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Study sets matching "cells adaptations"

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Study sets matching "cells adaptations"

15 terms
Cell Adaptations
Reversible cellular adaptation
Irreversible cellular adaptation
Pyknosis
Karyorrhexis
Often short lived, cellular swelling occurs
Nucleus involved
Irreversible cellular adaptation; condensation of the chromatin
Irreversible cellular adaptation; fragmentation of nucleus (n…
Reversible cellular adaptation
Often short lived, cellular swelling occurs
Irreversible cellular adaptation
Nucleus involved
32 terms
Cell Adaptations
Atrophy
Atrophy Causes
Brain Atrophy
Heart Atrophy
Reduce in size, no reduction in number.... It shrinks to adapt t…
Decreased protein synthesis and increase protein degradation.…
Sulci are wider, Gyri are reduced. Sedentary Atrophy, when we…
Reduced or absent fat on the base of the heart. Not eating. O…
Atrophy
Reduce in size, no reduction in number.... It shrinks to adapt t…
Atrophy Causes
Decreased protein synthesis and increase protein degradation.…
40 terms
Cell Adaptations
4 terms to look for in cell adaptations
Barrett's esophagus causes
Barrett's esophagus morphalogic changes
What type of adaptation(s) is involved…
Hyperplasia... Hypertrophy... Metaplasia ... Dysplasia
Classic explanation: ... Reflux -> inflammaion -> hyperplasia -…
Stratified squamous -> cubodial / columnar cells resembling g…
At first, reflux causes hyperplasia ... and then ... Metaplasia so…
4 terms to look for in cell adaptations
Hyperplasia... Hypertrophy... Metaplasia ... Dysplasia
Barrett's esophagus causes
Classic explanation: ... Reflux -> inflammaion -> hyperplasia -…
28 terms
cell adaptations
cortical atrophy ... - narrowing gyri ... -…
muscle cell atrophy ... *white spots are…
left ventricular heart failure (hypert…
heart muscle cell hypertrophy ... *note b…
cortical atrophy ... - narrowing gyri ... -…
muscle cell atrophy ... *white spots are…
10 terms
Cell Adaptations
atrophy
hypertrophy
hyperplasia
aplasia
decrease in cell, tissue, organ or part SIZE
increased in cell, tissue, organ or part SIZE. can be patholo…
increase in cell NUMBER leading to increased tissue or organ…
absence of growth
atrophy
decrease in cell, tissue, organ or part SIZE
hypertrophy
increased in cell, tissue, organ or part SIZE. can be patholo…
13 terms
Cell adaptations
Palisade cells
Root hair cells
Xylem cells
Phloem cells
It has lots of chloroplasts for photosynthesis
It has finger like projection in order to absorb more water f…
It has thick walls to bear the pressure of water
It has a helper cell attached in order to conduct food
Palisade cells
It has lots of chloroplasts for photosynthesis
Root hair cells
It has finger like projection in order to absorb more water f…
17 terms
Cell Adaptations
Adaptations
Chronic Adaptation
Changes in Cell Size and Growth
Hypertrophy
adaptations are reversible changes in the number, size, metab…
- changes in cell size and growth... - changes in cellular diffe…
lifting weights increases the demand in the cells of his/her…
muscle cells get bigger. increase in the size of existing cel…
Adaptations
adaptations are reversible changes in the number, size, metab…
Chronic Adaptation
- changes in cell size and growth... - changes in cellular diffe…
21 terms
Cell Adaptations
hisology
biopsy
pathognomonic changes
atrophy
the study of tissues
a cell sample from an organ or mass of tissue to allow for hi…
unique histological findings that represent distinct disease…
cellular adaptation in which cells revert to a smaller size i…
hisology
the study of tissues
biopsy
a cell sample from an organ or mass of tissue to allow for hi…
54 terms
Cell Adaptations
Define Hyperplasia
Hormonal stimulation leads to hyperpla…
Gynecomastia due to enlargement of mal…
Give 4 other examples of hyperplasia.
Increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue.
Increase in estrogen during puberty causes an increase in pro…
Enlargement of male breast
1. Increased functional demand due to living at high altitude…
Define Hyperplasia
Increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue.
