
ATP
Glycolysis
Fermentation
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
Anaerobic phase of cellular respiration that breaks down gluc…
A process that produces a small amount of energy in the absen…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
ATP
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
20 terms
AP Biology Cell Communication
Signal transduction pathway
enzyme linked receptors
Cell surface receptors
second messenger cascades
A series of molecular changes that converts a signal received…
participate in cell signaling through extracellular ligand bi…
proteins that bind specific molocules call ligands
A multistep process that couples activation of a neurotransmi…
Signal transduction pathway
A series of molecular changes that converts a signal received…
enzyme linked receptors
participate in cell signaling through extracellular ligand bi…
69 terms
AP Biology - Cells
plasma membrane
saturated fatty acid membrane
unsaturated fatty acid membrane
selectively permeable
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
packed tight; rigid membrane
not packed tight; flexible membrane
allows: small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecu…
plasma membrane
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
saturated fatty acid membrane
packed tight; rigid membrane
29 terms
Cell Communication - AP Biology
ligand
kinase
phosphorylation cascade
reception
binds to the receptor on the plasma membrane
a protein involved in signal transduction that activates othe…
A phosphorylation cascade is a sequence of events where one e…
first of the three stages of cell signaling
ligand
binds to the receptor on the plasma membrane
kinase
a protein involved in signal transduction that activates othe…
44 terms
AP Biology Cell Organelles
Nuclear Envelope
Golgi Apparatus
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Mitochondria
-surrounds genetic material... -separates nucleus from the cytop…
-packaging organelle... -located in the cytoplasm... -takes in smal…
-network of membranous sacs and tubes... -surrounds the nucleus…
-cellular respiration... -ATP is generated ... -double membrane inc…
Nuclear Envelope
-surrounds genetic material... -separates nucleus from the cytop…
Golgi Apparatus
-packaging organelle... -located in the cytoplasm... -takes in smal…
24 terms
AP Biology-Chapter 6-Cell
cell
Electron Microscope
cytosol
prokaryotic cell
-the simplest collection of matter that can live... -bound by pl…
-focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or into it'…
semi fluid within the membrane
-no nucleus... -organisms of the domains bacteria and archaea... -h…
cell
-the simplest collection of matter that can live... -bound by pl…
Electron Microscope
-focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or into it'…
111 terms
AP Biology - Cell
Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell
Organelle
Bacterial genome
Simple, no nucleus, cell wall with peptidoglycan, bacteria
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
"little organ" - compartmentalized structures that perform sp…
Very short, single circular chromosome that floats in the nuc…
Prokaryotic cell
Simple, no nucleus, cell wall with peptidoglycan, bacteria
Eukaryotic cell
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
20 terms
AP Biology Cell Unit
Chloroplast
Peroxisomes
Plasmodesmata
Gap Junctions
Site of photosynthesis ... Converts solar energy into potential…
makes hydrogen peroxide to detoxify alcohol or convert lipids…
holes and channels in the cell wall that connect adjacent cel…
Connects two adjacent cells, allows subjects to pass through…
Chloroplast
Site of photosynthesis ... Converts solar energy into potential…
Peroxisomes
makes hydrogen peroxide to detoxify alcohol or convert lipids…
19 terms
AP Biology - Cell Cycle
G1 Phase
S Phase
G2 Phase
Interphase
Primary growth phase of the cell
Phase where genome is replicated
Preparation made for separation of genomes; organelles replic…
Collective name for G1, S, and G2 Phases
G1 Phase
Primary growth phase of the cell
S Phase
Phase where genome is replicated
27 terms
AP Biology Cell Membrane
Selective Permeability
phospholipid bilayer
Integral Proteins
Peripheral Proteins
Allows some substances to cross more easily than others
a double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma membranes
Proteins that extend through the phospholipid bilayer.
A protein loosely attached to the surface of a membrane
Selective Permeability
Allows some substances to cross more easily than others
phospholipid bilayer
a double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma membranes
80 terms
AP Biology Unit 2: The Cell
plasma membrane
organelles
nucleus
ribosome
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a sel…
Any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized…
plasma membrane
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a sel…
organelles
Any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized…
50 terms
AP Biology - Cells
plasma membrane
selectively permeable
organelles
nucleus
found in all cells; made mainly of phospholipids and proteins…
small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecules can…
bodies within cytoplasm that work together to perform cellula…
contains DNA and nucleoli; controls the cell through protein…
plasma membrane
found in all cells; made mainly of phospholipids and proteins…
selectively permeable
small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecules can…
17 terms
AP Biology - Cell Communication
signal transduction pathway
local regulators
hormones
ligand
The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converte…
These regulators influence cells in the vicinity of them.
Circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized c…
A molecule that specifically binds to another molecule, often…
signal transduction pathway
The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converte…
local regulators
These regulators influence cells in the vicinity of them.
35 terms
AP Biology - Cells
plasma membrane
saturated fatty acid membrane
unsaturated fatty acid membrane
organelles
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
packed tight; rigid membrane
not packed tight; flexible membrane
bodies within cytoplasm; chemical rxns isolated, able to take…
plasma membrane
separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials
saturated fatty acid membrane
packed tight; rigid membrane
60 terms
AP Biology Cell Unit
ligand
receptor tyrosine kinase
phosphorylation cascade
G-proteins
binds to the receptor on the plasma membrane
a protein involved in signal transduction that activates othe…
a sequence of events where one enzyme phosphorylates another,…
also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a fami…
ligand
binds to the receptor on the plasma membrane
receptor tyrosine kinase
a protein involved in signal transduction that activates othe…
19 terms
AP Biology - Cell Cycle
G1 Phase
S Phase
G2 Phase
Interphase
Primary growth phase of the cell
Phase where genome is replicated
Preparation made for separation of genomes; organelles replic…
Collective name for G1, S, and G2 Phases
G1 Phase
Primary growth phase of the cell
S Phase
Phase where genome is replicated
57 terms
AP Biology Cell Unit
Robert Hooke
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
Light Microscope (LM)
Electron Microscope (EM)
FIrst to see the cell wall of a dead cells and coined the ter…
First to see living cells
Visible light is passed through the specimen and then through…
Focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its…
Robert Hooke
FIrst to see the cell wall of a dead cells and coined the ter…
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
First to see living cells
24 terms
AP Biology cell basics
prokaryote
eukaryote
glycoprotein
transport protein
cell without a nucleus or organelles surrounded by membranes
cell with a nucleus and organelles surrounded by membranes
protein with a carbohydrate attached
protein that helps move a substance across the cell membrane
prokaryote
cell without a nucleus or organelles surrounded by membranes
eukaryote
cell with a nucleus and organelles surrounded by membranes
40 terms
AP Biology: Cell Communication
amplification
apoptosis
cytoplasm
diacylglycerol (DAG)
The strengthening of stimulus energy during transduction.
A program of controlled cell suicide, which is brought about…
The contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus and bounde…
A second messenger produced by the cleavage of a certain kind…
amplification
The strengthening of stimulus energy during transduction.
apoptosis
A program of controlled cell suicide, which is brought about…
36 terms
AP Biology - Cell Organelle Flashcards
nucleus system
nuclear envelope/membrane with pores
chromosomes
chromatin
The central and most important part of an object, movement, o…
(nucleus) The double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds t…
(nucleus) Thread-like structures located inside the nucleus o…
(nucleus) A complex of DNA and protein that forms chromosomes…
nucleus system
The central and most important part of an object, movement, o…
nuclear envelope/membrane with pores
(nucleus) The double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds t…
19 terms
AP Biology Cell Signaling
Local Signals
Local Regulators
Paracrine Signaling
Synaptic Signaling
Cells communicating by direct contact
Messenger molecules that travel short distances
Local regulator released directly onto one cell by another
A nerve signal triggers the release of a local regulator onto…
Local Signals
Cells communicating by direct contact
Local Regulators
Messenger molecules that travel short distances
28 terms
AP Biology Cell Membrane
Selective Permeability
Amphipathic
phospholipid bilayer
Integral Proteins
Allows some substances to cross more easily than others
molecule that has both a hydrophillic region and a hydrophobi…
a double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma membranes
Proteins that extend through the phospholipid bilayer.
