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Study sets matching "chem ap chapter 4"

AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
40 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
polar molecule
hydration
solubility
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment
the interaction between solute particles and water molecules
the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given volume of…
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
polar molecule
a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment
43 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
35 terms
AP chemistry chapter 4
Stoichiometry
Limiting reactant
Theoretical yield
Excess reactants
The study of the numerical relationship between chemical quan…
The reactant that makes the least amount of product
The maximum number of product you can make (in perfect condit…
Reactants not completely consumed
Stoichiometry
The study of the numerical relationship between chemical quan…
Limiting reactant
The reactant that makes the least amount of product
51 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
52 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 4
Aqueous Solution
Solvent
Solute(s)
Electrolyte
A solution in which water is the dissolving medium
The substance present in the greatest quantity; the substance…
The other substances; the substances that are being dissolved…
A substance(such as NaCl) whose aqueous solutions contain ions
Aqueous Solution
A solution in which water is the dissolving medium
Solvent
The substance present in the greatest quantity; the substance…
31 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solutions
polar molecule
hydration
electrical conductivity
solutions in which water is the solvent
unequal charge distribution ... example: water
positive ends of water molecules are attracted to negatively…
ability to conduct an electric current
aqueous solutions
solutions in which water is the solvent
polar molecule
unequal charge distribution ... example: water
34 terms
Pre-AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Quanta
Opposite Spin
Ground State
Electric Cloud
Max Planck proposed that a "hot" object radiated in small, sp…
The spin quantum of an electron can be thought of as describi…
The lowest total energy of the electron in a hydrogen atom oc…
The part of the atom where the electrons are found is the ___…
Quanta
Max Planck proposed that a "hot" object radiated in small, sp…
Opposite Spin
The spin quantum of an electron can be thought of as describi…
17 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
what's soluble?
what's insoluble?
ionic equation
net ionic equation
nitrates... alkali metals & ammonium... chloride, bromide, iodide (…
hydroxides... sulfide, carbonate, chromate
all substances that are strong electrolytes (aqueous) are wri…
ionic equation without spectator ions
what's soluble?
nitrates... alkali metals & ammonium... chloride, bromide, iodide (…
what's insoluble?
hydroxides... sulfide, carbonate, chromate
34 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4 - Solution Stoichiometry Zumdahl
aqueous solution
polar molecule
hydration
solubility
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment - a positive an…
the interaction between solute particles and water molecules
the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given volume of…
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
polar molecule
a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment - a positive an…
18 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4 Flashcards
Acid
Aqueous Solution
Base
Dilution equation
A substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution, a proton…
A solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
A substance that produces hydroxide ions in aqueous solution,…
Acid
A substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution, a proton…
Aqueous Solution
A solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
30 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Angular
Bent
Bond Length
Bonding Domains
relating to or having a chemical structure in which a compone…
In chemistry, the term "bent" can be applied to certain molec…
The average distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms i…
electron domain refers to the number of lone pairs or bond lo…
Angular
relating to or having a chemical structure in which a compone…
Bent
In chemistry, the term "bent" can be applied to certain molec…
51 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
43 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
43 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
32 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
43 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
solution
solvent
solute
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance present in the greatest quantity and the one the di…
the substances in a solution that are being dissolved (of the…
aqueous solution
a solution in which the water is the dissolving medium
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
53 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Solution
Solute
Solvent
Aqueous solutions
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
the substance present in a smaller amount
the substance present in a larger amount
the solute initially is a liquid or a solid and the solvent i…
Solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
Solute
the substance present in a smaller amount
19 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Solubility
Solute
Solvent
Solubility chart!!!
