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Study sets matching "chapter 9 human biology"

27 terms
chapter 9 Human Biology
Cell division
cell cycle
G1
Synthesis
the process by which cell reproduces itself
cells grow larger and produce more cytoplasm
DNA replicates and chromosomes are duplicated
Cell division
the process by which cell reproduces itself
cell cycle
53 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
sensory receptors
stimuli
sensory adaptation
mechanoreceptor
Specialized cells unique to each sense organ that respond to…
Changes, occurring within or outside the body, that affect ne…
temporary decrease in sensitivity to a stimulus that occurs w…
A sensory receptor that responds to mechanical disturbances,…
sensory receptors
Specialized cells unique to each sense organ that respond to…
stimuli
Changes, occurring within or outside the body, that affect ne…
146 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
ingestion, digestion, movement, absorp…
ingestion
digestion
GI tract
main steps in digestive process
intake of food via the mouth
mechanically or chemically breaking down foods into their sub…
food must be moved along what in order to fulfill all functions
ingestion, digestion, movement, absorp…
main steps in digestive process
ingestion
intake of food via the mouth
34 terms
Human Biology - Chapter 9
Conventional Drugs
Herbal Supplements
Dangers of Herbal Supplements
Senator Orrin G Hatch
when a specific active ingredient is purified from a plant or…
plants, algae, fungi, and combinations of these are used as a…
- many supplements are contaminated with dangerous heavy meta…
Senator Orrin G. Hatch, Republican of Utah, has for more than…
Conventional Drugs
when a specific active ingredient is purified from a plant or…
Herbal Supplements
plants, algae, fungi, and combinations of these are used as a…
36 terms
Human biology chapter 9
Living organisms
Nonliving infectious "particles"
Bacteria
The Lymphatic System Defends the Body
Bacteria: unicellular prokaryotes... Fungi: unicellular and mult…
Viruses... Prions
Characteristics... Prokaryotic (lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus…
Maintenance of blood volume in cardiovascular system... Transpor…
Living organisms
Bacteria: unicellular prokaryotes... Fungi: unicellular and mult…
Nonliving infectious "particles"
Viruses... Prions
17 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
Diabetes mellitus
Hyperglycaemia
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Y
Y
Y
...
Diabetes mellitus
Y
Hyperglycaemia
Y
117 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
What are the main steps in the digesti…
What is ingestion?
What is digestion?
What is mechanical digestion?
Ingestion, digestion, movement, absorption, elimination
The intake of food via the mouth
mechanically (primarily in the mouth) or chemically (enzymes…
The break down of food into subunits via the teeth
What are the main steps in the digesti…
Ingestion, digestion, movement, absorption, elimination
What is ingestion?
The intake of food via the mouth
33 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
Calorie
Carbohydrate (dietary)
Sucrose
Fructose
Amount of energy required to raise one-thousand grams of wate…
Especially sugars, starches, and fiber which upon digestion i…
Disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose moieties.
Six-carbon highly sweet monosaccharide of fruit.
Calorie
Amount of energy required to raise one-thousand grams of wate…
Carbohydrate (dietary)
Especially sugars, starches, and fiber which upon digestion i…
47 terms
Chapter 9 - Human Biology (Concepts and Current Issues)
The world is swarming with living orga…
Organisms that cause diseases are call…
Pathogens come from __________ the ___…
_____________ come from within the bod…
Bacteria, viruses, prions
Pathogens
Outside the body
Mutations
The world is swarming with living orga…
Bacteria, viruses, prions
Organisms that cause diseases are call…
Pathogens
49 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
Calorie
Carbohydrate
Sugar
Moiety
Amount of energy required to raise one-thousand grams of wate…
Especially sugars, starches, and fiber which upon digestion i…
Carbohydrate that consists of only one or two subunits
A portion, such as of a molecule
Calorie
Amount of energy required to raise one-thousand grams of wate…
Carbohydrate
Especially sugars, starches, and fiber which upon digestion i…
72 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
What occurs when air is conducted from…
What occurs when air is conducted from…
What is the term for breathing that in…
What four organs make up the upper res…
Inspiration
Expiration
Ventilation
Nasal Cavity... Pharynx... Glottis... Larynx
What occurs when air is conducted from…
Inspiration
What occurs when air is conducted from…
Expiration
17 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
What is the smallest infectious agent…
What is the largest infectious agent?
