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Study sets matching "chapter 4 organic chemistry"

14 terms
Chapter 4 Organic Chemistry
Isopropyl... 1-methylethyl
Sec-butyl... 1-methylpropyl
Isobutyl... 2-methylpropyl
Tert-butyl... 1,1-dimethylethyl
Isopropyl... 1-methylethyl
Sec-butyl... 1-methylpropyl
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Acid
Base
True
Conjugate base
a proton donor
a proton acceptor
All Lewis structures must be valid when writing out chemical…
the species formed from an acid when it donates a proton to a…
Acid
a proton donor
Base
a proton acceptor
31 terms
Chapter 4 - Organic Chemistry
Organic compounds
Inorganic compounds
Polar molecule
Cohesion
contain carbon and hydrogen; examples include lipids, protein…
Compounds that do not contain carbon or hydrogen
Molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in…
Attraction between molecules of the same substance
Organic compounds
contain carbon and hydrogen; examples include lipids, protein…
Inorganic compounds
Compounds that do not contain carbon or hydrogen
43 terms
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 4
Acid/Base reactions will only proceed if
Lewis Acid
Lewis Bas
Bronsted Lowry Acid
The concentration of the Acid and base are stronger than the…
- Electron acceptor... - El... - Vacant p orbital to accept electrons
- Electron donor... - Nu... - Lone pairs
Accept proton (H+)
Acid/Base reactions will only proceed if
The concentration of the Acid and base are stronger than the…
Lewis Acid
- Electron acceptor... - El... - Vacant p orbital to accept electrons
27 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Lewis Acids
Lewis Bases
Bronsted-Lowry Acids
Bronsted-Lowry Base
e- acceptors; have vacant orbitals or positively polarized at…
e- donors; have a lone pair of e-s and are often anions
H+ donors
H+ acceptors
Lewis Acids
e- acceptors; have vacant orbitals or positively polarized at…
Lewis Bases
e- donors; have a lone pair of e-s and are often anions
130 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Because alkanes have no functional... group
...C - C and C - H Sigma bonds.
CnH2n + 2 ... (where n = an integer) and…
one or more rings
Why are alkanes less reactive than other organic compounds?
alkanes are aliphatic hydrocarbons having only what kinds of…
Acyclic alkanes have the molecular formula _______________.
Cycloalkanes contain carbons joined in ________________.
Because alkanes have no functional... group
Why are alkanes less reactive than other organic compounds?
...C - C and C - H Sigma bonds.
alkanes are aliphatic hydrocarbons having only what kinds of…
62 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
There are 4 types of organic reactions:
Addition Reactions: Occur when...
Elimination Reactions:
Substitution Reactions:
1. Addition 2. Elimination 3. Substitution 4. Rearrangment
2 reactants add together to form a single product.
Single reaction splits into 2 or more products.
2 Reactants form 2 new products.
There are 4 types of organic reactions:
1. Addition 2. Elimination 3. Substitution 4. Rearrangment
Addition Reactions: Occur when...
2 reactants add together to form a single product.
66 terms
Chapter 4 Organic Chemistry
simple substitution of halogen for a h…
step-by-step pathway from reactants to…
the energies of a reaction at equilibr…
3 important characteristics of chlorin…
halogenation
mechanism
thermodynamics
does not occur at room temperature in absence of light... most e…
simple substitution of halogen for a h…
halogenation
step-by-step pathway from reactants to…
mechanism
19 terms
Chapter 4 Organic Chemistry
What is special about benzene?
What kind of reactions occur with benz…
Why is benzene so stable?
What is the residents in the benzene m…
sp² hybridization... trigonal planar... molecule is flat
substitution reactions
It requires more energy to break all 3 pie bonds and produces…
normally double bonds are shorter then single bonds but in th…
What is special about benzene?
sp² hybridization... trigonal planar... molecule is flat
What kind of reactions occur with benz…
substitution reactions
48 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Saturated hydrocarbons
Nomenclature
IUPAC
Systematic names
also known as alkanes; lack pi bonds
the system of naming chemical compounds
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry; a group th…
names produced by IUPAC
Saturated hydrocarbons
also known as alkanes; lack pi bonds
Nomenclature
the system of naming chemical compounds
14 terms
Chapter 4 Organic Chemistry
Hydration
Markovnikov's Rule
Acid catalysts
hydrogens and lone pairs
the addition of H-OH to an alkene to produce an alcohol
In the addition of HX to an alkene, the more highly substitut…
used in high temperature industrial processes: ethelyne is co…
these must be included in all your structures!!!
