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15 terms
Chapter 18: Chemistry of the Environment
Trophosphere
Stratosphere
Photodissociation
Photoionization
The lowest layer of the atmosphere in which temperature drops…
2nd layer of atmosphere; extends from 10 to 30 miles up; loca…
A bond is broken as a molecule absorbs a photon of light energy
The removal of an electron from an atom or molecule by absorp…
Trophosphere
The lowest layer of the atmosphere in which temperature drops…
Stratosphere
2nd layer of atmosphere; extends from 10 to 30 miles up; loca…
16 terms
Chemistry: The Central Science Chapter 18 Vocab
Troposphere
Stratosphere
Photodissociation
Photoionization
The region of the Earth's atmosphere extending from the surfa…
The region of the atmosphere directly above the above the tro…
The breaking of a molecule into two or more neutral fragments…
The removal of an electron from an atom or molecule by absorp…
Troposphere
The region of the Earth's atmosphere extending from the surfa…
Stratosphere
The region of the atmosphere directly above the above the tro…
22 terms
Chemistry - Milton - Chapter 18
chemical symbols
monatomic
diatomic
metalloids and semimetals
notation consisting of one or two letters derived from the el…
an element that occurs as single atoms
an element that occurs naturally as molecules of two atoms
the elements that are between metals and nonmetals
chemical symbols
notation consisting of one or two letters derived from the el…
monatomic
an element that occurs as single atoms
12 terms
Life Science Chapter 18
Binomial Nomenclature
Genus
Ursus Arctos
Ursus Arctos Horribilis
Two word naming system
A group of similar species
Brown bear
Grizzly Bear
Binomial Nomenclature
Two word naming system
Genus
A group of similar species
8 terms
Physical Science Chapter 18
octet rule
electronegativity
covalent bond
Lewis structure
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to a…
(chemistry) the tendency of an atom or radical to attract ele…
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons bet…
A structural formula in which electrons are represented by do…
octet rule
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to a…
electronegativity
(chemistry) the tendency of an atom or radical to attract ele…
14 terms
Science - Chapter 18
cell
organism
bacteria
microscope
the basic part of life
a living thing that can carry out all the basic life activities
the simplest organisms that carry out all basic life activities
an instrument used to magnify things
cell
the basic part of life
organism
a living thing that can carry out all the basic life activities
17 terms
Chemistry: Chapter 18: Chemical Equilibrium
Reversible Reaction
Chemical Equilibrium
Equilibrium Constant
Chemical Equilibrium Expression
A chemical reaction in which the products can react to reform…
When the rate of its forward reaction equals the rate of its…
The ratio of the mathematical product of the concentrations o…
Reversible Reaction
A chemical reaction in which the products can react to reform…
Chemical Equilibrium
When the rate of its forward reaction equals the rate of its…
9 terms
Exploring Science - Chemistry - Chapter 18
Solute
Solvent
Solution
Soluble
The substance is being dissolved
The liquid the solute is dissolving in
The solute and the solvent
if a substance dissolves in a solvent, it is soluble
Solute
The substance is being dissolved
Solvent
The liquid the solute is dissolving in
65 terms
Chapter 18 Chemistry
Proteins
amine, carboxyl, R
chiral
Peptide bond
are polymers of amino acids linked together through peptide b…
Every amino acid contains an ___ (NH2) a ___ (-COOH) and an _…
Amino acids are ___ molecules (except for glycine). Only the…
an amide bond linking 2 amino acids
Proteins
are polymers of amino acids linked together through peptide b…
amine, carboxyl, R
Every amino acid contains an ___ (NH2) a ___ (-COOH) and an _…
45 terms
Science 9 Chapter 18
5
proton and neutron
Atomic mass
no
How many electron shells does an atom of Iodine have?
What two subatomic particles are found inside the nucleus?
I find the number of neutrons by subtracting the number of pr…
Are atomic number and atomic mass the same thing?
5
How many electron shells does an atom of Iodine have?
proton and neutron
What two subatomic particles are found inside the nucleus?
50 terms
Chapter 18 Science
climate
specific heat
rain shadow
micro climate
long term average weather conditions that occur in a a partic…
the amount of thermal energy needed to raise the temperature…
prevailing winds carry moist warm air over Earth's surface; A…
a localized climate that is different from the climate of the…
climate
long term average weather conditions that occur in a a partic…
specific heat
the amount of thermal energy needed to raise the temperature…
17 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18
Oxidation-reaction
Oxidation
Reduction
Oxidation states
Chemical change which an atom or molecule loses an electron.…
A loss of electrons; an increase in oxidation state.
A gain of electrons; a decrease in oxidation state.
