Study sets matching "chemistry chapter 2 atoms molecules"

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Study sets matching "chemistry chapter 2 atoms molecules"

41 terms
Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms & Molecules
Continuous Theory of Matter
Democritus
Discontinued Theory of Matter
Antoine Lavoisier
concept of early philosophers where one could continuously br…
Greek philosopher who noticed that sand was actually thousand…
Matter made up of thousands of little individual particles (b…
Late 1700s philosopher who came up with the law of conservati…
Continuous Theory of Matter
concept of early philosophers where one could continuously br…
Democritus
Greek philosopher who noticed that sand was actually thousand…
AP Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, & Ions
John Dalton
Dalton's Theory (4)
Law Of Constant Composition
Law of Conservation of Matter
An English Schoolteacher who developed an atomic theory from…
(1) An element is composed of atoms... (2) All atoms are identic…
In a given compound, the relative quantity and type of atoms…
The total mass of the materials before a chemical change is t…
John Dalton
An English Schoolteacher who developed an atomic theory from…
Dalton's Theory (4)
(1) An element is composed of atoms... (2) All atoms are identic…
Chemistry Chapter 2 Test: Atoms, Molecules and Ions
Law of Definite Proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
Dalton's Atomic Theory
the two modifications to Dalton's theory
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportions…
when 2 elements combine to form a series of compounds, the ra…
1. all matter is made of atoms, which are indivisible and ind…
1. subatomic particles were discovered... 2. isotopes were disco…
Law of Definite Proportions
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportions…
Law of Multiple Proportions
when 2 elements combine to form a series of compounds, the ra…
Chemistry 105-Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
What did Antoine Lavoisier do?
law of conservation of mass
Law of Definite proportion
What was Rutherford's experiment?
Antoine Lavoisier identified/ named oxygen, named hydrogen, h…
matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
samples of a given compound always contain exactly the same p…
rutherford shot alpha particles at thin metal foil, most part…
What did Antoine Lavoisier do?
Antoine Lavoisier identified/ named oxygen, named hydrogen, h…
law of conservation of mass
matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
69 terms
Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Element
Periodic Table
Periods
Groups
a fundamental substance that can't be chemically changed or b…
an organized format of the names, symbols, and other informat…
7 horizontal rows of the periodic table
18 vertical columns; elements in a given group have similar c…
Element
a fundamental substance that can't be chemically changed or b…
Periodic Table
an organized format of the names, symbols, and other informat…
206 terms
General Chemistry (Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions)
What is the Atomic theory
True or False: All matter is composed…
What is an atom
What is an element?
the explanation of the structure of matter in terms of differ…
False: atoms are not truly indivisible, they are themselves m…
an extremely small particle of matter that retains its identi…
a type of matter composed of only one kind of atom. A substan…
What is the Atomic theory
the explanation of the structure of matter in terms of differ…
True or False: All matter is composed…
False: atoms are not truly indivisible, they are themselves m…
Chemistry Chapter 2- Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Elements
Abundance
Chemical Symbol
Dalton's Atomic Theory (1807)
Over 188 known, of which 88 are found in nature
The percentage found in nature ... *Oxygen is the most abundent…
A symbol given to an element ranging from one to two letters
1-Elements are comosed of atoms... 2-All atoms of a given elemen…
Elements
Over 188 known, of which 88 are found in nature
Abundance
The percentage found in nature ... *Oxygen is the most abundent…
23 terms
Chapter 2 Chemistry: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Law of definite proportions
Law of conservation of mass
Atom
Radiation
Different samples of the same compound always contain it's co…
Matter is neither created nor destroyed
He basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical reac…
The emission and transmission of energy through space in the…
Law of definite proportions
Different samples of the same compound always contain it's co…
Law of conservation of mass
Matter is neither created nor destroyed
40 terms
General Chemistry: Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, Ions
atom
radioactivity
Svante Arrhenius
G. Johnstone Stoney
basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical combina…
spontaneous emission of particles and/or radiation
electrically charge atoms in a salt solution (cations and ani…
saw static electricity from amber/wool. Called unit of electr…
atom
basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical combina…
radioactivity
spontaneous emission of particles and/or radiation
35 terms
Chemistry Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds
Element
Relative Mass Scale
1 AMU =
Atomic Number
A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler from by "o…
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) Scale
1.661 x 10^-24
(z) Number of Protons