Hormonal stimulation leads to hyperpla…
Increase in estrogen during puberty causes an increase in pro…
10 terms
Cell adaptations
Hydronephrosis leads to
Renal artery stenosis leads to
Uterus during pregnancy
Lymph nodes during viral infection
Atrophy
Renal Hypertrophy
Uterine hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Hydronephrosis leads to
Atrophy
Renal artery stenosis leads to
Renal Hypertrophy
17 terms
cell adaptations
labile cell- does it divide? example?
stable/quiescent cell- does it divide?…
permanent cell- does it divide? example
senile atrophy, dis-use atrophy (skele…
constantly divide, epithelial GI cell & epidermal cells
sometimes divides, ex) kidney/liver cells
neuron, heart muscle cells, doesn't ever divide, only hypertr…
what are some examples of atrophy?
labile cell- does it divide? example?
constantly divide, epithelial GI cell & epidermal cells
stable/quiescent cell- does it divide?…
sometimes divides, ex) kidney/liver cells
52 terms
Cell adaptations
What is cell adaptation?
What does cell adaptation affect?
What happens one a stimuli is removed…
How do cells adapt to change?
tissue changes from exposure to adverse/exaggerated stimuli
cell, tissue, organs
may return to normal... may not --> detrimental results
atrophy... hypertrophy... hyperplasia... metaplasia... dysplasia... anaplasia
What is cell adaptation?
tissue changes from exposure to adverse/exaggerated stimuli
What does cell adaptation affect?
cell, tissue, organs
Cell Adaptations
What is a cell that is continuously cy…
What is a quiescent cell called?
What is a cell that cannot divide?
What is the shrinkage in the size of t…
Labile (e.g., epidermis, GI tract epithelium)
Stable (e.g., hepatocytes). If they are stressed they will go…
Permanent (e.g., neurons, cardiac myocytes)
Atrophy... (results in the decrease in size of the organ or tis…
What is a cell that is continuously cy…
Labile (e.g., epidermis, GI tract epithelium)
What is a quiescent cell called?
Stable (e.g., hepatocytes). If they are stressed they will go…
11 terms
Cell Adaptations
What are the 8 basic categories of cel…
Atrophy
Hypertrophy
Hypoplasia
atrophy, hypoplasia, aplasia, metaplasia, hypertrophy, hyperp…
decrease in size, number, and function... can be a tissue, orga…
increase in size of cells and subsequently of tissues or organs
failure to grow to normal size... normally tissue or organ indi…
What are the 8 basic categories of cel…
atrophy, hypoplasia, aplasia, metaplasia, hypertrophy, hyperp…
Atrophy
decrease in size, number, and function... can be a tissue, orga…
23 terms
Adaptation of Cells
The 4 types of reversible cellular ada…
Atrophy is a reversible adaptive respo…
Autophagy
Prolonged atrophy can lead to...
Atrophy; Hyperplasia;... Hypertyrophy;... Metaplasia;
Decreases the SIZE of the cell. Size lost by losing organelle…
Cell eats itself as a result of stress.
Reduction in NUMBER of cells
The 4 types of reversible cellular ada…
Atrophy; Hyperplasia;... Hypertyrophy;... Metaplasia;
Atrophy is a reversible adaptive respo…
Decreases the SIZE of the cell. Size lost by losing organelle…
36 terms
Cell adaptations
What are some reasons for a cell to ad…
True or false?... Adaptive changes are pe…
When are the 2 types of cell size chan…
atrophy
response to a change in metabolic need... defense against diseas…
false. removal of stimulus usually causes the cell to return…
atrophy and hypertrophy
- workload decreases so cells shrink.... -reduced hormonal stimu…
What are some reasons for a cell to ad…
response to a change in metabolic need... defense against diseas…
True or false?... Adaptive changes are pe…
false. removal of stimulus usually causes the cell to return…
11 terms
cell adaptations
Atrophy
what causes cell atrophy?
Hypertrophy
What causes hypertrophy?
decrease in the size of the cell
Lack of nutrition, decrease neurologic or hormonal stimulatio…
increase in size of cell
caused by additional work by the cell
Atrophy
decrease in the size of the cell
what causes cell atrophy?
Lack of nutrition, decrease neurologic or hormonal stimulatio…
13 terms
Cell Adaptations
What is osmosis?
What is an isotonic solution?
What is a hypertonic solution?
What is a hypotonic solution?
Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
When there is an equal amount of water both inside and outsid…
When there is more water inside the cell than there is outsid…
When there is less water inside the cell than there is outsid…
What is osmosis?
Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
What is an isotonic solution?