Which infectious agent is larger: viru…
Review differences between animal euka…
Prion
Parasites
Fungi
Eukaryotic Cell = mitochondria, one chromosome, no cell well,…
What is the smallest infectious agent…
Prion
What is the largest infectious agent?
Parasites
74 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
pathogen
antigen
immunity
innate immunity
an infectious, disease-causing agent, such as a virus or bact…
substance that is recognized as foreign to the body and that…
the body's overall ability to resist and combat any substance…
the body's inborn, preset immune responses, which act quickly…
pathogen
an infectious, disease-causing agent, such as a virus or bact…
antigen
substance that is recognized as foreign to the body and that…
16 terms
Chapter 9 Human Biology
Flow Diagram
Upper respiratory tract
Nose
Pharynx
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles, alveoli
nose, pharynx, larynx, and epiglottis
opens at nostrils and nares leads to nasal cavity... hair and mu…
funnel shaped cavity commonly called throat... 3 portions: nasop…
Flow Diagram
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles, alveoli
Upper respiratory tract
nose, pharynx, larynx, and epiglottis
14 terms
Human biology Chapter 9
Digestion
Absorption
Food pathway
GI tract
Mechanically or chemically breaking down food into their subu…
Movement of nutrients across the GI tract wall to be delivere…
Mouth... Pharynx... Esophagus... Stomach... Small intestine... Large intesti…
Alimentary tract
Digestion
Mechanically or chemically breaking down food into their subu…
Absorption
Movement of nutrients across the GI tract wall to be delivere…
15 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
Conventional Drugs
Herbal supplements
Micro nutrients
Interphase
Tested in clinical trials, specific active ingredients are co…
Contain several compounds, are not tested
Nutrients including vitamins & minerals that organisms must i…
Stage of the cell cycle in which cells spend most of their ti…
Conventional Drugs
Tested in clinical trials, specific active ingredients are co…
Herbal supplements
Contain several compounds, are not tested
34 terms
Human Biology Vocab Chapter 9
Alveoli
Bicarbonate Ion
Bronchi
Bronchioles
micrscopic airsac/ small cavity, pit, or hollow, in particular.
Ion that participates in buffering the blood; the form that w…
two major divisions of the trachea leading to the lungs.
Smaller air passages in the lungs that begins at the bronchi…
Alveoli
micrscopic airsac/ small cavity, pit, or hollow, in particular.
Bicarbonate Ion
Ion that participates in buffering the blood; the form that w…
21 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
Describe pangenesis theory and the ble…
Considering Mendel's work, define the…
Define and distinguish between the fol…
genotype and phenotype.
Pangenesis: particles from all parts of organism incorporated…
F1 generation is the result of hybridization of the P generat…
Homozygous genotype = identical alleles on both two dominate…
the genetic makeup is the genotype while the phenotype is it'…
Describe pangenesis theory and the ble…
Pangenesis: particles from all parts of organism incorporated…
Considering Mendel's work, define the…
F1 generation is the result of hybridization of the P generat…
35 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH)
Protein Synthesis
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
nucleotides
Growth hormone produced in a laboratory and injected into cow…
Joining amino acids together, in an order dictated by gene, t…
Information-carrying molecule composed of nucleotides.
Building blocks of nucleic acids that include a sugar, a phos…
recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH)
Growth hormone produced in a laboratory and injected into cow…
Protein Synthesis
Joining amino acids together, in an order dictated by gene, t…
25 terms
Human biology chapter 9
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Actin
Antagonists
Aponeurosis
Neurotransmitter that is secreted from the nerve terminals of…
One of the contractile proteins in muscle; forms the thin fil…
A muscle that exerts an opposing effect.
