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Study sets matching "chapt 11 genetics"

23 terms
Genetics Chapter 11 Vocabulary
activator
allosteric effector
allosteric site
allosteric transition
a protein that, when bound to a cis-acting regulatory DNA ele…
a small molecule that binds to an allosteric site
a site on a protein to which a small molecule binds, causing…
a change from one conformation of a protein to another
activator
a protein that, when bound to a cis-acting regulatory DNA ele…
allosteric effector
a small molecule that binds to an allosteric site
33 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
DNA replication
template strands
parental strands
daughter strands
copying genetic material
the original DNA strands used for the synthesis of new DNA
two original template strands
the two newly-made strands from the templates
DNA replication
copying genetic material
template strands
the original DNA strands used for the synthesis of new DNA
14 terms
genetics chapter 11
Chromatin
Histones
Functions of nonhistone proteins
Histone tails
any complex of DNA and protein found in a nucleus of a cell
small, positively charged, and highy conserved
structural role: chromosomescaffold... chromosome replication: d…
modified tails can alter nucleosomes and bind chromatin modif…
Chromatin
any complex of DNA and protein found in a nucleus of a cell
Histones
small, positively charged, and highy conserved
38 terms
chapter 11 genetics review
Achondroplesia
Allele
Carrier
Cystic Fibrosis
- "little people" ... - dwarfism: the reduced growth of long bon…
- one member of a gene pair... - for example of the genotype Aa…
- someone that carries a disorder/trait... - heterozygous
- the overproduction of mucus... - breathing and digestive compl…
Achondroplesia
- "little people" ... - dwarfism: the reduced growth of long bon…
Allele
- one member of a gene pair... - for example of the genotype Aa…
37 terms
Chapter 11 Genetics
Gregor Mendal "Father of Genetics"
trait
heredity
genetics
Austrian monk who studied the inheritance of traits in pea pl…
any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring
passing of traits from parent to offspring
study of heredity
Gregor Mendal "Father of Genetics"
Austrian monk who studied the inheritance of traits in pea pl…
trait
any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring
31 terms
Biology Chapter 11- Genetics Notecards
what assorts independently during meio…
genetics
fertilization
true-breeding
chromosomes
the scientific study of heredity
the process in which the male and female reproductive cells j…
organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves thro…
what assorts independently during meio…
chromosomes
genetics
the scientific study of heredity
49 terms
Chapter 11 genetics
changes in gene expression may occur
changes in gene expression may occur a…
epigenetic changes
Adult hemoglobin has how many globular…
over time and in different cell types
molecular, tissue, or organ/gland level
changes to the chemical groups that associate with DNA that a…
4
changes in gene expression may occur
over time and in different cell types
changes in gene expression may occur a…
molecular, tissue, or organ/gland level
40 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
DNA replication
daughter strands
parental strands
conservative model
the process by which the genetic material is copied
two newly made strands
two original ones
both parental strands stay together after DNA replication (50…
DNA replication
the process by which the genetic material is copied
daughter strands
two newly made strands
34 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
Virus chromosomes
bacterial chromosomes
Hu and H1
Chromatin
contain a nucleic acid and can be circular or linear
usually have double stranded DNA compacted into the nucleoid,…
DNA binding proteins Small and abundant, have positive amino…
Chromosomes in uncoiled form during interphase
Virus chromosomes
contain a nucleic acid and can be circular or linear
bacterial chromosomes
usually have double stranded DNA compacted into the nucleoid,…
36 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
DNA replication
Chargaffs rule
template strand
daughter strands
process by which the genetic material is copied
A-t C-G
original strand that is copied
two newly made DNA strands
DNA replication
process by which the genetic material is copied
Chargaffs rule
A-t C-G
31 terms
Chapter 11-genetics vocab
Genetics
Fertilization
Self-pollination
Cross-pollination
the study of genes on DNA and how they are inherited
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female repro…
Self-pollination is a form of pollination that can occur when…
the transfer of pollen from the flower of one plant to the fl…
Genetics
the study of genes on DNA and how they are inherited
Fertilization
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female repro…
22 terms
CHAPTER 11 GENETICS
genetics
fertilization
trait
gene
the scientific study of heredity
the process in sexual reproduction in which male and female r…
a specific characteristic of an individual
a factor that is passed from parent to offspring
genetics
the scientific study of heredity
fertilization
the process in sexual reproduction in which male and female r…
30 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
Bidirectionality
Bidirectional replication
Catenanes
Conditional mutants
the phenomenon in which two replication forks move in opposit…
the phenomenon in which two DNA replication forks emanate in…
interlocked circular molecules.
