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Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Sample Space (S)

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a chance model that…

The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Performing a Simulation

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a model that accurat…

There are four steps:... 1. State: Ask a question of interest.…

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

Population

Sample

Census

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want informati…

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

All members of the population are surveyed

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want informati…

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

sample

observational study

experiment

confounded

representative of an entire population; a picture of the popu…

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, but…

deliberately imposing some treatment on individuals in order…

mixed up with; condition of explanatory and lurking variables

sample

representative of an entire population; a picture of the popu…

observational study

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, but…

Population

Sample

Census

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want informati…

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

All members of the population are surveyed

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want informati…

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

sample

observational study

experiment

confounded

representative of an entire population; a picture of the popu…

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, but…

deliberately imposing some treatment on individuals in order…

mixed up with; condition of explanatory and lurking variables

sample

representative of an entire population; a picture of the popu…

observational study

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, but…

Sampling

Sample

Voluntary Response Sample

Population

Asking a few individuals to find out information about many

A part of the population that we actually examine in order to…

People who choose themselves by responding to a general appea…

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

Sampling

Asking a few individuals to find out information about many

Sample

A part of the population that we actually examine in order to…

Population

Census

Sample

Sample Design

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

A complete count of the population ... Why we wont use Census al…

A part of the population that we actually examine in order to…

Refers to the METHOD used to choose the sample from the popul…

Population

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

Census

A complete count of the population ... Why we wont use Census al…

complementary events

P(at least 1)

mutually exclusive events (disjoint ev…

A ∩ B

two disjoint events that together make up the entire sample s…

1- P(none)

events that can't happen at the same time

A intersect B; the outcomes that are in A and that are also i…

complementary events

two disjoint events that together make up the entire sample s…

P(at least 1)

1- P(none)

probability

sample space (S)

probability model

event

of any outcome of a chance process is a number between 0 and…

The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.

A description of some chance behavior that consists of two pa…

Designated by a capital letter, any collection of outcomes fr…

probability

of any outcome of a chance process is a number between 0 and…

sample space (S)

The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.