When there is an equal amount of water both inside and outsid…
6 terms
Cell Adaptation
Atrophy
Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Metaplasia
decrease in cell size
increase in cell size
increase in cell number
change of one cell type for another
Atrophy
decrease in cell size
Hypertrophy
increase in cell size
29 terms
Cell Adaptation
Characteristics of Normal Cell
Characteristics of Adaption
Types of Responses to stress
Causes of Atrophy
Has narrow range of function and morphologic flexibility, dep…
When a cell is challenged beyond its usual steady (homeostati…
Atrophy: in size & function... Hypertrophy: increase in size... Hyp…
Physiologic, Pathologic
Characteristics of Normal Cell
Has narrow range of function and morphologic flexibility, dep…
Characteristics of Adaption
When a cell is challenged beyond its usual steady (homeostati…
23 terms
Cell Adaptation
Response to Stress
Types of Adaptation
Hypertrophy
Physiologic Hypertrophy
Homeostasis - maintenance of a steady state in response to ph…
Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Atrophy, Metaplasia
Increase in the size (but not number) of cells... Happens in ce…
Hormonal stimulation... 1) Pregnancy... 2) Puberty
Response to Stress
Homeostasis - maintenance of a steady state in response to ph…
Types of Adaptation
Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Atrophy, Metaplasia
60 terms
Cell adaptation
Physiological adaptation
Pathological
Cell response to a stimulus depends on
common causes for cell injury
adaptation to a stimulus within a normal range
- adaptation to a stimulus outside the normal range. Ex temp…
- type of stimulus... - duration ... - magnitude... - cell vulnerabili…
- metabolic: hypoxia (oxygen depravation), ischemia (blood fl…
Physiological adaptation
adaptation to a stimulus within a normal range
Pathological
- adaptation to a stimulus outside the normal range. Ex temp…
17 terms
Cell Adaptation
Physiologic adaptation
Pathological adaptation
Cell adaptation proceeds through speci…
Cell adaptation is a response to [...]
Restores homeostatis
Leads to cell decline, disease, eventually death by apoptosis
Cell adaptation proceeds through specific sensors, mediators,…
Cell adaptation is a response to injury, stress, OR signal (e…
Physiologic adaptation
Restores homeostatis
Pathological adaptation
Leads to cell decline, disease, eventually death by apoptosis
11 terms
Cell adaptation
Atrophy
Lethal
Sublethal
Hypoxia
Decrease or shrink in cell size
Irreversible
Reversible
Lack of oxygen
Atrophy
Decrease or shrink in cell size
Lethal
Irreversible
28 terms
cell adaptations1
cortical atrophy ... - narrowing gyri ... -…
muscle cell atrophy ... *white spots are…
left ventricular heart failure (hypert…
heart muscle cell hypertrophy ... *note b…
cortical atrophy ... - narrowing gyri ... -…
muscle cell atrophy ... *white spots are…
16 terms
Cell adaptions
Cillia and flagella
Pseudopods
Contractile vacuole
Eyespot
Used for movement
Extensions of the cytoplasm is for movement and feeding and s…
Removes excess water from an organism to prevent it from over…
Used to detect light
Cillia and flagella
Used for movement
Pseudopods
Extensions of the cytoplasm is for movement and feeding and s…
54 terms
Cell Adaptation
cell injury
cell injury and death
What causes cell injury?
Reversible cell injury
most diseases begin with
All forms of loss of function derive from
Ischemia, nutritional injury, infections and immunologic inju…
A cell injury with changes in the mitochondria, decreased ATP…
cell injury
most diseases begin with
cell injury and death
All forms of loss of function derive from
Cell Adaptation
Early responses to injury
Atrophy
Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
1. Cloudy swelling - organelle swelling... 2. Hydroponic degener…
Reversible... Decreased size & function... Caused by decreased dema…
Reversible... No change in cell #... Caused by increased demand, ex…
Reversible... Increase in cell #... Caused by hormonal stimulus, in…
Early responses to injury
1. Cloudy swelling - organelle swelling... 2. Hydroponic degener…
Atrophy
Reversible... Decreased size & function... Caused by decreased dema…
12 terms
Cell Adaptions
Atrophy (T)
Hypertrophy (T)
Hyperplasia (T)
Metaplasia (T)
decrease in cell size
increase in cell size via changes in gene transcription
increase in cell number
change in differentiation leading to a different cell type
Atrophy (T)
decrease in cell size
Hypertrophy (T)
increase in cell size via changes in gene transcription
46 terms
Cell Adaptation
sign
symptom
morbidity
mortality
an objective observation
subjective (what the patient tells you)... Headache, nausea, fat…
...
death as a consequence of disease
sign
an objective observation
symptom
subjective (what the patient tells you)... Headache, nausea, fat…
14 terms
Cell Adaptation
cellular response to stress and injury
fate of the cell depends on...
hypoxia
ischemia
physiological and pathological
-type of stimulus... -magnitude... -vulnerability... -duration
oxygen deficiency
blood flow deficiency
cellular response to stress and injury
physiological and pathological
fate of the cell depends on...