a mutant whose phenotype depends on the environment condition…
Bidirectionality
the phenomenon in which two replication forks move in opposit…
Bidirectional replication
the phenomenon in which two DNA replication forks emanate in…
chapter 11 genetics review
Achondroplesia
Allele
Carrier
Cystic Fibrosis
- "little people" ... - dwarfism: the reduced growth of long bon…
- one member of a gene pair... - for example of the genotype Aa…
- someone that carries a disorder/trait... - heterozygous
- the overproduction of mucus... - breathing and digestive compl…
Achondroplesia
- "little people" ... - dwarfism: the reduced growth of long bon…
Allele
- one member of a gene pair... - for example of the genotype Aa…
22 terms
Genetics Chapter 11 Terms
Activators
Repressors
Operators
DNA-Binding Domain
A protein that, when bound to a cis-acting regulatory DNA ele…
A protein that binds to a cis-acting element such as an opera…
A DNA region at one end of an operon that acts as the binding…
The site on a DNA-binding protein that directly interacts wit…
Activators
A protein that, when bound to a cis-acting regulatory DNA ele…
Repressors
A protein that binds to a cis-acting element such as an opera…
35 terms
Chapter 11: Genetics Vocabulary
Gametes
Meiosis
Homologous Chromosomes
Tetrad
Reproductive cells (egg and sperm)
A process that cuts the number of chromosomes in half by sepa…
A pair of chromosomes that contain similar genetic informatio…
When 2 homologous chromosomes pair up together
Gametes
Reproductive cells (egg and sperm)
Meiosis
A process that cuts the number of chromosomes in half by sepa…
19 terms
Chapter 11 Genetics Vocabulary
Genetics
True-breeding
Allele
Dominant allele
the study of heredity
making an offspring that is genetically similar to parents an…
alternative forms of a gene that codes for a particular trait…
express the dominant trait (TT;TT= tall)
Genetics
the study of heredity
True-breeding
making an offspring that is genetically similar to parents an…
22 terms
Chapter 11 GENETICS
postulate 1
postulate 2
postulate 3
postulate 4
genes are present in two associated copies in diploid cells
in the case of unlike unit factors, one can be dominant and t…
two alleles of each pair separate from each other during anap…
each allele of a pair goes into gametes independently of othe…
postulate 1
genes are present in two associated copies in diploid cells
postulate 2
in the case of unlike unit factors, one can be dominant and t…
20 terms
genetics chapter 11
Origin or replication
Replicon
dNTPs
template DNA
DNA replication begins here
product of replication
...
...
Origin or replication
DNA replication begins here
Replicon
product of replication
28 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
Coiling
Topoisomerase
Relaxed
Positive supercoiling
Tertiary structure
The enzyme responsible for adding and removing turns in the c…
10 bases per rotation
>10 bases per rotation
Coiling
Tertiary structure
Topoisomerase
The enzyme responsible for adding and removing turns in the c…
14 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
DNA structure
Chromatin
Chromatin Levels
histones
double stranded ... (+) supercoiled=wrapped in front ... (-) superc…
complex of DNA wrapped around proteins
primary- nucleotide sequence ... secondary- double stranded heli…
pack DNA into nucleosomes ... (+) charged
DNA structure
double stranded ... (+) supercoiled=wrapped in front ... (-) superc…
Chromatin
complex of DNA wrapped around proteins
38 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
mitochondrial DNA
chloroplast DNA
supercoiling
relaxed state of DNA
DNA in mitochondria; has some characteristics in common with…
DNA in chloroplasts; has many characteristics in common with…
coiled tertiary structure that forms when strain in placed on…
energy state of a DNA molecule when there is no structural st…
mitochondrial DNA
DNA in mitochondria; has some characteristics in common with…
chloroplast DNA
DNA in chloroplasts; has many characteristics in common with…
33 terms
Chapter 11 genetics
10-nm fiber
30-nm fiber (solenoid structure)
300-nm fiber
acrocentric chromosome
the "beads-on-a-string" form of chromatin, in which DNA is wr…
A structure of chromatin in which intone 1 (H1) partially con…
A structural state of chromatin in which chromatin fibers are…
a eukaryotic chromosome in which the centromere is very near…
10-nm fiber
the "beads-on-a-string" form of chromatin, in which DNA is wr…
30-nm fiber (solenoid structure)
A structure of chromatin in which intone 1 (H1) partially con…
13 terms
Chapter 11 genetics vocab
Genetics
Pure-bred
hybrid
gene
the scientific study of heredity
an organism created identical to their parent organisms
an organism created with mixed genes from parents with differ…
chemical factors that determine traits
Genetics
the scientific study of heredity
Pure-bred
an organism created identical to their parent organisms
33 terms
Hoffman Biology Chapter 11 Genetics
alleles
chromosome
pistil (aka carpel)
dominant allele
different forms of a gene that control a certain trait.