Hydration
the addition of H-OH to an alkene to produce an alcohol
Markovnikov's Rule
In the addition of HX to an alkene, the more highly substitut…
56 terms
Organic Chemistry - Chapter 4
Acyclic Alkanes
Cycloalkane
Lewis Structures
Primary Carbon
contain only linear and branched chains of carbon atoms. Also…
contain carbons joined in one or more rings. They have two fe…
The bends in a carbon chain don't matter when it comes to ide…
bonded to one other carbon
Acyclic Alkanes
contain only linear and branched chains of carbon atoms. Also…
Cycloalkane
contain carbons joined in one or more rings. They have two fe…
8 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Cycloalkanes
Alkyl-cycloalkane
Cycloalkyl-alkane
Naming Cycloalkanes
(CH2)n
When substituent has less carbons than the cycloalkane
When substituent has more carbons than the cycloalkane
Pick lowest numbering... Put in alphabetical order
Cycloalkanes
(CH2)n
Alkyl-cycloalkane
When substituent has less carbons than the cycloalkane
22 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Free-energy expression
Change in enthalpy (ΔH°)
Exothermic (ΔH° < 0)
Endothermic (ΔH° > 0)
ΔG° = ΔH° - TΔS°
The amount of heat released or consumed in a reaction.
Release of heat upon bond formation.
Consumption of heat upon bond breakage.
Free-energy expression
ΔG° = ΔH° - TΔS°
Change in enthalpy (ΔH°)
The amount of heat released or consumed in a reaction.
24 terms
MCAT Organic Chemistry: Chapter 4
Lewis Acid
Lewis Base
Coordinate Covalent Bonds
Bronsted-Lowry
Electron acceptor, electrophiles that fill their vacant p-orb…
Electron donor, nucleophiles that have a lone pair of electro…
Both electrons in the bond came from the same starting atom.
The acid is a species that can donate a proton and a base is…
Lewis Acid
Electron acceptor, electrophiles that fill their vacant p-orb…
Lewis Base
Electron donor, nucleophiles that have a lone pair of electro…
12 terms
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 4
Eclipsed conformation
Staggered conformation
Steric interaction
Ring strain
Least stable conformation because the bonding electrons in th…
Most stable because the bonding electrons are as far apart as…
Unfavourable interaction of bulky groups interacting with eac…
Type of instability that exists when bonds in a molecule form…
Eclipsed conformation
Least stable conformation because the bonding electrons in th…
Staggered conformation
Most stable because the bonding electrons are as far apart as…
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 4 and 5
branch (substituent)
cyclo (cycloalkanes)
sp3
tetrahedral
if the ring is not the longest/has the most number of carbons…
what is the prefix you add for alkanes in a ring?
confirmations of cyclohexane are all ___ hybridized
what shape are sp3 orbitals?
branch (substituent)
if the ring is not the longest/has the most number of carbons…
cyclo (cycloalkanes)
what is the prefix you add for alkanes in a ring?