-type of stimulus... -magnitude... -vulnerability... -duration
9 terms
cell adaptation
define atrophy
define hypertrophy
define aplasia
define hyperplasia
cell shrinking which can be achieved by apoptosis, reduced fu…
an increase in cell size of existing cells accompanied by an…
a decreased number of cells
an increased number of cells
define atrophy
cell shrinking which can be achieved by apoptosis, reduced fu…
define hypertrophy
an increase in cell size of existing cells accompanied by an…
17 terms
Cell Adaptation
Disease
Adaptation
Physiologic adaptation
Pathologic adaptation
Cell-based & shortens life span
Excess physiologic or pathologic stress forcing the cell to c…
Response to NORMAL stimulation by hormones or endogenous chem…
Response to stresses to escape injury
Disease
Cell-based & shortens life span
Adaptation
Excess physiologic or pathologic stress forcing the cell to c…
35 terms
CellAdapt
Free Radicals can induce?
Small brown Heart is linked to?
Steatosis
Karyorrehexis
lipid peroxidation of cell membranes... Speed up cell agining
Heart Necrosis and senile atrophy
Inflammation and necrosis of liver caused by alcohol... caused b…
Nuclear Fragment in DNA
Free Radicals can induce?
lipid peroxidation of cell membranes... Speed up cell agining
Small brown Heart is linked to?
Heart Necrosis and senile atrophy
22 terms
Cell Adaptation
Atrophy
Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Metaplasia
Shrinkage of a cell, most common in skeletal muscles, heart,…
Increase in cell size, common in cardiac, and skeletal cells.…
Increase in the number of cells, common in epidermal, intesti…
Change in cell type.
Atrophy
Shrinkage of a cell, most common in skeletal muscles, heart,…
Hypertrophy
Increase in cell size, common in cardiac, and skeletal cells.…
10 terms
Cell adaption
Atrophy
Hyperplasia
Hormonal hyperplasia
Pathological hyperplasia
Cells shrink... Ex: dehydration
Cells grown in number
Type of hyperplasia that occurs with pregnancy or menstrual c…
Increase in number of cells with abnormal process ... Ex: cancer
Atrophy
Cells shrink... Ex: dehydration
Hyperplasia
Cells grown in number
32 terms
cell adaptation
2 types of hyperplasia
causes of atrophy
3 main pathways of abnormal intracellu…
causes of fatty change
physiologic... /hormonal... /compensatory... pathologic... ex. papillpmav…
decreased work load... loss of innervation... diminished blood supp…
1. fatty change (steatosis)... 2. accumulation of proteins... 3. pi…
toxins... protein malnutriotion... DM... obesity... anoxia ... alcohol abuse…
2 types of hyperplasia
physiologic... /hormonal... /compensatory... pathologic... ex. papillpmav…
causes of atrophy
decreased work load... loss of innervation... diminished blood supp…
11 terms
Cell adaptions
Atrophy
Hyoertrophy
Hyperplasia
Metaplasia
DECREASE cell size, a LOWER more efficient of function. Can b…
INCREASE in cell size, INCREASE of functioning tissue mass .…
an INcrEaSE in the NUMBER of cells in organ or tissue. 1;Horm…
Reversible change where one adult cell type is replaced by an…
Atrophy
DECREASE cell size, a LOWER more efficient of function. Can b…
Hyoertrophy
INCREASE in cell size, INCREASE of functioning tissue mass .…
42 terms
Cell adaptation
Pathophysiology
clinical manifestations
Signs and symptoms
Sign
Deals with cellular and organ changes that occur with disease…
Manifestations of diseases
2 terms used to describe structural/functional changes that a…
manifestation noted by an observer
Pathophysiology
Deals with cellular and organ changes that occur with disease…
clinical manifestations
Manifestations of diseases
21 terms
cell adaption
Cellular Adaptation
Atrophy
Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Cells change in response to environment or stressors to prote…
decreases in cell size (# unchanged)... EX: cast's, malnutrition…
*increases in cell size... *Occurs in cells that cannot ↑ their…
*Increased number of cells in tissue or organ... *Occurs in cell…
Cellular Adaptation
Cells change in response to environment or stressors to prote…
Atrophy
decreases in cell size (# unchanged)... EX: cast's, malnutrition…
58 terms
Cell Adaptation
cellular adaptation
cellular stressors
types of adaptation
atrophy
cells change in response to environment or stressors to prote…
-excess use or disuse... -chemical exposure... -hypoxia... -physical t…