A concept that allows us to keep track of electrons in oxidat…
Oxidation-reaction
Chemical change which an atom or molecule loses an electron.…
Oxidation
A loss of electrons; an increase in oxidation state.
14 terms
CHAPTER 18 PHYSICAL SCIENCE VOCABULARY
magnetic pole
magnetic field
solenoid
electromagnetic
one of two points, such as the ends of magnet, that have oppo…
a region where a magnetic force can be detected
a coil of wire with electric current in it.
a coil that has a soft iron core and that acts as a magnet
magnetic pole
one of two points, such as the ends of magnet, that have oppo…
magnetic field
a region where a magnetic force can be detected
14 terms
Science Chapter 18 Study Guide
group or family
LOSE
alkali metals
increases
another name for each column in the periodic table
elements to the left side of the periodic table tend to _____…
Lithium is a member of this family (NAME)
the farther DOWN the periodic chart you go, the number of pro…
group or family
another name for each column in the periodic table
LOSE
elements to the left side of the periodic table tend to _____…
26 terms
Chemistry: Chapter 18 Vocabulary
activated complex
activation energy
chemical equilibrium
collision theory
an unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at t…
the minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to…
a state of balance in which the rates of the forward and reve…
atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when th…
activated complex
an unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at t…
activation energy
the minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to…
42 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18
acid anhydride
alkaline earth metal
allotropes
amorphous
compound that reacts with water to form an acid or acidic sol…
any of the metals (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, stronrium,…
two or more forms of the sam element, in the same physical st…
solid material such as a glass that does not have a regular r…
acid anhydride
compound that reacts with water to form an acid or acidic sol…
alkaline earth metal
any of the metals (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, stronrium,…
52 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18
Amines
Primary Amine
Secondary Amine
Tertiary Amine
Organinic nitrogen compounds which can be classified by numbe…
1 C-N bond and general structure RNH2
2 C-N bonds and a general structure of R2NH
3 C-N bonds and a general structure of R3N
Amines
Organinic nitrogen compounds which can be classified by numbe…
Primary Amine
1 C-N bond and general structure RNH2
12 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18 Vocabulary
Endergonic
Energy Conservation
Exergonic
Extent of reaction
Refers to a reaction that requires input of Gibbs free energy…
The conservation of useful energy, that is, of Gibbs free ene…
Refers to a reaction that releases Gibbs free energy; applies…
The fraction of reactants that has been converted to products
Endergonic
Refers to a reaction that requires input of Gibbs free energy…
Energy Conservation
The conservation of useful energy, that is, of Gibbs free ene…
52 terms
BJU Chemistry Chapter 18
Organic Chemistry
Carbon
Alaphatic
Aromatic
Largest branch of chemistry; Study of things that contain car…
Has 4 valence electrons; Made up of single, double, or triple…
Have straight-chain (open-chain) compounds or rings that can…
Have ringed shapes
Organic Chemistry
Largest branch of chemistry; Study of things that contain car…
Carbon
Has 4 valence electrons; Made up of single, double, or triple…
22 terms
Pacemaker General Science Chapter 18
conduction
insulator
convection
vacuum
the way heat is passed along by molecules of matter that bump…
matter that does not conduct heat well
the transfer of heat within a gas or a liquid by the movement…
any place where there is no matter
conduction
the way heat is passed along by molecules of matter that bump…
insulator
matter that does not conduct heat well
49 terms
UNCG Chemistry chapter 18
Biochemistry
Examples of carbohydrates
More than 50% of all organic carbon is…
What makes up the vast majority of our…
Study of chemical substances found in living organisms
Cellulose which makes up structural element in humans, and st…
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
Biochemistry
Study of chemical substances found in living organisms
Examples of carbohydrates
Cellulose which makes up structural element in humans, and st…
Physical Science Chapter 18 Bonding and Compounds
octet rule
electron affinity
electronegativity
covalent bond
the principle that atoms are generally most stable when they…
the energy absorbed or released when atoms of an element acqu…
a measure of an element's ability to attract and hold electro…
a chemical bond in which two atoms, usually nonmetals, share…
octet rule
the principle that atoms are generally most stable when they…
electron affinity
the energy absorbed or released when atoms of an element acqu…