57 terms
organic chemistry chapter 4
mechanism
thermodynamics
kinetics
chlorination of methane
the complete,step-by-step description of exactly which bonds…
the study of energy changes that accompany chemical and physi…
the study of reaction rates, determining which products are f…
1. does not occur at room temperature in the absence of light…
mechanism
the complete,step-by-step description of exactly which bonds…
thermodynamics
the study of energy changes that accompany chemical and physi…
33 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
alkenes
ethylene
hybrid orbital of ethylene
sigma bond
contain one or more C=C double bonds; classified as unsaturat…
geometry is typical of other alkenes; trigonal planar
trigonal planar geometry; sp2 hybridization
head-to-head overlap of orbitals; cylindrically symmetric; ma…
alkenes
contain one or more C=C double bonds; classified as unsaturat…
ethylene
geometry is typical of other alkenes; trigonal planar
49 terms
MCAT Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Lewis acid
Lewis base
Acid dissociation constant
Bronsted-Lowry acid
- Electron acceptor in the formation of a covalent bond.... - Co…
- Electron donor in the formation of a covalent bond. ... - Tend…
Ka, measures the strength of an acid in solution. Higher Ka =…
Donates protons (H+)
Lewis acid
- Electron acceptor in the formation of a covalent bond.... - Co…
Lewis base
- Electron donor in the formation of a covalent bond. ... - Tend…
11 terms
organic chemistry chapter 4
Isomers
structural isomers
geometric isomers
enantiomers
same formula, not the same thing
different arrangement
cis + trans, one active, one inactive
mirror images - one function, one doesnt
Isomers
same formula, not the same thing
structural isomers
different arrangement
16 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Electrophile
Nucleophile
Alcohol to Alkyl Halide
TERTIARY Alcohol to Methyl & 1
electron deficient... when a carbon is bonded to an EN heteroato…
electron-rich site that can share its electrons with an elect…
ADD strong acid ex: HBr or HCl... PRODUCE Alkyl Halide and H2O... S…
ADD HCl OR HBr and heat... PRODUCE primary Alkyl Halide
Electrophile
electron deficient... when a carbon is bonded to an EN heteroato…
Nucleophile
electron-rich site that can share its electrons with an elect…
38 terms
Organic Chemistry - Chapter 4
stereochemistry
isomers
constitutional isomers
stereoisomers
The study of the three-dimensional structure of molecules
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different…
Any compound with the same molecular formula but whose atoms…
Any compounds with the same molecular formula and connectivit…
stereochemistry
The study of the three-dimensional structure of molecules
isomers
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different…
16 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
An acid-base reaction will only procee…
lewis acids
lewis bases
bronsted lowry acids
weaker
are electron acceptors
are electon donors
are proton donors
An acid-base reaction will only procee…
weaker
lewis acids
are electron acceptors
65 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Where are Alkanes obtained from?
What is an alkane?
Name CH4
Name C2H6
they are obtained from petroleum
they are hydrocarbons that contain only C-C and C-H single bo…
methane
Ethane
Where are Alkanes obtained from?
they are obtained from petroleum
What is an alkane?
they are hydrocarbons that contain only C-C and C-H single bo…
16 terms
chapter 4 Organic Chemistry
organic Molecules are ________
what 4 major groups are in Organic Mol…
_______ has 4 valence electrons
Covalent
Carbon Based molecules
Straight chains,... Branched chains, ... Rings
Carbon
Organic molecules at good at forming
organic Molecules are ________
Carbon Based molecules
what 4 major groups are in Organic Mol…
Straight chains,... Branched chains, ... Rings
25 terms
organic chemistry chapter 4
compounds that lack a functional group…
hydrocarbons are composed of ?
hydrocarbons that lack a pi bond are c…
parent names for alkanes?
Alkanes and cycloalkanes
C and H
saturated hydrocarbons or alkanes
compounds that lack a functional group…
Alkanes and cycloalkanes
hydrocarbons are composed of ?
C and H
10 terms
Chapter 4 Organic Chemistry
How do you number the substituents in…
What are stereoisomers?
What does stereochemistry mean?
What is angle strain?
Second substituent has as low a number as possible
Compounds which have their atoms connected in the same order…
3-D aspects of chemical structure and reactivity
Strain in a molecule when bond angles are forced to deviate f…
How do you number the substituents in…
Second substituent has as low a number as possible
What are stereoisomers?
Compounds which have their atoms connected in the same order…
19 terms
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 4
when two molecules have the same molec…
differ in the rotation around single b…
illustrate rotational conformations ar…
the angle between the C-X and C-Y bond…
what are isomers?
what are conformational isomers?
what are newman projections?
what is dihedral angle?
when two molecules have the same molec…
what are isomers?
differ in the rotation around single b…
what are conformational isomers?