Element
A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler from by "o…
Relative Mass Scale
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) Scale
74 terms
Chemistry: Chapter 2- Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Dalton's Atomic Theory
carbon
hydrogen
oxygen
1. Elements are composed of small particles, "atom"... 2. all at…
C
H
O
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. Elements are composed of small particles, "atom"... 2. all at…
carbon
C
10 terms
Chemistry Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
ion
cation
anion
monatomic ion
an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative net…
ion with POSITIVE CHARGE
ion with NEGATIVE CHARGE
has 1 ion
ion
an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative net…
cation
ion with POSITIVE CHARGE
67 terms
Chemistry Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
law of definite proportions
law of multiple proportions
law of conservation of mass
atom
different samples of the same compound always contain its con…
if two elements can combine to form more than one compound, t…
matter can neither be created nor destroyed
basic unit of an element that can enter into a chemical combi…
law of definite proportions
different samples of the same compound always contain its con…
law of multiple proportions
if two elements can combine to form more than one compound, t…
42 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportion
Law of Multiple Proportions
Atomic Masses
Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
A law stating that when two elements form a series of compoun…
The weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurri…
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
Law of Definite Proportion
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Overview / Chemistry
Radioactivity
B Rays
X Rays
Y Rays
Spontaneous emission of radiation by an atom
Type of radiation. Negatively charged
Type of radiation. Positively charged
Type of radiation. Carry no charge
Radioactivity
Spontaneous emission of radiation by an atom
B Rays
Type of radiation. Negatively charged
39 terms
Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Atoms
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Multiple Proportions
Subatomic Particles
Building blocks of matter
Matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physic…
When two elements form more than one compound, the masses of…
Particles found within the atom, mainly protons, neutrons, an…
Atoms
Building blocks of matter
Law of Conservation of Mass
Matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physic…
43 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportion
Law of Multiple Proportions
Atomic masses
Mass is neither created nor destroyed
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
A law stating that when two elements form a series of compoun…
Sometimes called atomic weights since mass is often determine…
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed
Law of Definite Proportion
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
58 terms
College Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions
Atomic Theory of Matter
Dalton's Postulates
Law of Constant Compostition
Law of Conservation of Mass
The theory that atoms are the fundamental building blocks of…
1. Each element in composed of extremely small particles call…
states that in a given compound, the relative numbers of atom…
states that the total mass of substances at the end of a chem…
Atomic Theory of Matter
The theory that atoms are the fundamental building blocks of…
Dalton's Postulates
1. Each element in composed of extremely small particles call…
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions ( AP Chemistry, Chapter 2)
Acid
Alkali metals
Alkaline earth metals
Allotrope
Any substance that donates protons or as Lewis acids are elec…
The extremely reactive elements in the first group (column) o…
Tha very reactive elements in the second group (column) of th…
One or more distinct forms of an element: classification as a…
Acid
Any substance that donates protons or as Lewis acids are elec…
Alkali metals
The extremely reactive elements in the first group (column) o…
34 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2 - Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Aristotle
Democritus
Robert Boyle
Priestly
4 elements - earth, air, fire, water
matter was composed of small indivisible particles called ato…
research destroyed connotion of only 4 elements
credited with discovery of oxygen
Aristotle
4 elements - earth, air, fire, water
Democritus
matter was composed of small indivisible particles called ato…
37 terms
Chemistry Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, & Molecules
Subatomic particles
Cathode rays
Electron
Ion
neutrons, protons, & electrons in an atom
streams of electrons entitled by the cathode in a partially e…
a subatomic particle that has a relative charge of 1- & essen…
an atom or molecule that has a positive or negative charge
Subatomic particles
neutrons, protons, & electrons in an atom
Cathode rays
streams of electrons entitled by the cathode in a partially e…
40 terms
Chemistry Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules and ions
Daltons atomic theory
Subatomic particles
Cathode rays
Radioactivity
Each element is composed of extremely small particles called…
What the atom is composed of
Radiation that when a high voltage is applied to electrodes i…
Spontaneous emission of radiation. Three types of waves.
