Study sets matching "chemistry acids bases chapter 2"

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Study sets matching "chemistry acids bases chapter 2"

26 terms
Organic Chemistry - Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Arrhenius Acids are substances that io…
Arrhenius Bases are substances that io…
smaller pKa have...
larger pKa have...
hydronium (H3O^+) ions
hydroxide (OH^-) ions
Stronger acids
Weaker acids
Arrhenius Acids are substances that io…
hydronium (H3O^+) ions
Arrhenius Bases are substances that io…
hydroxide (OH^-) ions
18 terms
Chapter 2: Acid-Base Chemistry
pK
pH
equilibrium constant
Keq of water
describes its tendency to ionize
depends on the pK and the concentrations of the acid and its…
expressed as Keq, extent of ionization of water in cells defi…
[H+][OH-] / [H2O]
pK
describes its tendency to ionize
pH
depends on the pK and the concentrations of the acid and its…
38 terms
Chapter 2: Acids & Bases
Bronsted-Lowry Acid (H-A)
Bronsted-Lowry Base (B:)
pKa/Ka and Acid Strength:... pka =-log(Ka…
Acidity/Basicity Relationship:
proton donor... -Must contain a proton... -The net charge may be (+…
proton acceptor... -Must contain a lone pair of electrons or a p…
-The lower the pKa, the stronger the acid... -The higher the Ka,…
-Strong acid, weaker conjugate base... -Strong base, weaker conj…
Bronsted-Lowry Acid (H-A)
proton donor... -Must contain a proton... -The net charge may be (+…
Bronsted-Lowry Base (B:)
proton acceptor... -Must contain a lone pair of electrons or a p…
63 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Brønsted-Lowry Acid
Brønsted-Lowry Base
Charged species such as -OH and -NH2 a…
Cations in acid and base reactions are…
-Proton Donor... -Must contain hydrogen atom... -General symbol: H-A
-Proton Acceptor... -Must be able to form a bond to a proton... -Mu…
Salts
-Spectator ions/Counterions ... -Inconsequential
Brønsted-Lowry Acid
-Proton Donor... -Must contain hydrogen atom... -General symbol: H-A
Brønsted-Lowry Base
-Proton Acceptor... -Must be able to form a bond to a proton... -Mu…
27 terms
chapter 2- acids and bases
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
Bronstead lowry acid
Bronstead lowry base
a substance that produces H3O+ ions (hydronium ion) in aqueou…
a substance that produces OH- ions in aqueous solution
a substance that donates a proton
a substance that accepts a proton
Arrhenius acid
a substance that produces H3O+ ions (hydronium ion) in aqueou…
Arrhenius base
a substance that produces OH- ions in aqueous solution
Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry: Acids/Bases and Enzymes
3 characteristics of an acid
3 characteristics of a base
pH
what does each 1 pH represent
sour taste, dissolve many metals and proton donor( can releas…
bitter taste, feel slippery and proton acceptor
concentration of hydrogen in units
a 10-fold change in hydrogen-ion concentration
3 characteristics of an acid
sour taste, dissolve many metals and proton donor( can releas…
3 characteristics of a base
bitter taste, feel slippery and proton acceptor
24 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton ______
A Bronsted-Lowry base is a proton
A Bronsted-Lowry acid must contain a _…
A Bronsted-Lowry base must be able to…
Donor
Acceptor
Hydrogen atom.
Bond.
A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton ______
Donor
A Bronsted-Lowry base is a proton
Acceptor
14 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Bronstead-Lowry Acid
Bronstead-Lowry Bases
Lewis Acid
Lewis Base
proton donors
proton acceptor
electron pair acceptor
electron pair donors
Bronstead-Lowry Acid
proton donors
Bronstead-Lowry Bases
proton acceptor
77 terms
Acid and Base chemistry Orgo Chapter 2
A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton
A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton
A Brønsted-Lowry acid must contain a _…
A Brønsted-Lowry base must be able to…
donor
acceptor.
hydrogen
proton.
