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Study sets matching "cell structure chapter 4"

42 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cell Membrane
Selectively permeable
Phospholipids
1. The cell wall and/or membrane forms the outer layer ... 2. Cy…
Made up of lipids and proteins- lipid bilayer. The inside of…
When the cell membrane lets some things through and restricts…
have both polar and nonpolar regions and form lipid bilayers.…
Eukaryotic Cell Structure
1. The cell wall and/or membrane forms the outer layer ... 2. Cy…
Cell Membrane
Made up of lipids and proteins- lipid bilayer. The inside of…
16 terms
Chapter 4 - Cell Structure
Cell theory
cells arise only from pre-existing cells
Rate of Diffusion Variables
Cell size
1. all organisms are composed of living things ... 2. cells are…
All cells today represent a continuous line of descent from t…
- surface area... - temperature... - concentration gradient ... - dist…
most cells are relatively small due reliance on diffusion of…
Cell theory
1. all organisms are composed of living things ... 2. cells are…
cells arise only from pre-existing cells
All cells today represent a continuous line of descent from t…
40 terms
Cell Structure Chapter 4
Plant cell walls
bacteria cell wall
fungi cell walls
phospholipids
made of cellulose, a polysaccharide
made of peptidoglygan. Peptido=protein and glycan=sugar
made of chitin, a polysaccharide similar to cellulose
primary lipid found in cell membranes; phosphate is polar (hy…
Plant cell walls
made of cellulose, a polysaccharide
bacteria cell wall
made of peptidoglygan. Peptido=protein and glycan=sugar
43 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Electron Microscope
Light Microscope
Unified Cell Theory
Nucleoid
An instrument that magnifies an object using a beam of electr…
An instrument that magnifies an object using a beam visible l…
Biological concept that states that all organisms are compose…
Central part of a prokaryotic cell in which the chromosome is…
Electron Microscope
An instrument that magnifies an object using a beam of electr…
Light Microscope
An instrument that magnifies an object using a beam visible l…
63 terms
Chapter 4 Cell Structure
Cells
Schleiden Scwann
Cell theory
Cell size
Discovered in 1665 Robert Hooke cork cells
Cell theory
All living things are made of cells ... Cells are the smallest l…
Small due to diffusion of substances in and out of cells ... The…
Cells
Discovered in 1665 Robert Hooke cork cells
Schleiden Scwann
Cell theory
62 terms
Chapter 4:Cell Structure
Nucleus
Nucleus
Nucleus
Nuclear Pores
Function:Instructions for protein synthesis and cell reproduc…
Contents: RNA, DNA, nucleolus, proteins, nuclear pores, nucle…
Location:Central region of cell... Description: Large and Spheri…
Function:Control the transport of molecules in and out of the…
Nucleus
Function:Instructions for protein synthesis and cell reproduc…
Nucleus
Contents: RNA, DNA, nucleolus, proteins, nuclear pores, nucle…
Chapter 4 Cell Structure
Chromatin
Nuclear envelope
Nucleolus
Central vacuole
the collective term for all of the DNA and a cell nucleus.
a double membrane that constitutes the outer boundary the nuc…
In a cell nucleus, a dense, irregularity shaped region where…
a large fluid-filled organelle in many plant cell
Chromatin
the collective term for all of the DNA and a cell nucleus.
