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Study sets matching "chemistry acids bases chapter 2"

26 terms
Organic Chemistry - Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Arrhenius Acids are substances that io…
Arrhenius Bases are substances that io…
smaller pKa have...
larger pKa have...
hydronium (H3O^+) ions
hydroxide (OH^-) ions
Stronger acids
Weaker acids
Arrhenius Acids are substances that io…
hydronium (H3O^+) ions
Arrhenius Bases are substances that io…
hydroxide (OH^-) ions
18 terms
Chapter 2: Acid-Base Chemistry
pK
pH
equilibrium constant
Keq of water
describes its tendency to ionize
depends on the pK and the concentrations of the acid and its…
expressed as Keq, extent of ionization of water in cells defi…
[H+][OH-] / [H2O]
pK
describes its tendency to ionize
pH
depends on the pK and the concentrations of the acid and its…
38 terms
Chapter 2: Acids & Bases
Bronsted-Lowry Acid (H-A)
Bronsted-Lowry Base (B:)
pKa/Ka and Acid Strength:... pka =-log(Ka…
Acidity/Basicity Relationship:
proton donor... -Must contain a proton... -The net charge may be (+…
proton acceptor... -Must contain a lone pair of electrons or a p…
-The lower the pKa, the stronger the acid... -The higher the Ka,…
-Strong acid, weaker conjugate base... -Strong base, weaker conj…
Bronsted-Lowry Acid (H-A)
proton donor... -Must contain a proton... -The net charge may be (+…
Bronsted-Lowry Base (B:)
proton acceptor... -Must contain a lone pair of electrons or a p…
63 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Brønsted-Lowry Acid
Brønsted-Lowry Base
Charged species such as -OH and -NH2 a…
Cations in acid and base reactions are…
-Proton Donor... -Must contain hydrogen atom... -General symbol: H-A
-Proton Acceptor... -Must be able to form a bond to a proton... -Mu…
Salts
-Spectator ions/Counterions ... -Inconsequential
Brønsted-Lowry Acid
-Proton Donor... -Must contain hydrogen atom... -General symbol: H-A
Brønsted-Lowry Base
-Proton Acceptor... -Must be able to form a bond to a proton... -Mu…
27 terms
chapter 2- acids and bases
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
Bronstead lowry acid
Bronstead lowry base
a substance that produces H3O+ ions (hydronium ion) in aqueou…
a substance that produces OH- ions in aqueous solution
a substance that donates a proton
a substance that accepts a proton
Arrhenius acid
a substance that produces H3O+ ions (hydronium ion) in aqueou…
Arrhenius base
a substance that produces OH- ions in aqueous solution
24 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton ______
A Bronsted-Lowry base is a proton
A Bronsted-Lowry acid must contain a _…
A Bronsted-Lowry base must be able to…
Donor
Acceptor
Hydrogen atom.
Bond.
A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton ______
Donor
A Bronsted-Lowry base is a proton
Acceptor
16 terms
Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry: Acids/Bases and Enzymes
3 characteristics of an acid
3 characteristics of a base
pH
what does each 1 pH represent
sour taste, dissolve many metals and proton donor( can releas…
bitter taste, feel slippery and proton acceptor
concentration of hydrogen in units
a 10-fold change in hydrogen-ion concentration
3 characteristics of an acid
sour taste, dissolve many metals and proton donor( can releas…
3 characteristics of a base
bitter taste, feel slippery and proton acceptor
77 terms
Acid and Base chemistry Orgo Chapter 2
A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton
A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton
A Brønsted-Lowry acid must contain a _…
A Brønsted-Lowry base must be able to…
donor
acceptor.
hydrogen
proton.
A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton
donor
A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton
acceptor.