A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton
donor
A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton
acceptor.
6 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Acid
Bases
Acids (Physical)
Acids (Chemical)
An acid increases the number of positively charged ions in a…
A base increases the number of negatively charged ions in a s…
- Taste Sour... - Conduct an Electrical Current
- Corrosive... - React Violently with Metals... - Change the Color…
Acid
An acid increases the number of positively charged ions in a…
Bases
A base increases the number of negatively charged ions in a s…
Chemistry Chapter 18 Acids and Bases
acidic solution
basic solution
Arrhenius model
Bronsted-Lowry model
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
a model of acids and bases which states that an acid is a sub…
a model of acids and bases in which an acid is a hydrogen-ion…
acidic solution
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
basic solution
contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
22 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
acid
base
acidity
basicity
-species that loses a proton... -used to mean a proton-donating…
-a species that gains a proton... -weak = low affinity for a pro…
measure if the tendency of a compound to lose a proton
measure of a compound's affinity for a proton
acid
-species that loses a proton... -used to mean a proton-donating…
base
-a species that gains a proton... -weak = low affinity for a pro…
Chemistry #2 Acids & bases
Base
Beta particle
Bohr atom
Conjugate acid
any compound that increase the hydroxide concentration of a s…
an electron
model views electrons as circling the nucleus like a miniatur…
any substance that has a proton that may be donated to a base
Base
any compound that increase the hydroxide concentration of a s…
Beta particle
an electron
Chapter 2 - Acids and Bases
Bronsted-Lowry acid
Bronsted-Lowry base
Counterions
Proton transfer reaction
A proton donor, symbolized HA. Must contain a hydrogen atom
A proton acceptor, symbolized by B. Must be able to form a bo…
An ion that does not take part in a reaction and is opposite…
A Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction; transfer of proton from…
Bronsted-Lowry acid
A proton donor, symbolized HA. Must contain a hydrogen atom
Bronsted-Lowry base
A proton acceptor, symbolized by B. Must be able to form a bo…
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
weaker
higher
element, inductive, resonance, hybridi…
increases, increases
Does equilibrium favor stronger acids and bases or weaker aci…
An acid can be deprotonated by the conjugate base of any acid…
What are four factors that determine the acidity?
Element Effects on acidity: Across a row, acidity ___ (increa…
weaker
Does equilibrium favor stronger acids and bases or weaker aci…
higher
An acid can be deprotonated by the conjugate base of any acid…
Chapter 2 Acids and Bases
Functional Groups
Bond Dipole Moment
Molecular Dipole Moment
Dipole-Dipole Forces
Groups that determine the properties of their parent compound…
The measure of the polarity of an individual bond, amount of…
The dipole moment of the molecule taken as a whole, indicator…
Attractive intermolecular forces resulting from the attractio…
Functional Groups
Groups that determine the properties of their parent compound…
Bond Dipole Moment
The measure of the polarity of an individual bond, amount of…
Chapter 2 - Acids and Bases
B-L Acid
B-L Base
B-L Acid must have _____
B-L Base must have either ___ or ____
proton (H) donor
proton (H) acceptor
Hydrogen atom (H)
either lone pairs or pi bonds
B-L Acid
proton (H) donor
B-L Base
proton (H) acceptor
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases (Central Understanding to Organic Chemistry)
acid
base
acid base reaction
proton transfer reaction
species that loses a proton
species that gains a proton
reaction of an acid and a base
reaction of an acid and a base
acid
species that loses a proton
base
species that gains a proton
38 terms
Chemistry Chapter 15 Acids and Bases
A Brønsted acid is a
A Brønsted base is a
Arrhenius acid is
autoionization of water.
proton donor
proton acceptor
a substance that produces H+ (H3O+) in water
is an ionization reaction in pure water or an aqueous solutio…
A Brønsted acid is a
proton donor
A Brønsted base is a
proton acceptor
21 terms
Organic Chemistry Chapter 2: Acids and Bases; Functional Groups
Bond Dipole Moments
Molecular Dipole Moment
Effect of Branching on Boiling Point
Boiling Points and Intermolecular Forces
-Dipole moments are due to differences in electronegativity.…
-Vector sum of the bond dipole moments.... -Depends on bond pol…
-The long-chain isomer (n-pentane) has the greatest surface a…
-Hydrogen bonding increases the boiling point of the molecule.