Nuclear envelope
a double membrane that constitutes the outer boundary the nuc…
45 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
microscope
electron microscope
unified cell theory
4 components of prokaryotic cells
an instrument that magnifies an object
instrument that use a beam of electrons instead of a beam of…
states that all living things are composed of one or more cel…
1) a plasma membrane, 2) cytoplasm, 3) DNA, 4) ribosomes
microscope
an instrument that magnifies an object
electron microscope
instrument that use a beam of electrons instead of a beam of…
52 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Cell Theory
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Organelle
theory that all organisms consist of one or more cells, which…
semifluid substance enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane
of a eukaryotic cell, organelle with a double membrane that h…
structure that carries out a specialized metabolic function i…
Cell Theory
theory that all organisms consist of one or more cells, which…
Cytoplasm
semifluid substance enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane
8 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Cell Theory
Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cells
Organelle
Surface to Volume Ratio
-All organism are composed of one or more cells, and the life…
Prokaryotic... -no membrane bond nucleus ... -No membrane bound org…
Specialized part of a cell, literall, a small cytoplasmic organ
If you increase the size of a cell the volume will increase a…
Cell Theory
-All organism are composed of one or more cells, and the life…
Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic... -no membrane bond nucleus ... -No membrane bound org…
51 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Lysosomes
Vacuoles
Why are cells to small to be seen by t…
Most cells are relatively small for re…
1. Break down macromolecules in the cell 2. recycling of buil…
Function in 1. Regulation of volume 2. storage 3. degradation
Limited resolving power
Diffusion
Lysosomes
1. Break down macromolecules in the cell 2. recycling of buil…
Vacuoles
Function in 1. Regulation of volume 2. storage 3. degradation
53 terms
Chapter 4 - Cell Structure
Cell
Plasma Membrane
Surface-to-volume ratio
cell theory
The smallest unit that has the properties of life
-A cell's outermost membrane... -A lipid bilayer is the structur…
-A relationship in which the volume of an object increases wi…
Theory that all organisms consist of one or more cells, which…
Cell
The smallest unit that has the properties of life
Plasma Membrane
-A cell's outermost membrane... -A lipid bilayer is the structur…
104 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Cell theory
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Organelle
Theory thal all organisms consist of one or more cells, which…
Semifluid substance enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane.
Of a eukaryotic cell, organelle with a double membrane that h…
Structure that carries out a specialized metabolic function i…
Cell theory
Theory thal all organisms consist of one or more cells, which…
Cytoplasm
Semifluid substance enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane.
21 terms
Chapter4: cell structure
nucleus/nucleotide
cytoplasm
ribosomes
plama membrane
where dna is stored-genetic info... nucleolus-where ribosomal rn…
semi-fluid matrix filled with organelles and cytosol
machines that make protiens... found in all cell types-3 domains…
phospholipid bilayer--- covering of cell
nucleus/nucleotide
where dna is stored-genetic info... nucleolus-where ribosomal rn…
cytoplasm
semi-fluid matrix filled with organelles and cytosol
34 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
cell size is limited by...
surface area
cells volume...
surface area increases ____ than volume
surface area to volume ration (SA/V)
the amount of area exposed to the environment (cell membrane)
cytoplasm and cellular contents
slower
cell size is limited by...
surface area to volume ration (SA/V)
surface area
the amount of area exposed to the environment (cell membrane)
69 terms
chapter 4 cell structure
four basic features of cells
cytosol
cell (plasma) membrane
organelles
heritable information (DNA)... cytoplasm... ribosomes... plasma membrane
liquid material inside the cell membrane (minus the organelles)
phospholipid bilayer separating cell from its environment
internal cellular structures of function... in eukaryotes, bound…
four basic features of cells
heritable information (DNA)... cytoplasm... ribosomes... plasma membrane
cytosol
liquid material inside the cell membrane (minus the organelles)
20 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Cytoskeleton
Cytosol
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Eukaryotic Cell
network of protein fibers that collectively maintain the shap…
gel-like material of the cytoplasm in which cell structures a…
series of interconnected membraneous structures within eukary…
cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and several other memb…