the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given volume of…
a substance dissolved in a liquid to form a solution
the matter that is doing the dissolving
Solubility
the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given volume of…
Solute
a substance dissolved in a liquid to form a solution
38 terms
Chemistry AP- Chapter 4
polar molecule
hydration
solubility
solute
a molecule that has a partial positive end and a partial nega…
the strong affinity of water molecules for particles of disso…
The amount of a substance that dissolves in a given quantity…
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
polar molecule
a molecule that has a partial positive end and a partial nega…
hydration
the strong affinity of water molecules for particles of disso…
27 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 4 Reactions
water
hydration
ionic
polar
dipole towards O... O is slightly negative... H's are slightly posi…
act of something being dissolved in water... (when H2O molecules…
DISSOCIATES in solution... (polar water molecules dissociate ion…
DON'T DISSOCIATE in sol'n, but dissolve in H2O... entire molecul…
water
dipole towards O... O is slightly negative... H's are slightly posi…
hydration
act of something being dissolved in water... (when H2O molecules…
19 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Hydration process
Solute
Solvent
Molarity
the process of dissolving a solid with water
dissolved in solvent
dissolves the solute
the number of moles of a solute per liter of solution
Hydration process
the process of dissolving a solid with water
Solute
dissolved in solvent
21 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
HBr
HCl
HI
HClO₃
Strong Acid
Strong Acid
Strong Acid
Strong Acid
HBr
Strong Acid
HCl
Strong Acid
18 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Solution
Solute
Solvent
Soluble
homogenous mixture
What is being dissolved
What is doing the dissolving
Will dissolve
Solution
homogenous mixture
Solute
What is being dissolved
20 terms
Chapter 4 AP Chemistry
Solution
Solvent
Aqueous solutions
Solutes
Homogenous mixture of two or more substances
Dissolving medium, usually the substance present in the great…
Solutions in which water is the solvent
Other substances in the solutions
Solution
Homogenous mixture of two or more substances
Solvent
Dissolving medium, usually the substance present in the great…
17 terms
Chapter 4 AP Chemistry
nitrates (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), acet…
H2SO3, H2CO3, NH4OH
HCl HBr HI H2SO4 HNO3 HClO3 HClO4
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, Ba(OH)2, {Ca(OH…
always soluble
products that have gas formation
strong acids
strong bases
nitrates (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), acet…
always soluble
H2SO3, H2CO3, NH4OH
products that have gas formation
27 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
temperature
heat
thermal equailibrium
temperature
average kinetic energy
flow of thermal energy
when two objects reach the same temperature
°C, °F, K
temperature
average kinetic energy
heat
flow of thermal energy
50 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Define solvent.
Define solute.
Define concentration.
Define molarity.
The most abundant component of a solution in terms of moles.
Any component in a solution other than the solvent. A solutio…
The amount of a solute in a particular amount of solvent or s…
Concentration measured in moles of solute per liter of soluti…
Define solvent.
The most abundant component of a solution in terms of moles.
Define solute.
Any component in a solution other than the solvent. A solutio…
22 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 4
HI
HBr
HCl
HClO3
strong acid
strong acid
strong acid
strong acid
HI
strong acid
HBr
strong acid
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Aqueous solutions
Solution
Solvent
Solute
solution in which water is the solvent
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance in a solution present in the greatest quantity; the…
a substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution; it is…
Aqueous solutions
solution in which water is the solvent
Solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
40 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Aqueous Solution
Solution
Solvent
Solutes
A solution in which water is the dissolving medium
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
The substance present in the greatest quantity
The substance dissolved by the solvent
Aqueous Solution
A solution in which water is the dissolving medium
Solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
27 terms
AP Chemistry- Chapter 4
electrolyte
nonelectrolyte
solvation
strong electrolytes
substance that forms an aqueous solution that contains ions a…
in solution, this does not form ions, molecular compounds tha…
ions are surrounded by polar molecules
exist in solution completely or almost completely as ions, in…
electrolyte
substance that forms an aqueous solution that contains ions a…
nonelectrolyte
in solution, this does not form ions, molecular compounds tha…
51 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 4
coefficients
stoichiometry
limiting reactant (or limiting reagent)
reactant in excess
the coefficients in a chemical equation specify the relative…
the numerical relationships between the amounts of reactants…
the reactant that is completely consumed in a chemical reacti…
any reactant that occurs in a quantity greater than is requir…
coefficients
the coefficients in a chemical equation specify the relative…
stoichiometry
the numerical relationships between the amounts of reactants…
26 terms
AP Chemistry - Chapter 4
Aqueous Solution
Solute
Solvent
Electrolytes (strong vs. weak)
Solution (homogenous mixture) with water as the dissolving me…
The substance dissolved in a solvent
The dissolving medium (often water)
Ions that are dissolved in water and conduct electricity; str…
Aqueous Solution
Solution (homogenous mixture) with water as the dissolving me…
Solute
The substance dissolved in a solvent
40 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
polar molecule
hydration
solubility
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment
the interaction between solute particles and water molecules
the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given volume of…
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
polar molecule
a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment
12 terms
Chapter 4 Summary AP Chemistry
A solution is a ___ mixture.
Solvent
Solute
A solution in which water is the solve…
Homogeneous
The part of a solution in greater amount. (has more letters)
The parts of a solution in lesser amount. (has fewer letters)
An aqueous solution
A solution is a ___ mixture.