Bond Dipole Moments
-Dipole moments are due to differences in electronegativity.…
Molecular Dipole Moment
-Vector sum of the bond dipole moments.... -Depends on bond pol…
22 terms
Chapter 2 - Acids and Bases: Central to Understanding Organic Chemistry
acid (Brønsted acid)
acid-base reaction
acid dissociation constant
acidity
a species that donates a proton (H⁺)
a reaction in which an acid donates a proton to a base
a measure of the degree to which an acid dissociates
a measure of how easily a compound gives up a proton
acid (Brønsted acid)
a species that donates a proton (H⁺)
acid-base reaction
a reaction in which an acid donates a proton to a base
BioChem: Chapter 2 (Acids, Bases, and Buffers)
Bronsted acid
Bronsted base
Equilibrium constant
Dissociation Constant
a substance that can donate a proton
a substance that can accept a proton
Bronsted acid
a substance that can donate a proton
Bronsted base
a substance that can accept a proton
15 terms
Acids and bases Chemistry
acidic solution
amphoteric
basic solution
conjugate acid
An acidic solution is any aqueous solution which has a pH < 7.0
of a compound, especially a metal oxide or hydroxide able to…
A basic solution is a liquid mixture that has a pH level grea…
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory,…
acidic solution
An acidic solution is any aqueous solution which has a pH < 7.0
amphoteric
of a compound, especially a metal oxide or hydroxide able to…
65 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Acid
Base
Any species that has a hydrogen can be a
Any species that has a lone pair can b…
species that loses a proton
species that gains a proton
acid
base
Acid
species that loses a proton
Base
species that gains a proton
23 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
An acid molecule ____ protons and form…
The stronger the acid, the ____ the co…
The ___ ___ ___, or Ka, measures acid…
Acids strengths based on Pka levels:... v…
loses; conjugate base... gains; conjugate acid... reversible
weaker... right; top... left; bottom
acid dissociation constant; ... 10^-Pka or (hydronium)(base)/(ac…
< 1 (gives away most protons)... 1-3... 3-5... 5-15... >15
An acid molecule ____ protons and form…
loses; conjugate base... gains; conjugate acid... reversible
The stronger the acid, the ____ the co…
weaker... right; top... left; bottom
24 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
A _________ _______ is a species that…
A _______-_______ reaction is a reacti…
the _______ _______ constant is a meas…
A _______ _______ is a species that ac…
Bronstead Acid
acid-base
acid dissociation
bronstead base
A _________ _______ is a species that…
Bronstead Acid
A _______-_______ reaction is a reacti…
acid-base
29 terms
Chapter 2 : Acids and Bases
Bronsted Lowry acid
Bronsted Lowry base
acid-base reaction/ proton transfer re…
Acid-base reactions are
a species that loses a proton
a species that gains a proton
the reaction of an acid with a base
reversible
Bronsted Lowry acid
a species that loses a proton
Bronsted Lowry base
a species that gains a proton
Chemistry 2 Acids & Bases
Sulfuric Acid
Perchloric Acid
Chloric Acid
Nitric Acid
H2SO4
HClO4
HClO3
HNO3
Sulfuric Acid
H2SO4
Perchloric Acid
HClO4
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Acid (Bronsted)
Base (Bronsted)
Acid-Base Reaction
Proton Transfer Reaction
A substance that loses a proton
A substance that gains a proton.
The reaction of an acid with a base.
The reaction of an acid with a base.
Acid (Bronsted)
A substance that loses a proton
Base (Bronsted)
A substance that gains a proton.