-atrophy... -hyperplasia... -dysplasia... -hypertrophy... -metaplasia... -hy…
decrease in size, but not in number; can affect muscles, brai…
cellular adaptation
cells change in response to environment or stressors to prote…
cellular stressors
-excess use or disuse... -chemical exposure... -hypoxia... -physical t…
79 terms
Cell Adaptation
pathophysiology
pathogenesis
etiology
risk factors
-combination of words "pathology" and "physiology" ... -a study…
-"sequence of cellular and tissue events that take place from…
cause of disease
characteristics or behaviors that increase the likelihood of…
pathophysiology
-combination of words "pathology" and "physiology" ... -a study…
pathogenesis
-"sequence of cellular and tissue events that take place from…
20 terms
Cell Adaptation
Adaptation
Physiological
Pathological
4 factors determining the fate of the…
Cellular response to injury, stress or change in their enviro…
Adaptation to a stimulus within the normal range
Adaptation to a stimulus outside the normal physiological range
1. Type of stimulus... 2. Duration of the stimulus... 3. Magnitude…
Adaptation
Cellular response to injury, stress or change in their enviro…
Physiological
Adaptation to a stimulus within the normal range
17 terms
Cell adaptation
Hypertrophy
Causes of Hypertrophy
Tissues commonly affected by Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
cells increase in size (reversible)
Increased functional demand... hormonal stimulation
Cardiac muscles (hypertension, thickening of cardiac walls)... s…
increasing the number of cells (reversible)
Hypertrophy
cells increase in size (reversible)
Causes of Hypertrophy
Increased functional demand... hormonal stimulation
12 terms
Cell Adaptation
Cell Adaptation
Homeostasis
Principle Responses of Adaptation
Atrophy
occurs when the cell homeostasis is distorted by stresses or…
Tendency to stability in the normal body states of the organism
Atrophy... Hypertrophy... Hyperplasia... Metaplasia... Dysplasia
Decrease in the size &/or number of cells and their metabolic…
Cell Adaptation
occurs when the cell homeostasis is distorted by stresses or…
Homeostasis
Tendency to stability in the normal body states of the organism
62 terms
Cell Adaptation
cell
homeostasis
strength of stimulus,... duration of stim…
ischmia/hypoxia,... infection,... chemical/d…
structural and functional unit of all living organisms and is…
steady state
factors that determine whether injury or death would occur
causes of cell injury and death
cell
structural and functional unit of all living organisms and is…
homeostasis
steady state
67 terms
Cell adaption
Hyperplasia
Endometrial hyperplasia is...
Hypertrophy
Permanent tissue
# cells increase
pathologic
Cell size increase... protein+, organelles+, gene+
Cardiac, Skeletal muscle, Nerves
Hyperplasia
# cells increase
Endometrial hyperplasia is...
pathologic
20 terms
Cell adaptation
pathology
point of no return
atrophy
physiologic atrophy
always gives the definitive diagnosis. not labs.
if nucleus remains intact, the damage is reversible
decrease in size of tissue, organ, body.
thymus undergoing involution (best). post menopausal ovary, u…
pathology
always gives the definitive diagnosis. not labs.
point of no return
if nucleus remains intact, the damage is reversible
82 terms
cell adaption
Why do cells change?
What effect does long term stress have…
What are cellular stressors?
What is dysplasia?
1. in response to environment or stressors to protect themsel…
it can overwhelm adaptive process and lead to cell injury or…
1. excess use or disuse... 2. chemical exposure... 3. hypoxia... 4. ph…
Cells are very irregular, don't look the same, things can tur…
Why do cells change?
1. in response to environment or stressors to protect themsel…
What effect does long term stress have…
it can overwhelm adaptive process and lead to cell injury or…
102 terms
Cell Adaptation
cell adaptation
When cells adapt, can they change back…
What can long term stress on a cell do?
somatic death
cells change in response to environment or stressors to prote…
Yes--will go back over time if the stressor is gone
cause cell death
human death
cell adaptation
cells change in response to environment or stressors to prote…
When cells adapt, can they change back…
Yes--will go back over time if the stressor is gone
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