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Study sets matching "chapter 3 organic chemistry alkanes"

85 terms
organic chemistry alkanes chapter 3
alkanes
n-alkanes
three primary uses for alkanes
iso
compounds of carbon and hydrogen in which carbons only form s…
straight chain alkanes
fuel, solvents, lubricants
prefix that represents a methyl group attached to the carbon…
alkanes
compounds of carbon and hydrogen in which carbons only form s…
n-alkanes
straight chain alkanes
85 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 3 (Alkanes)
"Meth-" indicates _____ number of carb…
"Eth-" indicates _____ number of carbons
"Prop-" indicates _____ number of carb…
"But-" indicates _____ number of carbons
1
2
3
4
"Meth-" indicates _____ number of carb…
1
"Eth-" indicates _____ number of carbons
2
44 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 3: Structure and Stereochemistry of Alkanes
acyclic
alkane
alkyl group
amyl
Not cyclic
A hydrocarbon having only single bonds; a saturated hyrdrocar…
The group of atoms remaining after a hyrdrogen atom is remove…
An older common name for penty
acyclic
Not cyclic
alkane
A hydrocarbon having only single bonds; a saturated hyrdrocar…
28 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 3: Structure and Stereochemistry of Alkanes
Alkanes
Hydrocarbons
IUPAC
IUPAC rules
General formula: C(n)H(2n+2)
Molecules made of only hydrogen and carbon.
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
1. Find the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms and use…
Alkanes
General formula: C(n)H(2n+2)
Hydrocarbons
Molecules made of only hydrogen and carbon.
63 terms
Organic Chemistry- Chapter 3 Structure and Stereo-chemistry of Alkanes
Acyclic
Alkane
Alkyl group
Amyl
Not cyclic
A hydrocarbon having only single bonds; a saturated hydrocarb…
The group of atoms (symbolized by R) remaining after a hydrog…
An older common name for pentyl
Acyclic
Not cyclic
Alkane
A hydrocarbon having only single bonds; a saturated hydrocarb…
12 terms
3 Organic chemistry: Alkanes
Homologous series
Hydrocarbon
Saturated hydrocarbon
Isomers
a homologous series is a group of organic compounds with the…
a hydrocarbon is a compound containing carbon and hydrogen only
a saturated hydrocarbon contains only C-C single bonds
Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but dif…
Homologous series
a homologous series is a group of organic compounds with the…
Hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon is a compound containing carbon and hydrogen only
19 terms
Organic Chemistry, Ch 3, Structure and Stereochemistry of Alkanes
acyclic
alkane
alkyl group
amyl
Not cyclic
- A hydrocarbon having only single bonds... - a saturated hydroc…
- The group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is remov…
An older common name for pentyl.
acyclic
Not cyclic
alkane
- A hydrocarbon having only single bonds... - a saturated hydroc…
13 terms
Organic Chemistry Alkanes
alkanes
1 C
2C
3C
group of compounds which only have H and C, hydrocarbons are…
CH4 methane
______... C2H6 ethane
^... C3H8 propane
alkanes
group of compounds which only have H and C, hydrocarbons are…
1 C
CH4 methane
51 terms
Orgo Chapter 3: Alkanes
What is the electron hybridization of…
Saturated hydrocarbon
Homologous series
Name the 2 isomers of butane
sp3
No double or triple bonds because it has the maximum number o…
Series of compounds that differ only by the number of CH2 gro…
n-butane (normal) and isobutane (isomer)
What is the electron hybridization of…
sp3
Saturated hydrocarbon
No double or triple bonds because it has the maximum number o…
21 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4: Alkanes
1 carbon alkane
2 carbon alkane
3 carbon alkane
4 carbon alkane
methane
ethane
propane
butane
1 carbon alkane
methane
2 carbon alkane
ethane
36 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2 Alkanes
n-Alkanes
Homologous Series
-CH2-
Newman Projection
unbranched alkanes
Series of compounds that differ only by the addiction of a Me…
Methylene group
diagram of carbon carbon bond from front to back
n-Alkanes
unbranched alkanes
Homologous Series
Series of compounds that differ only by the addiction of a Me…
29 terms
Organic Chapter 3 Alkanes & Cycloalkanes
Hydrocarbon
Alkane
Saturated Hydrocarbon
Aliphatic Hydrocarbon
A compound that contains only carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms
A saturated hydrocarbon whose carbon atoms are arranged in an…
A hydrocarbon containing only carbon-carbon single bonds
An alternative term to describe alkane
Hydrocarbon
A compound that contains only carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms
Alkane
A saturated hydrocarbon whose carbon atoms are arranged in an…
39 terms
Chapter 3: Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Butane
One carbon atom.