Daltons atomic theory
Each element is composed of extremely small particles called…
Subatomic particles
What the atom is composed of
Chemistry - Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Atoms
Atoms
atomos
John Dalton
basic building blocks of matter
the smallest units of an element that can combine with other…
meaning "indivisible" or "uncuttable" which is what Democritu…
presented the atomic theory
Atoms
basic building blocks of matter
Atoms
the smallest units of an element that can combine with other…
7 terms
Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
KF
NaCl
Al(OH)3
Na2CO3
potassium fluroide
sodium chloride
aluminum hydroxide
sodium carbonate
KF
potassium fluroide
NaCl
sodium chloride
40 terms
Chemistry -- Chapter 2: Atoms, Ions, and Molecules
periodic table of the elements
period
group/family
radionuclide
a chart of the elements in order of their atomic numbers and…
all the elements in a row of the periodic table
all the elements in a column of the periodic table
a radioactive (unstable) nuclide
periodic table of the elements
a chart of the elements in order of their atomic numbers and…
period
all the elements in a row of the periodic table
AP Chemistry Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, & Ions
Law of conservation of mass
Law of definite proportions
Law of multiple proportions
Dalton's Atomic Theory (4 Parts)
(Lavoisier) Mass is neither created nor destroyed
(Proust) A given cpd always contains exactly the same proport…
(Dalton) When 2 elements form a series of cpds, the ratios of…
(early 1800s)... 1. Each element is composed of extremely small…
Law of conservation of mass
(Lavoisier) Mass is neither created nor destroyed
Law of definite proportions
(Proust) A given cpd always contains exactly the same proport…
23 terms
Chemistry Chapter 2 - Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
4 important figures of atomic structure
Dalton
Thompson
Millikan
Dalton, Thompson, Millikan, Rutherford
smallest chunk of each element is an atom, the atoms of one e…
discovered the electron
discovered the mass of the electron (oil drop experiment)
4 important figures of atomic structure
Dalton, Thompson, Millikan, Rutherford
Dalton
smallest chunk of each element is an atom, the atoms of one e…
32 terms
Chapter 2 Chemistry (Atoms, Ions, Molecules)
Atoms
Essential elements
Trace Elements
Isotope
Protons +... Electrons -... Neutrons no charge
O, H, C, N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cl
Selenium, Chromium, Manganese, Molybdenum
Different number of neutrons.... Any atom that gains or loses n…
Atoms
Protons +... Electrons -... Neutrons no charge
Essential elements
O, H, C, N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cl
27 terms
AP Chemistry: Chapter 2 - Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
What are Dalton's 4 postulates?
What did JJ Thomson discover?
What did Ernest Rutherford discover?
atomic number
1. Each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
rays are the same regardless of the identity of the cathode m…
three types of radiation: alpha, beta, and gamma
same as number of protons
What are Dalton's 4 postulates?