61 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases (Central Understanding to Organic Chemistry)
acid
base
acid base reaction
proton transfer reaction
species that loses a proton
species that gains a proton
reaction of an acid and a base
reaction of an acid and a base
acid
species that loses a proton
base
species that gains a proton
65 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Acid
Base
Any species that has a hydrogen can be a
Any species that has a lone pair can b…
species that loses a proton
species that gains a proton
acid
base
Acid
species that loses a proton
Base
species that gains a proton
11 terms
Chemistry #2 Acids & bases
Base
Beta particle
Bohr atom
Conjugate acid
any compound that increase the hydroxide concentration of a s…
an electron
model views electrons as circling the nucleus like a miniatur…
any substance that has a proton that may be donated to a base
Base
any compound that increase the hydroxide concentration of a s…
Beta particle
an electron
16 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases: Central to Understanding Organic Chemistry
Brønsted-Lowry Acid
Brønsted-Lowry Base
Conjugate Base
Conjugate Acid
A species that loses a proton... - It donates... **Any species that…
A species that gains a proton... - It accepts... **Any species that…
Formed by removing a proton from an acid... - Ex. H2O, an acid,…
Formed by adding a proton to a base... - Ex. NH3, a base, with N…
Brønsted-Lowry Acid
A species that loses a proton... - It donates... **Any species that…
Brønsted-Lowry Base
A species that gains a proton... - It accepts... **Any species that…
36 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition…
How to symbolize a generic Bronsted-Lo…
Amphoteric
How to symbolize a generic Bronsted-Lo…
A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor and a Bronsted-Lowry…
H-A. All Bronsted-Lowry acids must contain at least one hydro…
means a substance can act like a Bronsted-Lowry acid or Brons…
B: a Bronsted-Lowry base must contain an "available" electron…
What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition…
A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor and a Bronsted-Lowry…
How to symbolize a generic Bronsted-Lo…
H-A. All Bronsted-Lowry acids must contain at least one hydro…
14 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Bronstead-Lowry Acid
Bronstead-Lowry Bases
Lewis Acid
Lewis Base
proton donors
proton acceptor
electron pair acceptor
electron pair donors
Bronstead-Lowry Acid
proton donors
Bronstead-Lowry Bases
proton acceptor
22 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
acid
base
acidity
basicity
-species that loses a proton... -used to mean a proton-donating…
-a species that gains a proton... -weak = low affinity for a pro…
measure if the tendency of a compound to lose a proton
measure of a compound's affinity for a proton
acid
-species that loses a proton... -used to mean a proton-donating…
base
-a species that gains a proton... -weak = low affinity for a pro…
Chapter 2 Acids and Bases
Functional Groups
Bond Dipole Moment
Molecular Dipole Moment
Dipole-Dipole Forces
Groups that determine the properties of their parent compound…
The measure of the polarity of an individual bond, amount of…
The dipole moment of the molecule taken as a whole, indicator…
Attractive intermolecular forces resulting from the attractio…
Functional Groups
Groups that determine the properties of their parent compound…
Bond Dipole Moment
The measure of the polarity of an individual bond, amount of…
64 terms
Chapter 2 - Acids and Bases
B-L Acid
B-L Base
B-L Acid must have _____
B-L Base must have either ___ or ____
proton (H) donor
proton (H) acceptor
Hydrogen atom (H)
either lone pairs or pi bonds
B-L Acid
proton (H) donor
B-L Base
proton (H) acceptor
15 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Acid (Bronsted)
Base (Bronsted)
Acid-Base Reaction
Proton Transfer Reaction
A substance that loses a proton
A substance that gains a proton.
The reaction of an acid with a base.
The reaction of an acid with a base.
Acid (Bronsted)
A substance that loses a proton
Base (Bronsted)
A substance that gains a proton.
12 terms
Chapter 2 - Acids and Bases
Bronsted-Lowry acid
Bronsted-Lowry base
Counterions
Proton transfer reaction
A proton donor, symbolized HA. Must contain a hydrogen atom
A proton acceptor, symbolized by B. Must be able to form a bo…
An ion that does not take part in a reaction and is opposite…
A Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction; transfer of proton from…
Bronsted-Lowry acid
A proton donor, symbolized HA. Must contain a hydrogen atom
Bronsted-Lowry base
A proton acceptor, symbolized by B. Must be able to form a bo…
9 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
weaker
higher
element, inductive, resonance, hybridi…
increases, increases
Does equilibrium favor stronger acids and bases or weaker aci…
An acid can be deprotonated by the conjugate base of any acid…
What are four factors that determine the acidity?