11 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18
Basic solution
Acids and bases
Acid solution
Conjugate acid
Taste bitter and are slippery
Both conduct -
Has more H ions than hydroxide
Specied provided when a base accept a hydrogen ion
Basic solution
Taste bitter and are slippery
Acids and bases
Both conduct -
59 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18 (Solutions)
Solution
Aqueous Solution
Solute
Solvent
A homogeneous mixture
A solution in which the solvent is water
The substance being dissolved
The dissolving medium
Solution
A homogeneous mixture
Aqueous Solution
A solution in which the solvent is water
23 terms
Chapter 18 Organic chemistry
hydrocarbon
saturated hydrocarbon
unsaturated hydrocarbon
isomer
n.烃,碳氢化合物
饱和烃
不饱和烃
同分异构体
hydrocarbon
n.烃,碳氢化合物
saturated hydrocarbon
饱和烃
51 terms
Science Chapter 18
Surface Currents move water in which d…
What are these currents powered by
Wind forces to ocean to move how
Surface currents only move what part o…
Horizontally, parallel to Earth's surface
Wind
Huge circular patterns
the upper few hundred meters of seawater
Surface Currents move water in which d…
Horizontally, parallel to Earth's surface
What are these currents powered by
Wind
15 terms
Earth Science: Chapter 18- Volcanoes
hot spots
vent
crater
caldera
areas of volcanic activity that result from plumes of hot, so…
opening on the surface at the end of the conduit
bowl-shaped depression around the vent at the top of a volcano
formed when the top of a volcano collapses after an eruption
hot spots
areas of volcanic activity that result from plumes of hot, so…
vent
opening on the surface at the end of the conduit
25 terms
Chapter 18 Chemistry vocab
Activated Complex
Activation Energy
Chemical Equilibrium
Collision Theory
a transitional structure that results from an effective colli…
the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical rea…
In a chemical reaction, the state in which the rate of the fo…
For a reaction to occur, the particles must collide, they mus…
Activated Complex
a transitional structure that results from an effective colli…
Activation Energy
the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical rea…
50 terms
BJU Chemistry Chapter 18
Organic Compounds
Aliphatic Compounds
Aromatic Compounds
Hydrocarbons
Covalently bonded carbon compounds, excluding carbonates, car…
Either straight-chain (open chain) compounds or rings that ca…
Have ringed shapes, but they are unlike aliphatic rings becau…
Organic compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon.
Organic Compounds
Covalently bonded carbon compounds, excluding carbonates, car…
Aliphatic Compounds
Either straight-chain (open chain) compounds or rings that ca…
42 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18
Rate
Rate of Chemical Reaction/ Reaction Rate
Collision Theory
Activation Energy
The measure of how much something changes within a specific a…
Expressed as the change in the amount of reactant or product…
Atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when th…
The minimum energy that colliding particles must have in orde…
Rate
The measure of how much something changes within a specific a…
Rate of Chemical Reaction/ Reaction Rate
Expressed as the change in the amount of reactant or product…
60 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18: Thermodynamics
First law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
What happens to the energy that is not…
Overall change in entropy of the unive…
Chemistry cannot be created nor destroyed... - In energy convers…
Not all the energy released by a spontaneous reaction is avai…
-It disperses and becomes less concentrated... - Entropy
ΔSuniv = ΔSsys + ΔSsurr
First law of thermodynamics
Chemistry cannot be created nor destroyed... - In energy convers…
Second law of thermodynamics
Not all the energy released by a spontaneous reaction is avai…
14 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18
Arrhenius definition of Acid
Arrhenius definition of Base
Strong Electrolyte
weak electrolyte
has H in formula... dissociates in water to produce H3O+
has OH in formula... dissociates in water to produce OH-
strong acid or base
weak acid or base
Arrhenius definition of Acid
has H in formula... dissociates in water to produce H3O+
Arrhenius definition of Base
has OH in formula... dissociates in water to produce OH-
20 terms
Chapter 18 chemistry vocab
chemical equilibrium
equilibrium position
equilibrium constant
le chatelier's principle
a state of balance in which the rate of a forward reaction eq…
the relative concentrations of reactants and products of a re…
(chemistry) the ratio of concentrations when equilibrium is r…
when a stress is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium,…
chemical equilibrium
a state of balance in which the rate of a forward reaction eq…
equilibrium position
the relative concentrations of reactants and products of a re…
65 terms
Chapter 18 Chemistry
chemical kinetics
kinetically stable
what are the units of concentration?