Broad, flat sheet of fibrous connective tissue that connects…
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Neurotransmitter that is secreted from the nerve terminals of…
Actin
One of the contractile proteins in muscle; forms the thin fil…
12 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
Evolution
Species
Gradualism
Catastophism
Process of biological change where descendants are different…
Group of organisms that can reproduce and have fertile offspr…
Idea that landforms are shaped by slow changes over a long time
Idea that natural disasters formed landforms and species to e…
Evolution
Process of biological change where descendants are different…
Species
Group of organisms that can reproduce and have fertile offspr…
47 terms
Chapter 9 - Human Biology (Concepts and Current Issues)
The world is swarming with living orga…
Organisms that cause diseases are call…
Pathogens come from __________ the ___…
_____________ come from within the bod…
Bacteria, viruses, prions
Pathogens
Outside the body
Mutations
The world is swarming with living orga…
Bacteria, viruses, prions
Organisms that cause diseases are call…
Pathogens
43 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
Sensory receptors
Stimuli
Sensory Adaptation
Mechanoreceptors
Specialized cells unique to each sense organ that respond to…
Structures that are specialized to detect and respond to chan…
sensory receptors that gradually stop responding when they ar…
responsible for the sensations we describe as touch, pressure…
Sensory receptors
Specialized cells unique to each sense organ that respond to…
Stimuli
Structures that are specialized to detect and respond to chan…
53 terms
human biology chapter 9
sensory receptors
stimuli
sensory adaptation
mechanorecepter
structures specialized to respond to changes in their environ…
Changes in the internal or External environment that a sensor…
A gradual decline in the responsiveness of a sensory receptor…
A sensory receptor that is specialized to respond to distorti…
sensory receptors
structures specialized to respond to changes in their environ…
stimuli
Changes in the internal or External environment that a sensor…
57 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
3 pathogens
Bacteria
Bacterial Diseases
Viruses
Bacteria, Viruses, Prion
Prokaryotes, DNA is single closed loop in cytoplasm, attached…
Tetanus, Cholera, Botalism, Tuberculosis, Syphilis, etc.
much smaller than bacteria, composed of double stand of DNA o…
3 pathogens
Bacteria, Viruses, Prion
Bacteria
Prokaryotes, DNA is single closed loop in cytoplasm, attached…
25 terms
human biology chapter 9
skeletal muscles
skeletal muscle tissues contractions a…
functions of skeletal muscle tissues
when cardiac muscles contract, they
primarily composed of skeletal tissues plus connective tissue…
voluntary control
produce skeletal movement, maintain posture and body position…
pump blood through the body
skeletal muscles
primarily composed of skeletal tissues plus connective tissue…
skeletal muscle tissues contractions a…
voluntary control
42 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
Pathogens: Bacteria characteristics
Pathogens: Bacteria infections
Viruses
Prions
prokaryotic, single cells, use of variety of resources for gr…
pneumonia, tonsillitis, tuberculosis, toxic shocked syndrome
extremely small, AIDS, colds, warts, chicken pox
infectious protiens, mad cow disease
Pathogens: Bacteria characteristics
prokaryotic, single cells, use of variety of resources for gr…
Pathogens: Bacteria infections
pneumonia, tonsillitis, tuberculosis, toxic shocked syndrome
38 terms
Biology Human Perspective Chapter 9
Inheritence
Heredity
Genes
Locus
process by which the characteristics of individuals are passe…
is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next
specific sequences of DNA at specific locations (loci) on chr…
genes physical location on a chromosome
Inheritence
process by which the characteristics of individuals are passe…
Heredity
is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next
21 terms
Human Biology - Chapter 9
Diabetes
Hyperglyceamia
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 2 Dibetes
A person does not produce enough insulin or their cells are r…
Abnormally high glucose level
The destruction of beta cells in the pancreas that cause insu…
Cells are not able to respond to the effects of insulin
Diabetes
A person does not produce enough insulin or their cells are r…
Hyperglyceamia
Abnormally high glucose level
10 terms
Chapter 9 Human Biology
Passive immunity: life span? example?
active immunity: Life span? examples?
Live vaccine: how long? cons?
killed vaccine: how long? pros?
short-life span (3 weeks), ex: breast milk
long lasting protection. ex: vaccines
life long. may revert back to bad.
short term. safer.