Population

Sample

Census

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want informati…

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

All members of the population are surveyed

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want informati…

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

Population

Sample

Census

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want informati…

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

All members of the population are surveyed

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want informati…

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

probability model

simulation

law of large numbers

probability

this describes chance behavior by listing the possible outcom…

An imitation of chance behavior

the proportion of times that a particular outcome occurs in m…

the long-run relative frequency of a chance outcome

probability model

this describes chance behavior by listing the possible outcom…

simulation

An imitation of chance behavior

sample

observational study

experiment

confounded

representative of an entire population; a picture of the popu…

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, but…

deliberately imposing some treatment on individuals in order…

mixed up with; condition of explanatory and lurking variables

sample

representative of an entire population; a picture of the popu…

observational study

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, but…

pearson's sample correlation coefficient

principle of least squeares

residuals

residual plot

a measure of the extent to which sample x and y values are li…

method used to select a line that summarizes an approximate l…

Actual-predicted

scatterplot of the (x, residual) pairs... -isolated points or a…

pearson's sample correlation coefficient

a measure of the extent to which sample x and y values are li…

principle of least squeares

method used to select a line that summarizes an approximate l…

Population

Sample

Census

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want informati…

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

All members of the population are surveyed

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want informati…

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

bias

blocking

categorical data

census

any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its…

a group of experimental units that are known before the exper…

data set that has categorical responses

a sample that consist of the entire population

bias

any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its…

blocking

a group of experimental units that are known before the exper…

Pearson Correlation Coefficient

Negative Relationship

Correlation coefficient

Positive relationship

The most popular measure of correlation Indicates the magnitu…

A relationship in which the values of one variable increase a…

A numerical assessment of the strength of relationship betwee…

A relationship in which increases in the values of the first…

Pearson Correlation Coefficient

The most popular measure of correlation Indicates the magnitu…

Negative Relationship

A relationship in which the values of one variable increase a…

statistics

data

exploratory data analysis

probability

the science (and art) of learning from data

usually numbers with context (context engages our background…

analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics,…

the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur (quant…

statistics

the science (and art) of learning from data

data

usually numbers with context (context engages our background…

sample

observational study

experiment

confounded

representative of an entire population; a picture of the popu…

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, but…

deliberately imposing some treatment on individuals in order…

mixed up with; condition of explanatory and lurking variables

sample

representative of an entire population; a picture of the popu…

observational study

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, but…

Observational Study

Experiment

Population

Sample

the measurement of data from individuals without trying to in…

imposes a treatment on the individuals and observes the respo…

the group that makes up all the individuals of interest

the part of the population that we examine

Observational Study

the measurement of data from individuals without trying to in…

Experiment

imposes a treatment on the individuals and observes the respo…

Observational Study

Experiment

Population

Sample

We observe individuals and measure variables of interest but…

We deliberately impose some treatment on (that is, do somethi…

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

A part of the population that we actually examine in order to…

Observational Study

We observe individuals and measure variables of interest but…

Experiment

We deliberately impose some treatment on (that is, do somethi…

Standardized Value

Shifting

Rescale

Normal Model

A standardized value is a value that is found by subtracting…

Shifting is adding a constant to each data value. This adds t…

This is when you multiply each data value by a constant. This…

The Normal model is a model that applies to unimodal, symmetr…

Standardized Value

A standardized value is a value that is found by subtracting…

Shifting

Shifting is adding a constant to each data value. This adds t…

Observational Study

Experiment

Population

Sample

the measurement of data from individuals without trying to in…

imposes a treatment on the individuals and observes the respo…

the group that makes up all the individuals of interest

the part of the population that we examine

Observational Study

the measurement of data from individuals without trying to in…

Experiment

imposes a treatment on the individuals and observes the respo…

Observational Study

Experiment

Population

Sample

observes individuals and measures variables of interest but d…

deliberately imposing some treatment on or to do something to…

entire group of individuals that we want information about

part of the population that we examine in order to gather inf…

Observational Study

observes individuals and measures variables of interest but d…

Experiment

deliberately imposing some treatment on or to do something to…

Sampling

Sample

Voluntary Response Sample

Population

Asking a few individuals to find out information about many

A part of the population that we actually examine in order to…

People who choose themselves by responding to a general appea…

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

Sampling

Asking a few individuals to find out information about many

Sample

A part of the population that we actually examine in order to…

complement

Complement Rule

Conditional probability

Conditional probability formula

event "not A"

Probability that an event does not occur is 1 minus the proba…

The probability of an event occurring given that another has…

the probability that an event will occur given that one or mo…

complement

event "not A"

Complement Rule

Probability that an event does not occur is 1 minus the proba…

Observational Study

Experiment

Population

Sample

We observe individuals and measure variables of interests but…

We deliberately impose some treatment on individuals in order…

The entire group of individuals that we want information about

Is part of the population that we actually examine in order t…

Observational Study

We observe individuals and measure variables of interests but…

Experiment

We deliberately impose some treatment on individuals in order…

Non-Response Bias

Lurking Variable

Simple Random Sample

Randomized Block Design

A bias caused by a number of people who did not respond to th…

A variable other than x and y that simultaneously affects bot…

A sample chosen in a way that every group of size n from a po…

The random assignment of subjects to treatments is carried ou…

Non-Response Bias

A bias caused by a number of people who did not respond to th…

Lurking Variable

A variable other than x and y that simultaneously affects bot…

sample

observational study

experiment

confounded

representative of an entire population; a picture of the popu…

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, but…

deliberately imposing some treatment on individuals in order…

mixed up with; condition of explanatory and lurking variables

sample

representative of an entire population; a picture of the popu…

observational study

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, but…

Observational Study

Experiment

Population

Sample

Observe individuals and measure variables of interest but do…

Observations that deliberately impose some treatment (doing s…

The entire group of individuals that information is wanted on

A group chosen to represent a whole population

Observational Study

Observe individuals and measure variables of interest but do…

Experiment

Observations that deliberately impose some treatment (doing s…

observational study

experiment

population

sample

observes individuals and measures variables but does not appl…

impose a treatment on individuals and observe the response. Y…

group of individuals that we want information about

part of the population that we can actually examine to gather…

observational study

observes individuals and measures variables but does not appl…

experiment

impose a treatment on individuals and observe the response. Y…

population

sample

observational study

experiment

entire group that we are interested in

portion of the population that is observed

observing a sample with no influence and measuring a variable

imposing a treatment on a sample and measuring an outcome

population

entire group that we are interested in

sample

portion of the population that is observed

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Sample Space (S)

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a chance model that…

The set of all possible outcomes of a chance process.