7 terms
Chemistry-Acids and Bases 2
an electronic devise to quickly measur…
an acid or base that undergoes dissoci…
if an acid has 2 hydrogen that can be…
if an acid has 3 ionizable hydrogen s…
pH meter
acid base indicator
diprotic
triprotic
an electronic devise to quickly measur…
pH meter
an acid or base that undergoes dissoci…
acid base indicator
Chemistry: Chapter 15: Acids and Bases
acid
base
Monoprotic Acid
Polyprotic Acid
Bronsted and Lowry described a(n) ___________ as a molecule o…
Bronsted and Lowry described a(n) ___________ as a molecule o…
acids with only one proton to donate per molecule
acids with more than one proton per molecule to donate
acid
Bronsted and Lowry described a(n) ___________ as a molecule o…
base
Bronsted and Lowry described a(n) ___________ as a molecule o…
Chemistry 2 - Acids and Bases
Acid Ionization Constant
Conjugate Acid/Base Pair
pH
Self-Ionization
Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak acid
Two species in an acid (base reaction - one acid, one base) t…
(Potential Hydrogen) the negative of a logarithm of a molar h…
(Auto Ionization) a reaction in which two like molecules reac…
Acid Ionization Constant
Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak acid
Conjugate Acid/Base Pair
Two species in an acid (base reaction - one acid, one base) t…
39 terms
Chemistry 2: Acids and Bases
Acids
Bases
Acid
Base
aqueous acidic solutions are electrolytes... tastes sour... turns r…
aqueous solutions are electrolytes... tastes bitter... turns blue... f…
a compound that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
a compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
Acids
aqueous acidic solutions are electrolytes... tastes sour... turns r…
Bases
aqueous solutions are electrolytes... tastes bitter... turns blue... f…
Chemistry Chapter 15: Acids and Bases
Arrhenius: aqueous
Bronsted-Lowry:
Lewis
Conjugates
• Acid: gives H+... • Base: gives OH-
• Acid: H+ (proton) donor... • Base: H+ acceptor ; need a lone p…
• Acid: electron pair acceptor... • Base: electron pair donor (E…
one proton less or one proton more... relationship.
Arrhenius: aqueous
• Acid: gives H+... • Base: gives OH-
Bronsted-Lowry:
• Acid: H+ (proton) donor... • Base: H+ acceptor ; need a lone p…
Chemistry Chapter 18 (Acids and Bases) pt.2
a substance whose solution is a good c…
The ability to conduct an electric cur…
The ability to conduct can also result…
According to Arrhenius, an acid is a s…
strong electrolyte
dissociation
ionization
hydrogen ion
a substance whose solution is a good c…
strong electrolyte
The ability to conduct an electric cur…
dissociation
35 terms
Chemistry 2: Acids and Bases
Double Replacement Reactions
Double Replacement Reactions Formula
What are the two types of double repla…
Precipitation Reaction
ions of each compound exchanges places in an aqueous solution…
AB + CD = AD + CB
Precipitation Reaction, Acid/Base Neutralization Reaction
double replacement reaction that forms a precipitate(solid) p…
Double Replacement Reactions
ions of each compound exchanges places in an aqueous solution…
Double Replacement Reactions Formula
AB + CD = AD + CB
10 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
aAround what pKa is an alcohol?
Around what pKa is water?
Around what pKa is a carboxylic acid?
Around what pKa is a protonated amine?
~15
~15
~5
~10
aAround what pKa is an alcohol?
~15
Around what pKa is water?
~15
33 terms
Biochemistry Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
Acid Base Reaction
What is a Brønsted acid (HA) ?
What is a Brønsted base (B) ?
Can A- be neutral?
HA + B <----------> HB+ + A-
Donates a proton to form the conjugate base: A-
Accepts a proton to form the conjugate acid: HB+
Yes, charge is defined by the acid/base interaction
Acid Base Reaction
HA + B <----------> HB+ + A-
What is a Brønsted acid (HA) ?
Donates a proton to form the conjugate base: A-
16 terms
Chapter 2:Acids and Bases
Bronsted-lowery acid
Bronsted-lowery base
What is the result of a Bronsted-lower…
The net charge must be the same on bot…
Proton donor
Proton acceptor
The transfer of a proton from an acid to a base.