1. Each element is composed of extremely small particles call…
What did JJ Thomson discover?
rays are the same regardless of the identity of the cathode m…
Chapter 2 Atoms and Molecules Vocabulary - Chemistry 120
H
Li
Na
K
Hydrogen
Lithium
Sodium
Potassium
H
Hydrogen
Li
Lithium
Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions
law of conservation of mass
law of definite proportion
law of multiple proportions
Dalton's atomic theory
mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
when 2 element form a series of compounds, the ratios of the…
each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms... the a…
law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
47 terms
Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms, Ions, and Molecules Vocab
subatomic particles
cathode rays
electron
ion
the neutrons, protons, and electrons in an atom
streams of electrons emitted by the cathode in a partially ev…
a subatomic particle that has a relative charge of 1- and ess…
an atom or molecule that has a positive or negative charge
subatomic particles
the neutrons, protons, and electrons in an atom
cathode rays
streams of electrons emitted by the cathode in a partially ev…
Atoms, Molecules and Ions, chemistry chapter 2
How were electrons discovered?
Cathode Ray Tube Experiment
How were neutrons and protons discover…
Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment
-Thomson's cathode ray tube experiment proved the existence o…
-There is a negatively charged cathode, and a positively char…
Rutherford's gold foil experiment
-Alpha particles shot at gold foil; a few bounced back/scatte…
How were electrons discovered?
-Thomson's cathode ray tube experiment proved the existence o…
Cathode Ray Tube Experiment
-There is a negatively charged cathode, and a positively char…
43 terms
Chemistry ( Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions)
Law of Definite Proportions (Proust Law)
Law of Multiple Proportions
Electron
Proton
Different samples of a pure chemical substance always contain…
Elements can combine in different ways to form different subs…
(e-) mass= 0.00054858amu
(p or p+) mass= 1.0073amu
Law of Definite Proportions (Proust Law)
Different samples of a pure chemical substance always contain…
Law of Multiple Proportions
Elements can combine in different ways to form different subs…
39 terms
Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
atom
subatomic particles
cathode rays
radioactive
The smallest representative particle of an element.
Particles such as protons, neutrons, and electrons that are s…
Streams of electrons that are produced when a high voltage is…
The spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus…
atom
The smallest representative particle of an element.
subatomic particles
Particles such as protons, neutrons, and electrons that are s…
40 terms
Chemistry:Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
atom
Democritus
John Dalton
List the 4 Ideas of Dalton's Atomic Th…
atomos, means you cannot divide
proposed that all matter consists of small, indivisible parti…
English scientist and school teacher, formulated the accurate…
(1)all matter is made of atoms, they are indivisible and inde…
atom
atomos, means you cannot divide
Democritus
proposed that all matter consists of small, indivisible parti…
Chemistry Chapter 2 - Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
List the 4 four components of Dalton's…
Mass of Electron
Mass of Proton
Mass of Neutron
1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called…
9.10938 x 10^-28
1.67262 x 10^-24
1.67493 x 10^-24
List the 4 four components of Dalton's…
1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called…
Mass of Electron
9.10938 x 10^-28
46 terms
Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms Molecules and Ions
Who were the first explain why chemica…
Who is the first chemist to perform qu…
What is the "Law of conservation" (Lav…
What is the "Law of definite proportio…
Greeks
Robert Boyle
Mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.