made of DNA wound around proteins; found in the nucleus of a…
the female reproductive organ of a flower
an allele that is expressed in an organism that is heterozygo…
alleles
different forms of a gene that control a certain trait.
chromosome
made of DNA wound around proteins; found in the nucleus of a…
15 terms
CHAPTER 11 - Genetics
Gregor Mendel
trait
probablity
homozygous
"Father" of Genetics
specific characteristics
the chance that a particular event will occur
organisms that have 2 identical alleles
Gregor Mendel
"Father" of Genetics
trait
specific characteristics
49 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
Molecular Genetics
Transformation
DNase, RNase, protease
Bacteriophage
The study of DNA structure and function at the molecular level.
Changing from one to another/// R bacteria to S bacteria in t…
Enzymes that breakdown each respectively
Virus for bacteria
Molecular Genetics
The study of DNA structure and function at the molecular level.
Transformation
Changing from one to another/// R bacteria to S bacteria in t…
18 terms
Genetics Chapter 11 Terms
Degenerate code
Synonymous codons
Isoaccepting tRNAs
Wobble hypothesis
amino acid may be specified by more than one codon
codons that specify the same amino acid
different tRNAs that accept the same amino acid but have diff…
a single anticodon can pair with more than one codon
Degenerate code
amino acid may be specified by more than one codon
Synonymous codons
codons that specify the same amino acid
26 terms
Chapter 11-Genetics unit
genetics
true-breeding
trait
hybrid
scientific study of heredity
term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identi…
specific characteristic that varies from one individual to an…
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
genetics
scientific study of heredity
true-breeding
term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identi…
61 terms
Genetics Review Chapter 11
Allele
Genotype
Phenotype
Homozygous (true-bred)
Genes that have different forms for each trait
genetic makeup of the organism that causes the phenotype
physical traits of the organisms that you can see
organisms that have two identical alleles... Dom. - (TT)... Rec. -…
Allele
Genes that have different forms for each trait
Genotype
genetic makeup of the organism that causes the phenotype
13 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
Anaphase
Metaphase
Prophase
spindle
Stage of mitosis which sister chromatids separate and move to…
Stage of mitosis at which all chromosomes are aligned midway…
stage of mitosis during chromosomes condense and become attac…
temporary structure that moves chromosomes during nuclear div…
Anaphase
Stage of mitosis which sister chromatids separate and move to…
Metaphase
Stage of mitosis at which all chromosomes are aligned midway…
12 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
3 steps of Transcription
negative control
Positive control
Effector molecules
-initiation of transcription... -elongation of RNA... -Termination…
gene transcription is actively repressed; the gene would be "…
gene transcription is induced; the gene is "on" in the presen…
regulate the function of activators and repressors
3 steps of Transcription
-initiation of transcription... -elongation of RNA... -Termination…
negative control
gene transcription is actively repressed; the gene would be "…
17 terms
Chapter 11 Genetics
genetics
true breeding
cross-pollination
trait
the scientific study of heredity
plants self-pollinate
involves 2 plants
specific characteristic that varies form one individual to an…
genetics
the scientific study of heredity
true breeding
plants self-pollinate
Chapter 11 genetics
bacteria regulate gene transcription b…
allosteric transition
the lac operon is also regulated by
lac expression... glucose present, lacto…
availability of nutrients
change of protein conformation resulting in change of functio…
glucose- better energy source for E. Coli than lactose... E. co…
none, low, high
bacteria regulate gene transcription b…
availability of nutrients
allosteric transition
change of protein conformation resulting in change of functio…
28 terms
Chapter 11 Genetics
Conservative replication
Semi conservative replication
Dispersive replication
Theta (prokaryotes)
1 orignal per gen. And the rest are new
Outside are hyrbid, the rest are new
All daughters have new and old strands. Blended
The replicating chromosome
Conservative replication
1 orignal per gen. And the rest are new
Semi conservative replication
Outside are hyrbid, the rest are new
46 terms
Chapter 11: Microbial Genetics & Biotechnology
Genetics
Gene
Chromosome
Genome
Study of what genes are
Segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a p…
Structure containing DNA that physically carries hereditary i…
All of the genetic information in a cell
Genetics
Study of what genes are
Gene
Segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a p…
Genetics, Chapter 11
Peptide bonds
Primary structure of a protein
Secondary structure of a protein
Secondary structure of a protein
Amino acids in proteins are joined together by these to form…
Sequence of amino acids
Through interactions between neighboring amino acids, a polyp…
Two common ones are beta pleated sheet and alpha helix
Peptide bonds
Amino acids in proteins are joined together by these to form…