Selective Permeability
Allows some substances to cross more easily than others
Amphipathic
molecule that has both a hydrophillic region and a hydrophobi…
57 terms
AP Biology Cell Division
Cell Cycle
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
Cell Division
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a cell
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells. Produces g…
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter c…
The reproduction of cells
Cell Cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a cell
Mitosis
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells. Produces g…
57 terms
AP Biology Cell Division
Cell Cycle
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
Cell Division
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a cell
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells. Produces g…
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter c…
The reproduction of cells
Cell Cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a cell
Mitosis
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells. Produces g…
29 terms
Cell Respiration - AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
ATP
Glycolysis
Fermentation
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
Anaerobic phase of cellular respiration that breaks down gluc…
A process that produces a small amount of energy in the absen…
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells produce energy (ATP)... C6H12O6 + 6O2…
ATP
Consists of adenosine plus 3 phosphates; source of immediate…
80 terms
AP Biology Unit 2: The Cell
plasma membrane
organelles
nucleus
ribosome
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a sel…
Any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized…
plasma membrane
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a sel…
organelles
Any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized…
14 terms
MHS AP Biology Cell Organelles
Nuclear Envelope
Golgi Apparatus
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Mitochondria
-surrounds genetic material... -separates nucleus from the cytop…
-packaging organelle... -located in the cytoplasm... -takes in smal…
-network of membranous sacs and tubes... -surrounds the nucleus…
-cellular respiration... -ATP is generated ... -double membrane inc…
Nuclear Envelope
-surrounds genetic material... -separates nucleus from the cytop…
Golgi Apparatus
-packaging organelle... -located in the cytoplasm... -takes in smal…
64 terms
AP Biology: 02: Cells
Cell (Theory)
Light (or Compound)
Electron
Eukaryotic
___ states that 1) all living organisms are composed of one o…
___ microscopes are used to study stains of living cells, and…
___ microscopes are used to study detailed structure of a cel…
___ cells contain a membrane-bound structure called a nucleus…
Cell (Theory)
___ states that 1) all living organisms are composed of one o…
Light (or Compound)
___ microscopes are used to study stains of living cells, and…
35 terms
AP Biology Cell Transport
Selectively Permeable
Phospholipid Bilayer
Integral Proteins
Peripheral Proteins
a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to p…
double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organe…
penetrate the hydrophobic core and often span the membrane
Bound to the inner or outer surfaces of the membrane and are…
Selectively Permeable
a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to p…
Phospholipid Bilayer
double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organe…
28 terms
Ap Biology Cell Organelles
Chloroplast
Peroxisomes
Glyoxysomes
Amyloplast
Site of photosynthesis ... Converts solar energy into potential…
Micro-body that removes excess hydrogen from the cell and com…
Specialized peroxisomes responsible for the conversions of fa…
Stores starch amylose and turns in into glucose... 1.5 to 8 um... s…
Chloroplast
Site of photosynthesis ... Converts solar energy into potential…
Peroxisomes
Micro-body that removes excess hydrogen from the cell and com…
26 terms
AP BIOLOGY Cell Organelles
Nucleus
Nuclear Envelope
Nucleolus
Cytoplasm
Houses DNA (BOTH)
Porous outer structure of Nucleus. Controls what gets in and…
Site of Ribosome synthesis. (BOTH)
Cytoplasm Area from Plasma Membrane to the Nucleus filled wit…
Nucleus
Houses DNA (BOTH)
Nuclear Envelope
Porous outer structure of Nucleus. Controls what gets in and…
36 terms
AP Biology Unit 2 The Cell
Nucleus
Endosymbiosis
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
A DOUBLE membrane-bound organelle in the cell that contains D…
The hypothesis that suggests that unicellular organisms (the…
Part of the endomembrane system. ... Lipids are synthesized, cal…
An endomembrane system covered with ribosomes where many prot…
Nucleus
A DOUBLE membrane-bound organelle in the cell that contains D…
Endosymbiosis
The hypothesis that suggests that unicellular organisms (the…
39 terms
AP Biology- Cell Membrane
Cell membranes made up of-
phospholipid
Lipid Bilayer
Fluid Mosaic Model
lipid bilayer and proteins
polar heads- hdrophilic... fatty acid tails- hydrophobic
its unique properties emerge when phospholipids interact, spo…
describes organization of cell membrane, MOSAIC: mixed compos…
Cell membranes made up of-
lipid bilayer and proteins
phospholipid
polar heads- hdrophilic... fatty acid tails- hydrophobic
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