Two carbon atoms.
Three carbon atoms.
Four carbon atoms.
Methane
One carbon atom.
Ethane
Two carbon atoms.
17 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 11 - ALKANES
Properties of Organic Compounds
Other Organic Atoms
Hydrocarbon
Saturated Hydrocarbons
- NONpolar and week attraction between molecules... - LOW Meltin…
O, S, N, P or a halogen - F, Cl, Br, I
- Organic compounds that consist of Hydrogen and Carbon. ... - E…
Hydrocarbons that consist of only single bonds (ALKANES)
Properties of Organic Compounds
- NONpolar and week attraction between molecules... - LOW Meltin…
Other Organic Atoms
O, S, N, P or a halogen - F, Cl, Br, I
97 terms
organic chemistry Chapter 4 Alkanes
alkanes
what are the two different general typ…
acyclic alkanes
general acyclic alkane formula
aliphatic hydrocarbons having only carbon-carbon and carbon-h…
acyclic and cyclic
contain only linear and branched chains of carbon atoms, satu…
CnH2n+2
alkanes
aliphatic hydrocarbons having only carbon-carbon and carbon-h…
what are the two different general typ…
acyclic and cyclic
39 terms
Chapter 3: Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Butane
One carbon atom.
Two carbon atoms.
Three carbon atoms.
Four carbon atoms.
Methane
One carbon atom.
Ethane
Two carbon atoms.
36 terms
Chapter 3: Organic Compounds: Alkanes and their Stereochemistry
saturated
CnH2n+2
isomers
constitutional isomers
have only C-C and C-H single bonds; contain maximum number of…
what is the general formula of alkanes
compounds that have the same numbers and kinds of atoms but d…
atoms are connected differently
saturated
have only C-C and C-H single bonds; contain maximum number of…
CnH2n+2
what is the general formula of alkanes
22 terms
Chapter 3 - Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry
Aliphatic
Alkanes
Alkyl groups
Anti conformation
The nonaromatic hydrocarbon such as a simple alkane, alkene,…
A class of compounds of carbon and hydrogen that contains onl…
The partial structure that remains when a hydrogen atom is re…
The geometric arrangement around a carbon-carbon single bond…
Aliphatic
The nonaromatic hydrocarbon such as a simple alkane, alkene,…
Alkanes
A class of compounds of carbon and hydrogen that contains onl…
18 terms
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 3
Heterolytically
Homolytically
Mechanism
Bronsted Acid
Two electrons going to one atom and none to the other.
One electron going to each atom.
Step by step analysis of a chemical reaction which shows the…
Donates a proton
Heterolytically
Two electrons going to one atom and none to the other.
Homolytically
One electron going to each atom.