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Performing a Simulation

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a model that accurat…

There are four steps:... 1. State: Ask a question of interest.…

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Simulation

Performing a Simulation

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a model that accurat…

There are four steps:... 1. State: Ask a question of interest.…

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

Law of Large Numbers

Probability

Simulation

Sample Space

as the number of identically distributed, randomly generated…

the chance that something will happen - how likely it is that…

a way to model random events

The set whose members are all possible outcome of a random ex…

Law of Large Numbers

as the number of identically distributed, randomly generated…

Probability

the chance that something will happen - how likely it is that…

population

sample

variable

data

the entire group of individuals that we want information about

representative of an entire population

A variable is any characteristic whose value may change from…

results from making observations either on a single variable…

population

the entire group of individuals that we want information about

sample

representative of an entire population

Law of Large Numbers

Probability

Simulation

Performing a Simulation

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

An imitation of chance behavior based on a model that accurat…

There are four steps:... 1. State: Ask a question of interest.…

Law of Large Numbers

If we observe more and more repetitions of any chance process…

Probability

A number between 0 and 1 that describes the proportion of tim…

center

median

spread

range

the mean or the median of a distribution

the middle value with half the data above and half below it

the standard deviation, interquartile range, and range of a d…

the difference between the highest and lowest values in a dat…

center

the mean or the median of a distribution

median

the middle value with half the data above and half below it

Interpreting Probability

Law of Large Numbers

Conducting a simulation

Complementary Events

The probability of an event is the proportion of times the ev…

The Law of Large Numbers says that if we observe many repetit…

State: Ask a question about some chance process.... Plan: Descri…

Two mutually exclusive events whose union is the sample space…

Interpreting Probability

The probability of an event is the proportion of times the ev…

Law of Large Numbers

The Law of Large Numbers says that if we observe many repetit…

Voluntary response sample

Confounded

Population

Sample

people who choose themselves by responding to general appeal

Two variables' effects on a response variable cannot be disti…

Entire group of individuals

Part of population that we examine

Voluntary response sample

people who choose themselves by responding to general appeal

Confounded

Two variables' effects on a response variable cannot be disti…

Population

Sample

Census

Convenience Sample

The entire group of individuals about which we want informati…

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

All members of the population are surveyed

Choosing individuals who are easiest to reach...almost guaran…

Population

The entire group of individuals about which we want informati…

Sample

The part of the population from which we actually collect inf…

Center

Spread

Mean

Median

An attempt to summarize a data set with one value; a "typical…

Measures how much our data varies, or how tightly values are…

A measure of center; the average of the values in a data set

A measure of center; the middle value in a data set

Center

An attempt to summarize a data set with one value; a "typical…

Spread

Measures how much our data varies, or how tightly values are…

Complement

Conditional Probability

Disjoint

Event

Event "not A"

Probability that one event happens given that another event i…

Separate or disconnected events

Any collection of outcomes from some chance process

Complement

Event "not A"

Conditional Probability

Probability that one event happens given that another event i…

Law of large numbers

Probability

Simulation

Sample space S

The proportion of a certain event occurring eventually closes…

The __________ of any outcome of a chance process is a number…

The imitation of chance behavior, based on a model that accur…

The set of all possible outcomes

Law of large numbers

The proportion of a certain event occurring eventually closes…

Probability

The __________ of any outcome of a chance process is a number…

sample

observational study

experiment

confounded

representative of an entire population; a picture of the popu…

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, but…

deliberately imposing some treatment on individuals in order…

mixed up with; condition of explanatory and lurking variables

sample

representative of an entire population; a picture of the popu…

observational study

observes individuals and measures variables of interest, but…

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Lurking Variable

Variables

A variable that attempts to explain the observed outcomes. ... S…

A variable that measures the outcome of a study. ... Sometimes c…

A variable that is not among the explanatory or response in a…

Are confounded when their effects on a response variable cann…

Explanatory Variable

A variable that attempts to explain the observed outcomes. ... S…

Response Variable

A variable that measures the outcome of a study. ... Sometimes c…

Simple Random Sample (SRS)

Population

Sample

Bias

Sample in which each different sample of the same size has an…

The specific subjects/group you want to know something about.

Subgroup of the population that you actually gather informati…

Unintentional/not personal favoring another group or leaving…

Simple Random Sample (SRS)

Sample in which each different sample of the same size has an…

Population

The specific subjects/group you want to know something about.

population

sample

bias

experiment

entire group of individuals we want information about

part of the population that we actually examine in order to g…

systematically favors certain outcomes

impose some treatment on individuals in order to observe thei…

population

entire group of individuals we want information about

sample

part of the population that we actually examine in order to g…