Cytoskeleton
network of protein fibers that collectively maintain the shap…
Cytosol
gel-like material of the cytoplasm in which cell structures a…
26 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Cytoplasm
Ribosomes
nucleoid
cell wall
aqueous solution within cells
structure used in the making of proteins
central part of a prokaryotic cell, has DNA
made up of peptidoglycan, proteins & sugar, functions in prot…
Cytoplasm
aqueous solution within cells
Ribosomes
structure used in the making of proteins
33 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
cell theory
electron microscope
light microscope
microscope
a biological concept that states that all organisms are compo…
an instrument that magnifies an object using a beam of electr…
an instrument that magnifies an object using a beam visible l…
an instrument that magnifies an object
cell theory
a biological concept that states that all organisms are compo…
electron microscope
an instrument that magnifies an object using a beam of electr…
40 terms
Chapter 4 - Cell Structure
unicellular
multicellular
cell wall
cell membrane
organism consisting of only one cell
organism consisting of multiple cells
hard outer layer protecting cell in plants, fungi, and bacteria
layer lining edge of cell in all organisms
unicellular
organism consisting of only one cell
multicellular
organism consisting of multiple cells
28 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Cell Theory
All organisms consist of ________
A _____, individually alive even as pa…
all cells come from _____
fundamental concepts of Biology
one or more cells
cell is the smallest unit of life
division of preexisting cells
Cell Theory
fundamental concepts of Biology
All organisms consist of ________
one or more cells
22 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
cells were discovered in _______ by __…
early studies of cells in 1838
early studies of cells in 1839
rule one of cell theory
1665, robert hooke
schleiden
schwann
all organisms are composed of cells
cells were discovered in _______ by __…
1665, robert hooke
early studies of cells in 1838
schleiden
12 terms
Chapter 4 cell structure
Cell wall
Nucleus
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Provides support and structure for plant cells
Contains genetic information and controls the cell
Moves molecules to different parts of the cell
Processing and packaging proteins
Cell wall
Provides support and structure for plant cells
Nucleus
Contains genetic information and controls the cell
28 terms
Chapter 4 Cell Structure
Cell theory
Surface area to volume ratio
Cell structure (common aspects)
Prokaryotic cells
-discovered in 1665 by robert hooke ... -early studies were cond…
-as a cell increases in size, the volume increases 10 x faste…
-genetic material... -cytoplasm... -plasma membrane
-lack a membrane bound nucleus ... -genetic material is present…
Cell theory
-discovered in 1665 by robert hooke ... -early studies were cond…
Surface area to volume ratio
-as a cell increases in size, the volume increases 10 x faste…
11 terms
chapter 4 cell structure
active transport
cell membrane
cell wall
cytoplasmic organelle
the passage of particles through a membrane which requires th…
the membrane that surrounds all the cytoplasm of a cell
a rigid structure manufactured by certain organisms and secre…
an structure in the cytoplasm; organelles perform various cel…
active transport
the passage of particles through a membrane which requires th…
cell membrane
the membrane that surrounds all the cytoplasm of a cell
23 terms
chapter 4- Cell structure
Surface area to volume
Resolution
Light microscope
Electron microscope
-organism made of many small cells has an advantage over an o…
minimum distance two points can be apart and still be disting…
-magnifying with visible light
use beam of electrons
Surface area to volume
-organism made of many small cells has an advantage over an o…
Resolution
minimum distance two points can be apart and still be disting…
27 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
light microscopes
electron microscopes
prokaryotic cells
archaea, bacteria
can resolve structures that are 200nm apart
can resolve structures that are 0.2nm apart
lack a membrane-bound nucleus
Two types of prokaryotes
light microscopes
can resolve structures that are 200nm apart
electron microscopes
can resolve structures that are 0.2nm apart
21 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Cell Theory
Cytoplasm
Organelle
Plasma Membrane
All organisms come from one or more cells
Semifluid enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane
Structure that carries out specific metabolic function within…
A cell's outermost membrane
Cell Theory
All organisms come from one or more cells
Cytoplasm
Semifluid enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane
31 terms
chapter 4 -cell structure
cell
microscope
cell theory
convex lens
the basic unit of structure and function in living things tha…
an instrument that makes small objects look larger
a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cel…