The net charge must be the same on both sides of any equation
Bronsted-lowery acid
Proton donor
Bronsted-lowery base
Proton acceptor
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases; Functional Groups
acid chloride
acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
an acid derivative with a chlorine atom in place of the hydro…
the equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with wa…
dissociates in water to give H3O+
dissociates in water to give -OH
acid chloride
an acid derivative with a chlorine atom in place of the hydro…
acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
the equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with wa…
51 terms
Chemistry test 2 - acids and bases
acid
tri
base
electrostatic attraction
a proton donor (hydrogen ions) H+
three
a proton acceptor
force of attraction in a covalent bond between the nucleus an…
acid
a proton donor (hydrogen ions) H+
tri
three
44 terms
Chemistry: Acids and Bases
acid
acid
acid
acid
Acid or Base?... H+ + anion
Acid or Base?... pH < 7
Acid or Base?... corrode metal
Acid or Base?... taste sour
acid
Acid or Base?... H+ + anion
acid
Acid or Base?... pH < 7
21 terms
Modern Chemistry: Chapter 14 ACIDS AND BASES
binary acid
oxyacid
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
an acid that contains only two different elements: hydrogen a…
an acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third e…
a chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydro…
a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ion…
binary acid
an acid that contains only two different elements: hydrogen a…
oxyacid
an acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third e…
27 terms
Chemistry 2: Acids & Bases
H2CO3
HF
HNO2
CH3COOH
Weak Acid
Weak Acid
Weak Acid
Weak Acid
H2CO3
Weak Acid
HF
Weak Acid
26 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a
A Brønsted-Lowry base is a
A Brønsted-Lowry acid must contain a
A Brønsted-Lowry base must contain...
proton donor
proton acceptor
hydrogen atom (HA)
an "available" electron pair (lone pairs or π bonds)
A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a
proton donor
A Brønsted-Lowry base is a
proton acceptor
Chemistry 2: Acids and Bases
Arrhenius acid
Arrhenius base
Bronsted-Lowry acid
Bronsted-Lowry base
H⁺ producer
OH⁻ producer
H⁺ donor
H⁺ acceptor
Arrhenius acid
H⁺ producer
Arrhenius base
OH⁻ producer
24 terms
Chapter 2: Acids & Bases (book)
acid (Brønsted acid)
acid-base reaction
acid dissociation constant
acidity
a species that donates a proton.
a reaction in which an acid donates a proton to a base.
a measure of the degree to which an acid dissociates.
a measure of how easily a compound gives up a proton.
acid (Brønsted acid)
a species that donates a proton.
acid-base reaction
a reaction in which an acid donates a proton to a base.
36 terms
Chapter 2: Acids and Bases
What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition…
How to symbolize a generic Bronsted-Lo…
Amphoteric
How to symbolize a generic Bronsted-Lo…
A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor and a Bronsted-Lowry…
H-A. All Bronsted-Lowry acids must contain at least one hydro…
means a substance can act like a Bronsted-Lowry acid or Brons…
B: a Bronsted-Lowry base must contain an "available" electron…
What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition…
A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor and a Bronsted-Lowry…
How to symbolize a generic Bronsted-Lo…
H-A. All Bronsted-Lowry acids must contain at least one hydro…
16 terms
Chapter 2c - Water, Acids, Bases
Solvent
Solute
Solution
Hydrophobic
*A substance that can dissolve another substance, or in which…
*A substance that is dissolved in another substance. Any subs…
* mixture in which the particles of one or more substances ar…
*uncharged and nonpolar compounds do not dissolve in water be…
Solvent
*A substance that can dissolve another substance, or in which…
Solute
*A substance that is dissolved in another substance. Any subs…
Chemistry 2 Acids and Bases
HCl
HBr
HI
HNO3
SA
SA
SA
SA
HCl
SA
HBr
SA
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