17 terms
Organic Chemistry chapter 4
hydrocarbons can be split into 4 groups
What are cycloalkanes
general formula for cycloalkane
When each carbon atom within the chain…
alkanes... alkenes... alkynes... and cycloalkanes
alkanes in which some or all of the hydrocarbons are arranged…
CnH2n+2
unbranched
hydrocarbons can be split into 4 groups
alkanes... alkenes... alkynes... and cycloalkanes
What are cycloalkanes
alkanes in which some or all of the hydrocarbons are arranged…
40 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Mechanism
Free Radical Chain reaction
Initiation
Free Radical
step-by-step of how reaction happens
process that continues in a loop of producing a radical that…
generates a radical intermediate, splits homolytically
species with odd number of electrons
Mechanism
step-by-step of how reaction happens
Free Radical Chain reaction
process that continues in a loop of producing a radical that…
8 terms
McMurry Organic Chemistry - Chapter 4 Terms
Alicylic
Angle Strain
Axial Position
Equatorial Position
Saturated cyclic hydrocarbons
The strain induced in a molecule when bond angles are forced…
Perpendicular to the ring
In the rough plane of the ring around the equator
Alicylic
Saturated cyclic hydrocarbons
Angle Strain
The strain induced in a molecule when bond angles are forced…
20 terms
Organic Chemistry: Chapter 4 Terms
Straight chain isomers
isopropyl
sec-butyl
iso-butyl
1 - methane... 2 - ethane... 3 - propane... 4 - butane... 5 - pentane... 6 -…
Straight chain isomers
1 - methane... 2 - ethane... 3 - propane... 4 - butane... 5 - pentane... 6 -…
isopropyl
42 terms
Chapter 4: Organic Chemistry
What are enantiomers?
What is an aldehyde?
What is a keytone?
What is an aldohexose?
Molecules containing same number and kind of atom groupings t…
A molecule with the carbonyl group at the end of the chain.
A molecule with the carbonyl group in the middle of the chain.
A 6-Carbon chain with a carbonyl group on the end.
What are enantiomers?
Molecules containing same number and kind of atom groupings t…
What is an aldehyde?
A molecule with the carbonyl group at the end of the chain.
Organic Chemistry- Chapter 4: Analyzing Organic Reactions
Lewis Acids
Lewis Bases
Bronsted-Lowry Acids
Bronsted-Lowry Bases
Electron Acceptors; they have vacant orbitals or positively p…
Electron Donors; they have a lone pair of electrons and are o…
Proton Donors
Proton Acceptors
Lewis Acids
Electron Acceptors; they have vacant orbitals or positively p…
Lewis Bases
Electron Donors; they have a lone pair of electrons and are o…
39 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4 Vocabulary
activation energy (Ea)
bond-dissociation enthalpy (BDE)
carbanion
carbene
the energy difference between the reactants and the transitio…
the amount of enthalpy required to break a particular bond ho…
a strongly nucleophilic species with a negatively charged car…
a highly reactive species with only two bonds to an uncharged…
activation energy (Ea)
the energy difference between the reactants and the transitio…
bond-dissociation enthalpy (BDE)
the amount of enthalpy required to break a particular bond ho…
19 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
The initiation step
The Propagation steps
The Termination steps
-H value
Generates a reactive intermediate. Creates two radicals
Reactive intermediate reacts with stable molecule to form a p…
Side reactions that destroy reactive intermediates and tend t…
Exothermic reaction
The initiation step
Generates a reactive intermediate. Creates two radicals
The Propagation steps
Reactive intermediate reacts with stable molecule to form a p…
13 terms
Organic chemistry chapter 4
Oxidation is _________
Reduction is _________
Oxidation results in an increase in __…
Oxidation results in an decrease in __…
the loss of electrons
the gain of electrons
the # of C-Z bonds
the # of C-H bonds
Oxidation is _________
the loss of electrons
Reduction is _________
the gain of electrons
56 terms
Organic Chemistry Review Chapter 4
Constitutional Isomers
Confimrational Isomers
Sterisomers
Newman Projections
Chemical relationship ... - 2 molecules with the same molecular…
- same mf ... - same connectivity ... differ in oration about singl…
same conectvitiy... different by rotation = Confirmstional isome…
Front carbon atoms connect to point... back carbon atoms connect…
Constitutional Isomers
Chemical relationship ... - 2 molecules with the same molecular…
Confimrational Isomers
- same mf ... - same connectivity ... differ in oration about singl…
21 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4: Alkanes
1 carbon alkane
2 carbon alkane
3 carbon alkane
4 carbon alkane
methane
ethane
propane
butane
1 carbon alkane
methane
2 carbon alkane
ethane
10 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4: Structure and Stability
Saturated Molecule
Degree of Unsaturation
Carbocations/ Carbonium Ions
Stability of carbocations/carbanions
No π-bonds, no rings
1 degree of unsaturation = 1 π-bond or 1 ring
C⁺... sp² hypridized, empty p orbital
MOST STABLE/LEAST REACTIVE... 3⁰ C⁺, methyl C⁻... 2⁰ C⁺, 1⁰ C⁻... 1⁰ C…
Saturated Molecule
No π-bonds, no rings
Degree of Unsaturation
1 degree of unsaturation = 1 π-bond or 1 ring
11 terms
Organic Chemistry for Dummies Chapter 4--Acids and Bases
What is an Arrhenius Acid/Base?