a lens in which the center of class is thicker than the edge
cell
the basic unit of structure and function in living things tha…
microscope
an instrument that makes small objects look larger
23 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Peptidoglycan
Chitin
Facilitated Diffusion
Active Transport
Protein (peptido) and sugar (glycan). is what composes bacter…
A polysaccharide similar to cellulose; is what composes the c…
When protein channels help hydrophilic substances travel acro…
When substances are moved by the cell against the concentrati…
Peptidoglycan
Protein (peptido) and sugar (glycan). is what composes bacter…
Chitin
A polysaccharide similar to cellulose; is what composes the c…
54 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Surface area-to-volume ratio
Prokaryotes
Nucleoid
Cytoplasm
relationship of the surface area of a structure, such as a ce…
a bacterium; a cell lacking a membrane-bounded nucleus or mem…
the area of a prokaryotic cell, usually near the center, that…
the material within the cell, excluding the nucleus; the prot…
Surface area-to-volume ratio
relationship of the surface area of a structure, such as a ce…
Prokaryotes
a bacterium; a cell lacking a membrane-bounded nucleus or mem…
43 terms
Cell Structure: Chapter 4
Cell Theory (3)
All Cells today represent a line of de…
Cell Size is limited
Rate of diffusion affected by (4)
1) All organisms are composed of cells... 2) Cells are the small…
No spontaneous generation
Most cells are small. Rely on diffusion of substances in and…
Affected by surface area, temp, concentration gradient, dista…
Cell Theory (3)
1) All organisms are composed of cells... 2) Cells are the small…
All Cells today represent a line of de…
No spontaneous generation
74 terms
Chapter 4 Cell Structure
Cell Theory
Cell size is limited
Microscopy allows visualization of cel…
Types of microscopes: Light microscope
Proposed by Schleiden and Schwann.... Three Principles: ... 1. Al…
Limited by surface area-to-volume ratio: as a cell increases…
Resolving power: ability to distinguish detail.... The smallest…
Uses light to resolve images... Compound microscope: 2 sets of l…
Cell Theory
Proposed by Schleiden and Schwann.... Three Principles: ... 1. Al…
Cell size is limited
Limited by surface area-to-volume ratio: as a cell increases…
25 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
cell wall and/or membrane, cytoplasm,…
cell wall and/or membrane
cytoplasm or cytosol
nucleus
three main areas of a cell wall
forms the outer layer
contains the organelles
bounded by a nuclear membrane; contains chromosomes
cell wall and/or membrane, cytoplasm,…
three main areas of a cell wall
cell wall and/or membrane
forms the outer layer
81 terms
Cell Structure Chapter 4
Cells were discovered
Early studies of cells were conducted by
Schleiden and Schwann proposed
Cell Theory
in 1665 by Robert Hooke
-Mathias Schleiden (1838)... -Theodor Schwann (1839)
the Cell Theory
-All organisms are composed of cells ... -Cells are the smallest…
Cells were discovered
in 1665 by Robert Hooke
Early studies of cells were conducted by
-Mathias Schleiden (1838)... -Theodor Schwann (1839)
38 terms
Cell Structure -- Chapter 4
cell
tissue
cell theory
ribosome
basic unit of life
group of cells that carry out a specific function
all living things are made of cells... cells are made from preex…
structure responsible for protein synthesis. found on rough E…
cell
basic unit of life
tissue
group of cells that carry out a specific function
10 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Cell Theory (1,2a,2b,3)
Structural Organization of Cells: All…
Plasma membrane: outermost membrane
Nucleus or nucleoid
1. All living things are made up of one or more cells... 2a. Cel…
~Plasma membrane: outermost membrane... ~Nucleus or nucleoid... ~Cy…
~maintains the cell as a distinct entity... ~allows metabolic ev…
depending on the super kingdom (eukaryote vs. prokaryote), DN…
Cell Theory (1,2a,2b,3)
1. All living things are made up of one or more cells... 2a. Cel…
Structural Organization of Cells: All…
~Plasma membrane: outermost membrane... ~Nucleus or nucleoid... ~Cy…
43 terms
Chapter 4- Cell Structure
cell wall
central vacuole
centrosome
chlorophyll
rigid cell covering made of cellulose that protects the cell,…
large plant cell organelle that regulates the cell's storage…
region in animal cells made of two centrioles
green pigment that captures the light energy that drives the…
cell wall
rigid cell covering made of cellulose that protects the cell,…
central vacuole
large plant cell organelle that regulates the cell's storage…
Chapter 4- Cell Structure
components of cell theory (4)
things that affect rate of diffusion (4)
resolution
Robert Hooke
1. all living organisms are composed of cells... 2. cells are th…
1. surface area of a cell... 2. temperature... 3. concentration gra…
minimal distance between 2 points under a microscope can be a…
used a microscope and was the first person to observe and nam…
components of cell theory (4)
1. all living organisms are composed of cells... 2. cells are th…