Passive immunity: life span? example?
short-life span (3 weeks), ex: breast milk
active immunity: Life span? examples?
long lasting protection. ex: vaccines
23 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9 Digestion
Purpose of Digestion
Sub unit molecules
Process necessary for Digestion
Mechanical Digestion
To hydrolyze (break down using water) carbohydrates, fats, an…
cross the plasma membrane using facilitated and active transp…
Ingestion, when the mouth takes in food... Digestion, break dow…
Primarily in the mouth by chewing and by wavelike contraction…
Purpose of Digestion
To hydrolyze (break down using water) carbohydrates, fats, an…
Sub unit molecules
cross the plasma membrane using facilitated and active transp…
36 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9
Gastrointestinal Tract
Ingestion
Digestion
Absorption
The stomach and intestine as a functional unit.
The taking of food or liquid into the body by way of the mouth.
Breaking down of large nutrient molecules into smaller molecu…
Taking in of substances by cells or membranes.
Gastrointestinal Tract
The stomach and intestine as a functional unit.
Ingestion
The taking of food or liquid into the body by way of the mouth.
75 terms
Human Biology: Chapter 9 Dr. Spohn
Pathogens
Immune system
Barriers to entry/ways of expelling, n…
Skin, stomach acid, tears, vomiting, d…
Anything that causes disease both living and nonliving; come…
Nonspecific/specific defense mechanisms; a complex group of c…
Three types of defense systems
Barriers to entry/ways of expelling pathogens before they can…
Pathogens
Anything that causes disease both living and nonliving; come…
Immune system
Nonspecific/specific defense mechanisms; a complex group of c…
19 terms
Chapter 9 vocabulary Human Biology
Alveolus
Vocal cords
Laryngitis
Pleura
Air sac of lung.
Folds of membranous tissue that project inward from the sides…
Inflammation of the larynx, typically resulting in loss of vo…
Serious membrane that encloses the lungs
Alveolus
Air sac of lung.
Vocal cords
Folds of membranous tissue that project inward from the sides…
32 terms
Human Biology chapter 9: Nervous
Neurons
Neuroglial cells
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Structural and functional unit of the nervous system.
Cells that carry out a variety of functions to aid and protec…
Made up of the brain and spinal cord
Made up of peripheral nerves that connect to the CNS and the…
Neurons
Structural and functional unit of the nervous system.
Neuroglial cells
Cells that carry out a variety of functions to aid and protec…
25 terms
RADT Human Biology Chapter 9 Terms
Pathogen
Interferon
Phagocytes
Epinephrine
An agent that produces disease.
A protein produced by virally infected cells that helps other…
Cells that endocytose (engulf) pathogens.
A hormone released from the adrenal gland in response to stre…
Pathogen
An agent that produces disease.
Interferon
A protein produced by virally infected cells that helps other…
161 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9 Respiratory System
Upper Respiratory System consists of
Nasal
Pharynx
Larynx
Nasal, Pharynx, Glottis, Larynx
filters, warms, moistens
food and air passage to glottis
voice box; produces sound... passageway for air between pharynx…
Upper Respiratory System consists of
Nasal, Pharynx, Glottis, Larynx
Nasal
filters, warms, moistens
53 terms
Human Biology, Chapter 9: Digestive System
Functions of Digestive System
5 Main Steps of Digestive Process
4 Layers of GI tract
Peristalsis
Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food... Absorption of nutri…
Ingestion... Digestion... Movement... Absorption... Elimination
Mucosa... Submucosa... Muscularis... Serosa
Movement of food along GI tract by smooth muscle
Functions of Digestive System
Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food... Absorption of nutri…
5 Main Steps of Digestive Process
Ingestion... Digestion... Movement... Absorption... Elimination
20 terms
Human Biology- Mader Chapter 9 Vocab
Inspiration
Expiration
Pharynx
Larynx
Act of taking air into the lungs; also called inhalation
Act of expelling air from the lungs; also called exhalation
Portion of the digestive tract between the mouth and the esop…
cartilaginous organ located between the pharynx and the trach…
Inspiration
Act of taking air into the lungs; also called inhalation
Expiration
Act of expelling air from the lungs; also called exhalation
48 terms
Human Biology Chapter 9 Vocab ((Respiratory System))
Respiratory System
Inspiration
Expiration
Ventilation
Organ system consisting of the lungs, and tubes that bring ox…
Act of taking air into the lungs; also called inhalation
Act expelling air from the lungs; also called exhalation
Process of moving air into and out of the lungs; also called…
Respiratory System
Organ system consisting of the lungs, and tubes that bring ox…
Inspiration
Act of taking air into the lungs; also called inhalation
41 terms
Human Biology chapter 9: Immune System
pathogens
antibiotics
viruses
prion
disease-causing microorganisms, such as a bacterium or virus.