Element Effects on acidity: Across a row, acidity ___ (increa…
weaker
Does equilibrium favor stronger acids and bases or weaker aci…
higher
An acid can be deprotonated by the conjugate base of any acid…
16 terms
BioChem: Chapter 2 (Acids, Bases, and Buffers)
Bronsted acid
Bronsted base
Equilibrium constant
Dissociation Constant
a substance that can donate a proton
a substance that can accept a proton
Bronsted acid
a substance that can donate a proton
Bronsted base
a substance that can accept a proton
22 terms
Chapter 2 - Acids and Bases: Central to Understanding Organic Chemistry
acid (Brønsted acid)
acid-base reaction
acid dissociation constant
acidity
a species that donates a proton (H⁺)
a reaction in which an acid donates a proton to a base
a measure of the degree to which an acid dissociates
a measure of how easily a compound gives up a proton
acid (Brønsted acid)
a species that donates a proton (H⁺)
acid-base reaction
a reaction in which an acid donates a proton to a base
18 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Bronsted-Lowry Acids
Bronsted-Lowry Bases
Acid-Base REaction
Acid Strength and pKa
Proton donors
Proton acceptors
B + H-A ⇌ B⁺-H + A⁻
LOWER pKa = STRONGER acids... HIGHER pKa = WEAKER acids
Bronsted-Lowry Acids
Proton donors
Bronsted-Lowry Bases
Proton acceptors
24 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
A _________ _______ is a species that…
A _______-_______ reaction is a reacti…
the _______ _______ constant is a meas…
A _______ _______ is a species that ac…
Bronstead Acid
acid-base
acid dissociation
bronstead base
A _________ _______ is a species that…
Bronstead Acid
A _______-_______ reaction is a reacti…
acid-base
37 terms
Chemistry 2 Acids & Bases
Sulfuric Acid
Perchloric Acid
Chloric Acid
Nitric Acid
H2SO4
HClO4
HClO3
HNO3
Sulfuric Acid
H2SO4
Perchloric Acid
HClO4
38 terms
Chemistry Chapter 15 Acids and Bases
A Brønsted acid is a
A Brønsted base is a
Arrhenius acid is
autoionization of water.
proton donor
proton acceptor
a substance that produces H+ (H3O+) in water
is an ionization reaction in pure water or an aqueous solutio…
A Brønsted acid is a
proton donor
A Brønsted base is a
proton acceptor
23 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
An acid molecule ____ protons and form…
The stronger the acid, the ____ the co…
The ___ ___ ___, or Ka, measures acid…
Acids strengths based on Pka levels:... v…
loses; conjugate base... gains; conjugate acid... reversible
weaker... right; top... left; bottom
acid dissociation constant; ... 10^-Pka or (hydronium)(base)/(ac…
< 1 (gives away most protons)... 1-3... 3-5... 5-15... >15
An acid molecule ____ protons and form…
loses; conjugate base... gains; conjugate acid... reversible
The stronger the acid, the ____ the co…
weaker... right; top... left; bottom
29 terms
Chapter 2 : Acids and Bases
Bronsted Lowry acid
Bronsted Lowry base
acid-base reaction/ proton transfer re…
Acid-base reactions are
a species that loses a proton
a species that gains a proton
the reaction of an acid with a base
reversible
Bronsted Lowry acid
a species that loses a proton
Bronsted Lowry base
a species that gains a proton
17 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2: Acid and Bases: Functional Groups
Types of intermolercular forces
Determine boiling point
Determine melting point
Solubility in water
van der waals... dipole-dipole... hydrogen bonding OH NH FH... ion-ion
intermolecular forces (stronger forces - higher boiling point…
break some intermolecular bonds: increasing strength of inter…
rule of 5: 5 or less carbons for a polar functional group it…
Types of intermolercular forces
van der waals... dipole-dipole... hydrogen bonding OH NH FH... ion-ion
Determine boiling point
intermolecular forces (stronger forces - higher boiling point…
13 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Arrhenius Acid
Arrhenius Base
Brønsted-Lowry Acid
Brønsted-Lowry Base
substance dissolves in water to produce H⁺
substance dissolves in water to produce OH⁻
donates a hydrogen ion
accepts the hydrogen ion
Arrhenius Acid
substance dissolves in water to produce H⁺
Arrhenius Base
substance dissolves in water to produce OH⁻
33 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Acid Base Reaction
What is a Brønsted acid (HA) ?