things that affect rate of diffusion (4)
1. surface area of a cell... 2. temperature... 3. concentration gra…
58 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
cell
organelles
life processes
levels of organization
the basic unit of structure and function in all living things…
structures with a specialized function within a cell
respiration... nutrition... excretion... synthesis... transport... reproduct…
cells... tissues... organ... organ systems ... complex organism
cell
the basic unit of structure and function in all living things…
organelles
structures with a specialized function within a cell
28 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Cell Theory
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
Cytoplasm
1. All organisms are composed of 1 or more cells... 2. Cells are…
No nucleus
Nucleus
Semifluid matrix
Cell Theory
1. All organisms are composed of 1 or more cells... 2. Cells are…
Prokaryotes
No nucleus
21 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Prokaryotes
Cytoplasm
Cytosol
Plasma Membrane
•Smaller and have no organelles.... •Single Cell organisms ... •rig…
Space in the cell
The liquid in the cell
Barrier of the cell
Prokaryotes
•Smaller and have no organelles.... •Single Cell organisms ... •rig…
Cytoplasm
Space in the cell
25 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Nucleoid
Nuclear envelope
Cytoplasm
Organelle
stores DNA; located near center of prokaryotic cell
two phospholipid bilayer membranes; binds surface of nucleus
semifluid substance that fills interior of the cell; contains…
any macromolecular structure in cytoplasm specialized for a p…
Nucleoid
stores DNA; located near center of prokaryotic cell
Nuclear envelope
two phospholipid bilayer membranes; binds surface of nucleus
51 terms
Chapter 4 Cell Structure
light microscope
organelles
electron microscope
transmission electron microscope
visible light passed through specimen/ glass lenses, resoluti…
membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells
focuses a beam of electrons through specimen onto its surface
used to study internal structure of cells(small things), uses…
light microscope
visible light passed through specimen/ glass lenses, resoluti…
organelles
membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells
14 terms
Chapter 4 Cell Structure
Cell Theory
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
Mitochondria
all organisms are composed of cells. Cells are the smallest l…
has a nucleoid, cell membrane, ribosomes and cytoplasm
has a nucleus, organelles, ribosomes, cell membrane, and cyto…
metabolize molecules to generate ATP... site of oxidative metabo…
Cell Theory
all organisms are composed of cells. Cells are the smallest l…
Prokaryote
has a nucleoid, cell membrane, ribosomes and cytoplasm
25 terms
Chapter 4 Cell Structure
nucleoid
nuclear envelope
cytoplasm
organelle
the area of a prokaryotic cell, usually near the center, that…
the bounding structure of the eukaryotic nucleus (composed of…
the material within a cell, excluding the nucleus; the protop…
specialized part of a cell; literally, a small cytoplasmic or…
nucleoid
the area of a prokaryotic cell, usually near the center, that…
nuclear envelope
the bounding structure of the eukaryotic nucleus (composed of…
51 terms
Chapter 4 - Cell Structure
cell theory
cytoplasm
nucleus
organelle
Theory that all organisms consist of one or more cells, which…
Semifluid substance enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane.
Of eukaryotic cell, organelle with a double membrane that hol…
Structure that carries out a specialized metabolic function i…
cell theory
Theory that all organisms consist of one or more cells, which…
cytoplasm
Semifluid substance enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane.
43 terms
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
Prokaryotes
Nucleoid
Nuclear Envelope
Plasma Membrane
Simplest organism
Circular molecule of DNA
Double membrane around the nucleus 2 phospholipid bilayers
Encloses a cell and separates its contents from surroundings
Prokaryotes
Simplest organism
Nucleoid
Circular molecule of DNA
51 terms
Chapter 4 Cell Structure
Unicellular
Multicelluar
Cell Wall
Cell Membrane
Consisting of a single cell
Organisms that consist of more than a single cell.
strong wall outside a plant cell's plasma membrane that prote…
the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
Unicellular
Consisting of a single cell
Multicelluar
Organisms that consist of more than a single cell.
11 terms
Cell Structure (chapter 4)
Cell Theory (people)
Cell Theory
Cell size is
As cell size _____, it takes ______ fo…
Cells were discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke... Schleiden and…
1. all organisms are composed of cells... 2. cells are the smal…
limited
increases, longer
Cell Theory (people)
Cells were discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke... Schleiden and…
Cell Theory
1. all organisms are composed of cells... 2. cells are the smal…
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