20 terms
Organic Chemistry Alkanes
Inorganic chemistry
Organic chemistry
organic compound
Typical organic compounds
rocks and minerals, water and air (non-living matter)
- compounds found in living things or derived from living thi…
Always contain one or more carbon atoms... Usually contains seve…
have covalent bonds... have low melting points... have low boiling…
Inorganic chemistry
rocks and minerals, water and air (non-living matter)
Organic chemistry
- compounds found in living things or derived from living thi…
20 terms
Organic Chemistry 1 - Alkanes
Alkanes - general formula
Saturated
Fractional distillation
Cracking
C(n) H(2n+2)
Alkanes and cycloalkanes (2 less hydrogens)
A process used to separate a liquid mixture into fractions by…
The breakdown of molecules into shorter ones by heating with…
Alkanes - general formula
C(n) H(2n+2)
Saturated
Alkanes and cycloalkanes (2 less hydrogens)
13 terms
Organic Chemistry: Alkanes
Alkane
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Unsaturated hydrocarbon with only single carbon-carbon bonds
CH₄
C₂H₆
C₃H₈
Alkane
Unsaturated hydrocarbon with only single carbon-carbon bonds
Methane
CH₄
5 terms
Section 3 - Organic Chemistry - Alkanes
State what is meant by the term 'hydro…
State the general formula of alkanes
Give the term for a group of compounds…
Complete the word equation for this re…
A molecule made up of carbon & hydrogen atoms ONLY
CnH₂n+2
homologous series
UV... methane + bromine → bromomethane + hydrogen ... bromide
State what is meant by the term 'hydro…
A molecule made up of carbon & hydrogen atoms ONLY
State the general formula of alkanes
CnH₂n+2
37 terms
Chapter 3: Organic Compounds, Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, and Sterochem
Primary alcohol
Secondary alcohol
Tertiary alcohol
Primary amine
2 Hs
1 H
No Hs
2 Hs
Primary alcohol
2 Hs
Secondary alcohol
1 H
15 terms
Alkanes - Chapter 3
Alkane
Methane
Ethane
Propane
- Carbon and Hydrogen single bonds... - Simplest Organic Molecul…
CH4
C2H6
C3H8
Alkane
- Carbon and Hydrogen single bonds... - Simplest Organic Molecul…
Methane
CH4
33 terms
Organic Chemistry: Alkanes
combustion reaction
primary carbon
secondary carbon
tertiary carbon
attached to one other carbon
attached to two other carbons
attached to three other carbons
combustion reaction
primary carbon
attached to one other carbon
29 terms
Organic Chemistry Alkanes and Cycloalcanes
methane
ethane
propane
butane
meth- 1 Carbon Atom
eth- 2 Carbon Atoms
prop- 3 Carbon Atoms
but- 4 Carbon Atoms
methane
meth- 1 Carbon Atom
ethane
eth- 2 Carbon Atoms
36 terms
Organic Chemistry: Alkanes
Alkanes
sp^3
(1) No lone electron pairs and (2) Com…
Alcohol (ROH), Alkyl halide (RCl), Ami…
__________ are hydrocarbons with only single bonds.
All alkanes are ______ hybridization because there are no dou…
Why does carbon tend to form chains?
Name the 8 functional groups. (Recognize their Generalized ab…
Alkanes
__________ are hydrocarbons with only single bonds.
sp^3
All alkanes are ______ hybridization because there are no dou…
24 terms
Chapter 3 Organic Chemistry
isopropyl
sec-butyl
tert-butyl
alkene/olefin
isopropyl
sec-butyl
34 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2: The Alkanes
Saturated
Unsaturated
Alkane
Alkene
a saturated molecule has all single bonds; each atom has the…
an unsaturated molecule has at least one double bond or tripl…
compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen and single bonds
compound composed of carbon and hydrogen and at least one dou…
Saturated
a saturated molecule has all single bonds; each atom has the…
Unsaturated
an unsaturated molecule has at least one double bond or tripl…
56 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4: Alkanes
Alkanes
Acyclic Alkanes
Cycloalkanes
All C atoms in an alkane are surrounde…
Aliphatic hydrocarbons having only C-C and C-H sigma bonds
-Have molecular formula C(n)H(2n+2)... -Contain only linear and…
-Contain carbon joined in one or more rings... -General formula=…
4; sp3; 109.5
Alkanes
Aliphatic hydrocarbons having only C-C and C-H sigma bonds
Acyclic Alkanes
-Have molecular formula C(n)H(2n+2)... -Contain only linear and…
26 terms
Chapter 12: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes
organic chemistry
functional group
hydrocarbon
alkane
the study of carbon compounds
an atom or group of atoms within a molecule that has a charac…
an organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen
a hydrocarbon that has only single bonds
organic chemistry
the study of carbon compounds
functional group
an atom or group of atoms within a molecule that has a charac…
101 terms
Organic Chemistry and Alkanes
empirical formula
molecular formula
general formula
structural formula
simplest whole number ratio of each element in a compound
the actual number of atoms of each element in a compound
the composition of the homologous series (n)
the arrangement of atoms (but not showing every bond)
empirical formula
simplest whole number ratio of each element in a compound
molecular formula
the actual number of atoms of each element in a compound
39 terms
Organic Chemistry (alkanes and alkenes)
Homologous series
Hydrocarbon
Alkanes
Alkenes
Compounds in the same homologous series have:... -Same general f…
Compound of hydrogen and carbon only
Saturated hydrocarbons; all carbons and hydrogens are joined…
Unsaturated hydrocarbons; compound contains at least one carb…
Homologous series
Compounds in the same homologous series have:... -Same general f…
Hydrocarbon
Compound of hydrogen and carbon only
15 terms
Chapter 11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes
Organic Compounds
Properties of Organic Compounds
Organic V.S. Inorganic Compounds
Organic Compounds
* Is a compound made from Carbon Atoms... * Has one or more C at…
Typical organic compounds:... * Contain carbon... * have covalent b…
Propane (C3H8), is an organic compound used as a fuel... Salt (N…
Using C3H8 as a example...... Element: C and H... Bonding: Covalent…
Organic Compounds
* Is a compound made from Carbon Atoms... * Has one or more C at…
Properties of Organic Compounds
Typical organic compounds:... * Contain carbon... * have covalent b…
85 terms
Chapter 11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes
Alkanes can also be referred to as ___…
____________ or ____________ are consi…
Explain a reason as to why Alkanes can…
____________ chemistry is the chemistr…
Hydrocarbons
*Alkanes* or *Hydrocarbons* are considered to be the back bon…
Because Alkanes can undergo combustion reactions.
ORGANIC Chemistry
Alkanes can also be referred to as ___…
Hydrocarbons
____________ or ____________ are consi…
*Alkanes* or *Hydrocarbons* are considered to be the back bon…
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2: Alkanes
What are Alkanes?
What are Hydrocarbons?
Alkanes all have what molecular formul…
What is the simplest alkane?
Alkanes are the simplest members of the family of organic mol…
Hydrocarbons are compounds composed entirely of carbon and hy…
Every alkane will have the molecular formula CnH2n+2.
Methane is the simplest alkane, its formula is CH4.
What are Alkanes?
Alkanes are the simplest members of the family of organic mol…
What are Hydrocarbons?
Hydrocarbons are compounds composed entirely of carbon and hy…
13 terms
10 Organic chemistry: Alkanes
General formula
Reactivity
As fuel
Combustion in the presence of excess o…
CnH2n+2
Low chemical reactivity.... Strong, non-polar bonds
Good fuel, releases significant amounts of energy, highly exo…
→ carbon dioxide + water... C3H8 (g) + 5O2 (g) → 3CO2 (g) + 4H2O…
General formula
CnH2n+2
Reactivity
Low chemical reactivity.... Strong, non-polar bonds
28 terms
Chapter 3 - Organic Chemistry
Amino acid structure
Nucleotide structure
Monosaccharide structure
Phospholipid (fatty acid) structure
Amino acid structure
Nucleotide structure
41 terms
Organic Chemistry- Alkanes
organic chemistry
organic compounds
carbons 4 bonding patterns
alkanes
study of carbon compounds
-have covalent bonds... -contain C and usually H... -has 4 bonds... -t…
alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics
carbons participate in single bonds (unreactive)
organic chemistry
study of carbon compounds
organic compounds
-have covalent bonds... -contain C and usually H... -has 4 bonds... -t…
28 terms
Organic Chemistry Part 1: Conformations of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
How are conformational isomers produced?