What is a Brønsted base (B) ?
Can A- be neutral?
HA + B <----------> HB+ + A-
Donates a proton to form the conjugate base: A-
Accepts a proton to form the conjugate acid: HB+
Yes, charge is defined by the acid/base interaction
Acid Base Reaction
HA + B <----------> HB+ + A-
What is a Brønsted acid (HA) ?
Donates a proton to form the conjugate base: A-
10 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
aAround what pKa is an alcohol?
Around what pKa is water?
Around what pKa is a carboxylic acid?
Around what pKa is a protonated amine?
~15
~15
~5
~10
aAround what pKa is an alcohol?
~15
Around what pKa is water?
~15
Chemistry Chapter 18 Acids and Bases
acidic solution
basic solution
Arrhenius model
Bronsted-Lowry model
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
a model of acids and bases which states that an acid is a sub…
a model of acids and bases in which an acid is a hydrogen-ion…
acidic solution
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
basic solution
contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
30 terms
Chemistry 2: Acids and Bases
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
Bronsted-Lowry acid
Bronsted-Lowry base
H⁺ producer
OH⁻ producer
H⁺ donor
H⁺ acceptor
Arrhenius acid
H⁺ producer
Arrhenius base
OH⁻ producer
71 terms
Chemistry | Chapter 10 | Acids and Bases
Arrhenius Acid Defintion
Arrhenius Base Definition
Arrhenius Acid Examples
Arrhenius Base Example
Will dissociate to form an excess of H⁺ in a colution
Will dissociate to form an excess of OH⁻ in a colution
HCl... HNO₃... H₂SO₄
NaOH... Ca(OH)₂... Fe(OH)₃
Arrhenius Acid Defintion
Will dissociate to form an excess of H⁺ in a colution
Arrhenius Base Definition
Will dissociate to form an excess of OH⁻ in a colution
47 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases; Functional Groups
acid chloride
acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
an acid derivative with a chlorine atom in place of the hydro…
the equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with wa…
dissociates in water to give H3O+
dissociates in water to give -OH
acid chloride
an acid derivative with a chlorine atom in place of the hydro…
acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
the equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with wa…
Chemistry Chapter 15: Acids and Bases
Arrhenius: aqueous
Bronsted-Lowry:
Lewis
Conjugates
• Acid: gives H+... • Base: gives OH-
• Acid: H+ (proton) donor... • Base: H+ acceptor ; need a lone p…
• Acid: electron pair acceptor... • Base: electron pair donor (E…
one proton less or one proton more... relationship.
Arrhenius: aqueous
• Acid: gives H+... • Base: gives OH-
Bronsted-Lowry:
• Acid: H+ (proton) donor... • Base: H+ acceptor ; need a lone p…
25 terms
Chemistry: Chapter 15: Acids and Bases
acid
base
Monoprotic Acid
Polyprotic Acid
Bronsted and Lowry described a(n) ___________ as a molecule o…
Bronsted and Lowry described a(n) ___________ as a molecule o…
acids with only one proton to donate per molecule
acids with more than one proton per molecule to donate
acid
Bronsted and Lowry described a(n) ___________ as a molecule o…
base
Bronsted and Lowry described a(n) ___________ as a molecule o…
16 terms
Chapter 2:Acids and Bases
Bronsted-lowery acid
Bronsted-lowery base
What is the result of a Bronsted-lower…
The net charge must be the same on bot…
Proton donor
Proton acceptor
The transfer of a proton from an acid to a base.