Primary structure of a protein
Sequence of amino acids
24 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
Promoter
Activator
Repressor
Operator
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymera…
A protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of a…
A protein that binds to an operator and physically blocks RNA…
A sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to whic…
Promoter
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymera…
Activator
A protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of a…
14 terms
Chapter 11 genetics vocab
Genetics
Fertilization
Gene
Allele
Scientific study of heredity
A process in which male and female reproductive cells join to…
Section of DNA that contains the instructions for a particula…
Different forms of a gene
Genetics
Scientific study of heredity
Fertilization
A process in which male and female reproductive cells join to…
16 terms
Chapter 11 Genetics
Heredity
Genetics
Gregor Medel
Gene
The delivery of characteristics from parent to offspring
The scientific study of heredity
Founder of genetics
a segment of DNA that determines a trait (makes a protein)
Heredity
The delivery of characteristics from parent to offspring
Genetics
The scientific study of heredity
51 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
Supercoiling
Relaxed state
Positive supercoiling
Negative supercoiling
Coiled tertiary structure that forms when strain is placed on…
Energy state of a DNA molecule when there is no structural st…
molecules that are overrotated
molecules that are underrotated
Supercoiling
Coiled tertiary structure that forms when strain is placed on…
Relaxed state
Energy state of a DNA molecule when there is no structural st…
Genetics Chapter 11
Which have negative supercoiling?
Primary structure
tertiary structure
secondary structure
prokaryotes
nucleotide sequence
higher order packing
double stranded helix
Which have negative supercoiling?
prokaryotes
Primary structure
nucleotide sequence
20 terms
genetics chapter 11
supercoiling
positive supercoil
negative supercoil
bacterial chromosome
-packs DNA within a cell... -helps with unwinding for replicatio…
overrotate
underrotate
-single circular DNA molecule... -nucleoid region... -stabilized by…
supercoiling
-packs DNA within a cell... -helps with unwinding for replicatio…
positive supercoil
overrotate
12 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
What types of mutants were essential t…
Lesion-replicating polymerases are ____
Synthesizes the lagging strand of the…
Prevents the supercoiling ahead of the…
temperature-sensitive mutations
used to replicate damaged DNA
DNA polymerase III
Topoisomerase
What types of mutants were essential t…
temperature-sensitive mutations
Lesion-replicating polymerases are ____
used to replicate damaged DNA
24 terms
Chapter 11 Genetics
Basic Sugars
Promoter
Activator
Operator
Glucose, galactose, lactose, and xylose
DNA segment RNA pol binds, allowing transcription to begin do…
Protein that binds to the ABS; allows RNA pol to bind to the…
Binding site for repressor proteins.
Basic Sugars
Glucose, galactose, lactose, and xylose
Promoter
DNA segment RNA pol binds, allowing transcription to begin do…
52 terms
genetics chapter 11
gene regulation in prokaryotes
2 things bacteria do when regulating p…
what must be recognized for transcript…
regulatory proteins
bacteria must regulate genes to survive
recognize environmental conditions in which they should activ…
promoters
activators, repressors
gene regulation in prokaryotes
bacteria must regulate genes to survive
2 things bacteria do when regulating p…
recognize environmental conditions in which they should activ…
46 terms
Genetics Chapter 11
3 billion
3000
Semiconservative
Origin
How many base pairs are in the human genome?
An error rate of 1 in million would produce _____ errors in e…
2 strands of DNA double helix are complementary - each strand…
The point on the chromosome that is where DNA replication beg…
3 billion
How many base pairs are in the human genome?
3000
An error rate of 1 in million would produce _____ errors in e…
15 terms
Chapter 11: Genetics
Genetics
Fertilization
True-breeding
Trait
The scientific study of heredity.
Process in sexual reproduction in which make and female repro…
Organisms that can produce offspring identical to themselves.
A specific characteristics, such as seed color or plant hight…
Genetics
The scientific study of heredity.
Fertilization
Process in sexual reproduction in which make and female repro…
11 terms
Biology Chapter 11 - Introduction to Genetics
allele
genotype
phenotype
probability
the different forms of a gene
genetic makeup of an organism
physical characteristics of an organism
the likelihood that a particular event will occur
allele
the different forms of a gene
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
76 terms
Chapter 11 Genetics
what did Mendel use to study the inger…
hybrids
Mendel removed the male parts of the f…
genes
pea plants
offspring that result from crosses between parents with diffe…
controlled crosses between plants
the chemical facots that determine traits
what did Mendel use to study the inger…
pea plants
hybrids
offspring that result from crosses between parents with diffe…
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