What is an Bronsted-Lowry Acid/Base?
What is an Lewis Acid/Base?
what is a electrophile?
Make H⁺/OH⁻-- strong disassociate completely
Proton donor/acceptor (acid that donates H⁺ becomes conjugate…
Electron pair acceptor / Electron pair donor
lewis acid that is an electron lover. They are molecules that…
What is an Arrhenius Acid/Base?
Make H⁺/OH⁻-- strong disassociate completely
What is an Bronsted-Lowry Acid/Base?
Proton donor/acceptor (acid that donates H⁺ becomes conjugate…
20 terms
Chapter 4: Organic Chemistry
organic chemistry
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
variations of organic molecules
diversity
study of organic compounds containing carbon
4 major elements of life
distinguish different species and individuals
lowkey caused by chemical versatility of carbon
organic chemistry
study of organic compounds containing carbon
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
4 major elements of life
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Overall Reaction
Thermodynamics
Kinetics
Mechanism
reactants -> products
study of the energy changes that accompany chemical and physi…
study of reaction rates
step by step description of how a reaction happens
Overall Reaction
reactants -> products
Thermodynamics
study of the energy changes that accompany chemical and physi…
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Bronsted Lowry Acid
Bronsted Lowry Base
Lewis Acid
Lewis Base
Substance that can donate a proton (H+)
Substance that can accept a proton
Substance that can accept a pair of electrons. The one with t…
Substance that can donate a pair of electrons. It is also the…
Bronsted Lowry Acid
Substance that can donate a proton (H+)
Bronsted Lowry Base
Substance that can accept a proton
10 terms
organic chemistry chapter 4
solution
solvent
solutes
aqueous
homogenous mixtures
greatest abundance
all other substances
solvent is water
solution
homogenous mixtures
solvent
greatest abundance
45 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Saturated Compound/Unsaturated
Degree of Unsaturation
Carbocations
Carbanions
- saturated: 2n + 2 hydrogen atoms... - unsaturated: (2n + 2) -…
d = (2n+2) - x / 2
- positively charged species with a full positive charge on c…
- negatively charged species with a full negative charge on c…
Saturated Compound/Unsaturated
- saturated: 2n + 2 hydrogen atoms... - unsaturated: (2n + 2) -…
Degree of Unsaturation
d = (2n+2) - x / 2
31 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 4
Alkane Hybridization
Acyclic Alkanes Molecular Formula
Cycloalkanes Molecular Formula
Alkane Polarity/Functional Groups
Tetrahedral, sp3 hybridized C atoms
CnH2n+2
CnH2n
Only nonpolar C-C and C-H bonds and no functional group, so t…
Alkane Hybridization
Tetrahedral, sp3 hybridized C atoms
Acyclic Alkanes Molecular Formula
CnH2n+2
27 terms
Chapter 4: Organic Chemistry
Organic Compounds
hydrocarbon
saturated hydrocarbon
unsaturated hydrocarbon
compounds that contain carbon
hydrogen and carbon
single bonds between carbon atoms
double or triple bonds between carbon atoms
Organic Compounds
compounds that contain carbon
hydrocarbon
hydrogen and carbon
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