The net charge must be the same on both sides of any equation
Bronsted-lowery acid
Proton donor
Bronsted-lowery base
Proton acceptor
Chemistry 2 - Acids and Bases
Acid Ionization Constant
Conjugate Acid/Base Pair
pH
Self-Ionization
Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak acid
Two species in an acid (base reaction - one acid, one base) t…
(Potential Hydrogen) the negative of a logarithm of a molar h…
(Auto Ionization) a reaction in which two like molecules reac…
Acid Ionization Constant
Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak acid
Conjugate Acid/Base Pair
Two species in an acid (base reaction - one acid, one base) t…
16 terms
Chapter 2c - Water, Acids, Bases
Solvent
Solute
Solution
Hydrophobic
*A substance that can dissolve another substance, or in which…
*A substance that is dissolved in another substance. Any subs…
* mixture in which the particles of one or more substances ar…
*uncharged and nonpolar compounds do not dissolve in water be…
Solvent
*A substance that can dissolve another substance, or in which…
Solute
*A substance that is dissolved in another substance. Any subs…
26 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a
A Brønsted-Lowry base is a
A Brønsted-Lowry acid must contain a
A Brønsted-Lowry base must contain...
proton donor
proton acceptor
hydrogen atom (HA)
an "available" electron pair (lone pairs or π bonds)
A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a
proton donor
A Brønsted-Lowry base is a
proton acceptor
39 terms
Chemistry 2: Acids and Bases
Acids
Bases
Acid
Base
aqueous acidic solutions are electrolytes... tastes sour... turns r…
aqueous solutions are electrolytes... tastes bitter... turns blue... f…
a compound that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
a compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
Acids
aqueous acidic solutions are electrolytes... tastes sour... turns r…
Bases
aqueous solutions are electrolytes... tastes bitter... turns blue... f…
17 terms
Chemistry Concept 2: Acids & Bases
acid
base
ion
hydronium ion
a chemical that increases the # of H₃O⁺ ions
a chemical that increases the # of OH⁻ ions
a molecule that has either a positive charge or a negative ch…
H₃O⁺
acid
a chemical that increases the # of H₃O⁺ ions
base
a chemical that increases the # of OH⁻ ions
51 terms
Chemistry test 2 - acids and bases
acid
tri
base
electrostatic attraction
a proton donor (hydrogen ions) H+
three
a proton acceptor
force of attraction in a covalent bond between the nucleus an…
acid
a proton donor (hydrogen ions) H+
tri
three
35 terms
Chemistry 2: Acids and Bases
Double Replacement Reactions
Double Replacement Reactions Formula
What are the two types of double repla…
Precipitation Reaction
ions of each compound exchanges places in an aqueous solution…
AB + CD = AD + CB
Precipitation Reaction, Acid/Base Neutralization Reaction
double replacement reaction that forms a precipitate(solid) p…
Double Replacement Reactions
ions of each compound exchanges places in an aqueous solution…
Double Replacement Reactions Formula
AB + CD = AD + CB
32 terms
Chemistry Chapter 19: Bases and Acids
Acids
bases
Arrhenius Acids
Monoprotic acids
taste sour, change the color of an acid base indicator, can b…
taste bitter, feel slippery, will change the color of an acid…
Acids are hydrogen containing compounds, ionize to yield hydr…
acids that contain 1 ionizable hydrogen such as nitric acid (…
Acids
taste sour, change the color of an acid base indicator, can b…
bases
taste bitter, feel slippery, will change the color of an acid…
27 terms
Chemistry 2: Acids & Bases
H2CO3
HF
HNO2
CH3COOH
Weak Acid
Weak Acid
Weak Acid
Weak Acid
H2CO3
Weak Acid
HF
Weak Acid
81 terms
Chapter 2: Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases
Draw a covalent, polar, and ionic bond
True/False: ALL bonds have some covale…
What is electronegativity?
Describe how electrons are and aren't…
True
The ability of an atom to attract electrons toward itself
Draw a covalent, polar, and ionic bond
True/False: ALL bonds have some covale…
True
24 terms
Chapter 2: Acids & Bases (book)
acid (Brønsted acid)
acid-base reaction
acid dissociation constant
acidity
a species that donates a proton.
a reaction in which an acid donates a proton to a base.
a measure of the degree to which an acid dissociates.
a measure of how easily a compound gives up a proton.
acid (Brønsted acid)
a species that donates a proton.
acid-base reaction
a reaction in which an acid donates a proton to a base.
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