How do we represent conformational iso…
Line-wedge representation what is it?
What are Newman projections?
They are produced by the rotation around a C-C bond.
We use Newman projections.
Bonds pointing away from the viewer are hashed; points pointi…
In a Newman projection, molecules are viewed as if one was lo…
How are conformational isomers produced?
They are produced by the rotation around a C-C bond.
How do we represent conformational iso…
We use Newman projections.
15 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 3
Quantum Numbers
Principal Quantum Number (n)
Azimuthal Quantum Number (l)
Magnetic Quantum Number (m(l))
Describe size, shape, orientation and # of atomic orbitals an…
Energy level (shell) in which an e- resides; indicates the di…
Determines the subshell in which an e- resides. Values range…
Determines orbital in which an e- resides. Values range from…
Quantum Numbers
Describe size, shape, orientation and # of atomic orbitals an…
Principal Quantum Number (n)
Energy level (shell) in which an e- resides; indicates the di…
97 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 3
Atoms other than carbon or hydrogen.
The most common π bonds occur in C = C…
An atom or a group of atoms with chara…
The functional group
Define Heteroatoms
What are the most common π Bonds?
Define functional group (2 descriptions)
What is the reactive part of the molecule?
Atoms other than carbon or hydrogen.
Define Heteroatoms
The most common π bonds occur in C = C…
What are the most common π Bonds?
10 terms
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 3
Alkene
Alkyne
Alkadiene
Cumulated
A hydrocarbon that contains a double bond
A hydrocarbon that contains a triple bond
A hydrocarbon that contains two double bonds
Double bonds adjacent (back to back)
Alkene
A hydrocarbon that contains a double bond
Alkyne
A hydrocarbon that contains a triple bond
28 terms
NBE CHEMISTRY Chapter 10 Intro to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes
Alcohols
Aldehydes
alkanes
alkenes
A class of organic compounds containing a hydroxyl (OH) funct…
Carbon atom of the carbonyl group is bonded to another carbon…
a hydrocarbon containing only single covalent bonds
Hydrocarbons with one or more carbon-carbon double bonds
Alcohols
A class of organic compounds containing a hydroxyl (OH) funct…
Aldehydes
Carbon atom of the carbonyl group is bonded to another carbon…
9 terms
Organic Chemistry: Common Names of Alkanes
n-
iso-
neo-
isopropyl
Prefix that denotes an unbranched alkane carbon chain
Prefix that denotes an almost unbranched alkane carbon chain…
Prefix that denotes an almost unbranched alkane chain termina…
Otherwise known as 1-methylethyl
n-
Prefix that denotes an unbranched alkane carbon chain
iso-
Prefix that denotes an almost unbranched alkane carbon chain…
26 terms
Chapter 12: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes
Alkane
Alkyl group
Branched-chain alkane
Combustion
a hydrocarbon that has only single bonds.
the part of an alkane that remains when a hydrogen atom is re…
an alkane that has a branching connection of carbons
a chemical reaction that produces a flame, usually because of…
Alkane
a hydrocarbon that has only single bonds.
Alkyl group
the part of an alkane that remains when a hydrogen atom is re…
organic chemistry alkanes
methane
ethane
propane
butane
CH4
CH3CH3
CH3CH2CH3
CH3CH2CH2CH3
methane
CH4
ethane
CH3CH3
10 terms
Organic Chemistry 1- Chapter 4 Alkanes
What happens to the boiling point of a…
What can be said about the boiling poi…
What get be said about the heats of co…
What can be said about the heats of co…
the boiling point increases. This is because the molecule wil…
The boiling points of cyclic alkanes are higher than the boil…
The heat of combustion increases as the number of carbons inc…
The heats of combustion decrease meaning the branched alkanes…
What happens to the boiling point of a…
the boiling point increases. This is because the molecule wil…
What can be said about the boiling poi…
The boiling points of cyclic alkanes are higher than the boil…
Organic Chemistry: Alkanes
methane
ethane
propane
butane
methane
ethane
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