A given compound always contains the same proportion of eleme…
Who were the first explain why chemica…
Greeks
Who is the first chemist to perform qu…
Robert Boyle
Chemistry Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Dalton's Atomic Theory... (5 ideas)
Law of Definite Proportion
Law of Multiple Proportion
Rutherford Experiment
1). Matter is made of atoms. Atoms are the smallest units of…
All samples of a pure compound contain the same elements in t…
Two elements react to form one compound, a fixed mass of one…
Used a high positive charge alpha particles, aimed at gold sh…
Dalton's Atomic Theory... (5 ideas)
1). Matter is made of atoms. Atoms are the smallest units of…
Law of Definite Proportion
All samples of a pure compound contain the same elements in t…
Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
Electron
mass is neither created nor destroyed; French chemist Lavoisi…
"Proust's law"; a given compound always contains exactly the…
when two elements form a series of compounds, the rations of…
An electron is a negatively charged subatomic particle. It ca…
Law of Conservation of Mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed; French chemist Lavoisi…
Law of Definite Proportions
"Proust's law"; a given compound always contains exactly the…
152 terms
General Chemistry Chapter 2 - Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
List of Alkali Metals
Early Greek philosopher who thought th…
postulated the Atomic Theory
1st Postulate of Dalton's Atomic Theory
Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium
Democritus
John Dalton
Each element is composed of extremely small particles called…
List of Alkali Metals
Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium
Early Greek philosopher who thought th…
Democritus
206 terms
Chemistry 1210 Chapter 2: Atoms, molecules, and ions
Democitrus
Plato and Aristotle
John Dalton
postulate 1
described the material world as made up of tiny indivisible p…
these two people formulated the idea that there can be no ult…
formulated the atomic theory which was based on four postulates
each element is composed of extremely small particles call at…
Democitrus
described the material world as made up of tiny indivisible p…
Plato and Aristotle
these two people formulated the idea that there can be no ult…
14 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
Avogadro's Hypothesis
French chemist Mass can neither be created nor destroyed in a…
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
When two elements combine to form a series of compounds, the…
At the same temperature and pressure, different gases contain…
Law of Conservation of Mass
French chemist Mass can neither be created nor destroyed in a…
Law of Definite Proportions
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
49 terms
Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life--Atoms and Molecules
Acid
Acidic
Alkaline
Amphipathic
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of…
A pH below 7 is acidic; contains more H+ ions than hydroxide…
metallic elements in group 2 of the periodic table which are…
A molecule with both a positive and negative pole
Acid
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of…
Acidic
A pH below 7 is acidic; contains more H+ ions than hydroxide…
Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
First Atomic Theory
Why was the first atomic theory trustw…
What time period did John Dalton live…
First concept of the atom
John Dalton
It complied with already established scientific laws
late 1700- early 1800
Democritus
First Atomic Theory
John Dalton
Why was the first atomic theory trustw…
It complied with already established scientific laws
43 terms
AP Chemistry - Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Law of Conservation of Mass
Law of Definite Proportion
Law of Multiple Proportions
Dalton's Atomic Theory
matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
...
1) Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms.... 2)…
Law of Conservation of Mass
matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.
Law of Definite Proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion…
22 terms
chapter 2: chemistry (atoms, molecules, water)
organic chemistry
inorganic chemistry
hydrophilic
hydrophobic
the branch of chemistry, originally limited to substances fou…
the branch of chemistry dealing with inorganic compounds.
having a strong affinity for water.
having little or no affinity for water.
organic chemistry
the branch of chemistry, originally limited to substances fou…
inorganic chemistry
the branch of chemistry dealing with inorganic compounds.
Chemistry: The Central Science - Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
law of conservation of mass
law of multiple proprtions
subatomic particles
cathode rays
the total mass of materials present after a chemical reaction…
if two elements A and B combine to form more than one compoun…
particles smaller than the atom that compose the atom
radiation produced between electrodes when high voltage is ap…
law of conservation of mass
the total mass of materials present after a chemical reaction…
law of multiple proprtions
if two elements A and B combine to form more than one compoun…
43 terms
Chapter 2: atoms, ions, and molecules
Ion
Ionic bond
Covalent bond
Molecule
An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
Formed through the electrical force oppositely charged ions.…
Formed when atoms share apart of an electron, generally very…
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds for example…
Ion
An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
Ionic bond
Formed through the electrical force oppositely charged ions.…
10 terms
Chapter 2: Atoms and Molecules
Polymers
Monomers
Polymer Backbone
Nucleus
Plastics and synthetic fibers (Ex: Plastics, proteins, rubber…
Hundreds or thousands of smaller constituent molecules that m…
The long chain of atoms (usually carbon atoms) running the le…
Small, compact core of an atom
Polymers
Plastics and synthetic fibers (Ex: Plastics, proteins, rubber…
Monomers
Hundreds or thousands of smaller constituent molecules that m…
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