Homogeneous
Solvent
The part of a solution in greater amount. (has more letters)
89 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
solution
solvent
solutes
How can you know whether a solution ha…
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
the substance present in the greatest quantity in a solution
the other substances besides the solvent in a solution
If it conducts a current, because the ions would carry electr…
solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solvent
the substance present in the greatest quantity in a solution
34 terms
Chapter 4 AP Chemistry
Stock solution
Brackets mean
Molarity
Solute
M1V1=M2V2, dilute from high concentration
Solution
M= mol/L
What's being dissolved, smaller amount
Stock solution
M1V1=M2V2, dilute from high concentration
Brackets mean
Solution
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
A reaction in an aqueous solution take…
Electrolyte
What is the strength of an Electrolyte…
What is an example of something that i…
in water
A substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solut…
How readily it ionizes
Organic Acids, because they do not completely dissociate in w…
A reaction in an aqueous solution take…
in water
Electrolyte
A substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solut…
65 terms
AP Chemistry Chang Chapter 4
Solution
solute
solvent
Aqueous solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
the substance that is being dissolved (smaller amount)
the substance that is dissolving the other thing (larger amou…
the solute initially is a liquid or a solid and the solvent i…
Solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solute
the substance that is being dissolved (smaller amount)
17 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Describe the nature of an oxidizing ag…
Describe oxidation and reduction
What is the concept of formal charge
What are the concepts underlying the B…
an oxidizing agent is a substance that causes another to be o…
Oxidation is the loss of electrons; also the increase in oxid…
Formal charge is the concept that atoms within a molecule can…
This theory introduces the concept of conjugate acid-base pai…
Describe the nature of an oxidizing ag…
an oxidizing agent is a substance that causes another to be o…
Describe oxidation and reduction
Oxidation is the loss of electrons; also the increase in oxid…
17 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
What is a solution?
What is dissociation?
What is an electrolyte?
What is a strong electrolyte?
homogeneous mixture of two or more pure substances. Solvent i…
When an ionic substance... dissolves in water, the... solvent pulls…
a substance that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water
- dissociates completely when dissolved in water... -strong acid…
What is a solution?
homogeneous mixture of two or more pure substances. Solvent i…
What is dissociation?
When an ionic substance... dissolves in water, the... solvent pulls…
37 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
aqueous solution
polar molecule
hydration
solubility
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment
the interaction between solute particles and water molecules
the amount of a substance that dissolves in given volume of s…
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
polar molecule
a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment
10 terms
Chapter 4 AP Chemistry
Solvent
Solutes
Electrolyte
Nonelectrolyte
Substance present in greatest quantity
Other substances in the solution (dissolved in the solvent)
Substance whose aqueous solutions contain ions (ionic ex:NaCl)
Does not form ions in solution (molecular ex:C12H22O11)
Solvent
Substance present in greatest quantity
Solutes
Other substances in the solution (dissolved in the solvent)
26 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
polar molecule
solvated
electrolyte
nonelectrolyte
the O portion of the molecule is the partially negative pole,…
surrounded tightly by solvent molecules
conducts current while dissolved in water
does not conduct water dissolved in water
polar molecule
the O portion of the molecule is the partially negative pole,…
solvated
surrounded tightly by solvent molecules
22 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Strong Acids
Soluble salts
Weak electrolytes
Non-electrolytes
HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4... Soluble salts... Strong bases (anything wit…
any salt that contains a group 1 ion, ammonium, acetate, and…
partially dissolve in water... weak acids: HC2H3O2 and HF... weak…
molecular in nature and do not dissolve in water... sugars and…
Strong Acids
HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4... Soluble salts... Strong bases (anything wit…
Soluble salts
any salt that contains a group 1 ion, ammonium, acetate, and…
8 terms
Chapter 4: AP Chemistry
Bent shape, very polar molecule with a…
any soluble ionic compound and strong…
polar weak acids and bases
polar molecular compounds that dissolv…
properties of water
Define a strong electrolyte
Define a weak electrolyte
Define a non electrolyte
Bent shape, very polar molecule with a…
properties of water
any soluble ionic compound and strong…
Define a strong electrolyte
21 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Rule 1
Rule 2
Rule 3
Rule 4
Most nitrate (NO3-) salts are soluble.
Most alkali metal (group 1A) salts and NH4+ are soluble.
Most Cl-, Br-, and I- salts are soluble (except Ag+, Pb2+, Hg…
Most sulfate salts are soluble (except BaSO4, PbSO4, Hg2SO4,…
Rule 1
Most nitrate (NO3-) salts are soluble.
Rule 2
Most alkali metal (group 1A) salts and NH4+ are soluble.
16 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 4
Synthesis combination
Binary Salt
Bases
Acids
2 or more reactants combine to form a single product
Metal + Nonmetal
Metallic Oxide + water
Nonmetallic oxide+water
Synthesis combination
2 or more reactants combine to form a single product
Binary Salt
Metal + Nonmetal
17 terms
Chapter 4 AP Chemistry
nitrates (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), acet…
H2SO3, H2CO3, NH4OH
HCl HBr HI H2SO4 HNO3 HClO3 HClO4
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, Ba(OH)2, {Ca(OH…
always soluble
products that have gas formation
strong acids
strong bases
nitrates (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), acet…
always soluble
H2SO3, H2CO3, NH4OH
products that have gas formation
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