activation energy/threshold energy (Ea)
the branch of chemistry that deals with the rate that a chemi…
a reaction that proceeds at a negligible speed at normal cond…
they are usually M
the minimum amount of energy required to start a reaction, to…
chemical kinetics
the branch of chemistry that deals with the rate that a chemi…
kinetically stable
a reaction that proceeds at a negligible speed at normal cond…
26 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18 Vocabulary
Activated Complex
Activation Energy
Chemical Equilibrium
Collision Theory
An unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at t…
The minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to…
A state of balance in which the rates of the forward and reve…
Atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when th…
Activated Complex
An unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at t…
Activation Energy
The minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to…
41 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18 Vocabulary
Activated Complex
Activation Energy
Chemical Equilibrium
Collision Theory
An unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at t…
The minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to…
A state of balance in which the rates of the forward and reve…
Atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when th…
Activated Complex
An unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at t…
Activation Energy
The minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to…
25 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18
Solution
Dissolve
- Stirring and agitation (increases th…
Saturated Solution
What is a homogeneous mixture that may be solid, liquid, or g…
The nature of a solvent and solute will determine if a substa…
What are the factors that affect that rate at which a solute…
What contains the maximum amount of solute for a given amount…
Solution
What is a homogeneous mixture that may be solid, liquid, or g…
Dissolve
The nature of a solvent and solute will determine if a substa…
26 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18 Vocabulary
Activated Complex
Activation Energy
Chemical Equilibrium
Collision Theory
An unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at t…
The minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to…
A state of balance in which the rates of the forward and reve…
Atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when th…
Activated Complex
An unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at t…
Activation Energy
The minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to…
29 terms
Chapter 18 Chemistry
Activated Complex
Le Chatelier's Principle
Spontaneous Reaction
Elementary Reaction
AKA the transition state-The unstable arrangement of atoms th…
If a stress is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium, th…
Favoring the formation of products.
Reactants are converted to products in a single step.
Activated Complex
AKA the transition state-The unstable arrangement of atoms th…
Le Chatelier's Principle
If a stress is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium, th…
26 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18 Vocabulary
Activated Complex
Activation Energy
Chemical Equilibrium
Collision Theory
An unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at t…
The minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to…
A state of balance in which the rates of the forward and reve…
Atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when th…
Activated Complex
An unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at t…
Activation Energy
The minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to…
11 terms
Environmental science chapter 18 Vocabulary
renewable energy
passive solar heating
active solar heating
biomass fuel
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is n…
the use of sunlight to heat buildings directly
the gathering of solar energy by collectors that are used to…
Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste.
renewable energy
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is n…
passive solar heating
the use of sunlight to heat buildings directly
28 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18
acidic solution
amphoteric
Arrhenius model
basic solution
Contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions.
Describes water and other substances that can act as both aci…
A model of acids and bases; states that an acid is a substanc…
Contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions.
acidic solution
Contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions.
amphoteric
Describes water and other substances that can act as both aci…
24 terms
Chemistry Chapter 18
rate pg. 595
collision theory pg. 596
activation energy pg. 596
activated complex pg. 596
a measure of how much something changes within a specified am…
atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when th…
the minimum energy that colliding particles must have in orde…
an unstable arrangement of atoms that forms for a moment at t…
rate pg. 595
a measure of how much something changes within a specified am…
collision theory pg. 596
atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when th…
29 terms
Chapter 18 Science
Nutrients
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Starches, CH
These are found in food and provide energy. Helps produce cel…
These are needed and used for the replacement and repair of c…
This is the main source of energy for the body.The 2 types ar…
Potato products, pasta
Nutrients
These are found in food and provide energy. Helps produce cel…
Proteins
These are needed and used for the replacement and repair of c…
32 terms
organic chemistry chapter 18
acids, esters, amides, acid chlorides,…
priority: esters
priority: cyclic esters
priority: amide
+3
-oate
oxa-
-amide
acids, esters, amides, acid chlorides,…
+3
priority: esters
-oate
26 terms
Harcourt Science Chapter 18 Vocabulary - Forces & Motion
force
at rest
position
motion
a push or pull that may cause an object to move, stop or chan…
not in motion
where an object is
change position
force
a push or pull that may cause an object to move, stop or chan…
at rest
not in motion
19 terms
Chapter 18, Chemistry
Entropy
Inhibitor
spontaneous reaction
activation energy
disorder of a system
substance that interferes with action of catalyst
forming of reactions in specific conditions
minimum energy colliding particles must have to react
Entropy
disorder of a system
Inhibitor
substance that interferes with action of catalyst
28 terms
Chapter 18 Chemistry Vocab
acidic solution
basic solution
Arrhenius model
Bronsted-Lowry model
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
a model of acids and bases; states than an acid is a substanc…
a model of acids and bases in which an acid is a hydrogen-ion…
acidic solution
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
basic solution
contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
26 terms
Chemistry: Chapter 18 Vocabulary
activated complex
activation energy
chemical equilibrium
collision theory
an unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at t…
the minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to…
a state of balance in which the rates of the forward and reve…
atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when th…
activated complex
an unstable arrangement of atoms that exists momentarily at t…
activation energy
the minimum energy colliding particles must have in order to…
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