chemotherapeutic agents that inhibit or abolish the growth of…
extremely small infectious agents, consisting solely of a sma…
a misfolded form of a normal brain cell protein that can trig…
pathogens
disease-causing microorganisms, such as a bacterium or virus.
antibiotics
chemotherapeutic agents that inhibit or abolish the growth of…
32 terms
Biology Chapter 9
spontaneous generation
trait
diversity
mitosis
The idea that living things can come from nonliving things.
A characteristic of an organism.
The range of differences among the individuals in a population.
The process that results in two cells identical to the parent…
spontaneous generation
The idea that living things can come from nonliving things.
trait
A characteristic of an organism.
13 terms
Biology Chapter 9 Vocab
Vaccine
Virulent
Transformation
Bacteriophage
A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates…
A micro-organism or virus that causes disease and that is hig…
Is a change in genotype caused when cells take up foreign gen…
Is a virus that infects bacteria. Aka phage
Vaccine
A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates…
Virulent
A micro-organism or virus that causes disease and that is hig…
20 terms
Chapter 9 - The Human Population
demography
developed countries
developing countries
exponential growth
The study of (human) populations in terms of size, density, l…
countries that have higher average incomes, slower population…
countries that have lower average incomes, simple and agricul…
occurs when the individuals in a population reproduce at a co…
demography
The study of (human) populations in terms of size, density, l…
developed countries
countries that have higher average incomes, slower population…
18 terms
Biology Chapter 9
anaphase
cell cycle
centromere
chromatin
mitotic phase in which chromatids are pulled apart by the sho…
a cycle of growing and dividing by which eukaryotic cells rep…
constricted point at which two chromatids are joined together
relaxed form of DNA in the cell's nucleus
anaphase
mitotic phase in which chromatids are pulled apart by the sho…
cell cycle
a cycle of growing and dividing by which eukaryotic cells rep…
20 terms
Chapter 9 - The Human Population
demography
developed countries
developing countries
exponential growth
The study of (human) populations in terms of size, density, l…
countries that have higher average incomes, slower population…
countries that have lower average incomes, simple and agricul…
occurs when the individuals in a population reproduce at a co…
demography
The study of (human) populations in terms of size, density, l…
developed countries
countries that have higher average incomes, slower population…
55 terms
Human Biology Johnson 9e Chapter 9: The Immune System and Mechanisms of Defense
active immunization
alpha interferon
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndr…
antibiotics
...
a protein that has shown promise against certain viral diseas…
...
Chemotherapeutic agents that inhibit or abolish the growth of…
active immunization
...
alpha interferon
a protein that has shown promise against certain viral diseas…
18 terms
Biology Chapter 9
spontaneous generation
DNA
trait
diversity
The idea that living things can come from non-living things.
The chemical inside cells that stores information about an or…
A characteristics of an organism.
The range of differences among the individuals in a population.
spontaneous generation
The idea that living things can come from non-living things.
DNA
The chemical inside cells that stores information about an or…
32 terms
Human Bio Chapter 9
bile pigments
kidney
urine
ureters
metabolic waste, produced during breakdown of RBC hemoglobin,…
lie on either side of the backbone, elminates wastes from the…
wastes excreted from the blood in a yellowish fluid produced…
transports urine to the urinary bladder
bile pigments
metabolic waste, produced during breakdown of RBC hemoglobin,…
kidney
lie on either side of the backbone, elminates wastes from the…
18 terms
AP Human Geography Chapter 9: Development
Development
Fair trade
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people…
Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small busi…
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of anothe…
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in econo…
Development
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people…
Fair trade
Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small busi…
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