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Study sets matching "chemistry chapter 8"

30 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8
covalent bond
molecule
lewis structure
sigma bond
chemical bond that results from sharing valence electrons
forms when 2 or more atoms bond covalently
representation of the arrangements of electrons in a molecule
single covalent bonds; occurs when the pair of shared electro…
covalent bond
chemical bond that results from sharing valence electrons
molecule
forms when 2 or more atoms bond covalently
41 terms
Pearson Chemistry: Chapter 8
Covalent Bond
Molecule
Diatomic molecule
Molecular compound
Atoms held together by sharing electrons. A bond formed by th…
A neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
A molecule that contains two atoms.
A compound that is composed of molecules.
Covalent Bond
Atoms held together by sharing electrons. A bond formed by th…
Molecule
A neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
16 terms
Glencoe Chemistry Matter and Change-Chapter 8
covalent bond
endothermic reaction
exothermic reaction
Lewis structure
a chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence elec…
a chemical reaction or process in which a greater amount of e…
a chemical reaction or process in which more energy is releas…
a model that uses electron dot structures to show how electro…
covalent bond
a chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence elec…
endothermic reaction
a chemical reaction or process in which a greater amount of e…
19 terms
Chapter 8 Chemistry
Metric Measurement
Scientific Hypothesis
Theory
Atom
Used by scientists and almost every country but US;... largest t…
1) "educated guess"... 2) can be tested... 3) prediction of what an…
Scientific explanation supported by evidence collected over a…
Smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical ide…
Metric Measurement
Used by scientists and almost every country but US;... largest t…
Scientific Hypothesis
1) "educated guess"... 2) can be tested... 3) prediction of what an…
29 terms
Chemistry Terms Chapter 8
triads
Johann Döbereiner
John Newlands
law of octaves
elements in groups of three
grouped certain elements in triads
proposed a different system of classification called the law…
the first is like the eighth, the second is like the ninth, a…
triads
elements in groups of three
Johann Döbereiner
grouped certain elements in triads
30 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8
covalent bond
molecule
lewis structure
sigma bond
chemical bond that results from sharing valence electrons
forms when 2 or more atoms bond covalently
representation of the arrangements of electrons in a molecule
single covalent bonds; occurs when the pair of shared electro…
covalent bond
chemical bond that results from sharing valence electrons
molecule
forms when 2 or more atoms bond covalently
30 terms
CHEMISTRY Pearson Chemistry - Chapter 8
Covalent Bond
Molecule
Diatomic molecule
Molecular compound
A bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms.
A neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
A molecule that contains two atoms.
A compound that is composed of molecules.
Covalent Bond
A bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms.
Molecule
A neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
53 terms
Chemistry: Chapter 8
What is a bond?
Bond Energy
Why Bond?
Characteristics of Ionic bonding
"chemical glue" (a set of forces that holds atoms together as…
The energy required to break a bond. Bond energy indicates th…
Bonding lowers the potential energy of atoms. Alone in ion fo…
(1) it's between a metal (cation) and a nonmetal (anion)... (2)e…
What is a bond?
"chemical glue" (a set of forces that holds atoms together as…
Bond Energy
The energy required to break a bond. Bond energy indicates th…
26 terms
Pearson Chemistry Chapter 8
covalent bond
molecule
diatomic molecule
molecular compound
atoms held together by sharing electrons
a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
a molecule that contains two atoms.
a compound composed of molecules
covalent bond
atoms held together by sharing electrons
molecule
a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
14 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8
Coordinate covalent bond
covalent bond
Van der Waals Forces
dipole-dipole
a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding el…
atoms held together by sharing electrons are joined by ______…
The two weakest attractions between molecules are collectivel…
occur when polar molecules are attracted to one another. The…
Coordinate covalent bond
a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding el…
covalent bond
atoms held together by sharing electrons are joined by ______…
Chemistry Chapter 8 Covalent Bonds
covalent bond
molecule
Lewis structure
sigma bond
a chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence elec…
forms when two or more atoms covalently bond and is lower in…
a model that uses electron dot structures to show how electro…
a single covalent bond that is formed when an electron pair i…
covalent bond
a chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence elec…
molecule
forms when two or more atoms covalently bond and is lower in…
25 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8
chemical bond
octet rule
ion
positive ion
the force that holds two atoms together
atoms lose, gain, or share electrons in order to acquire a fu…
an atom or bonded group of atoms with a positive or negative…
formed when an atom loses one or more electrons in order to a…
chemical bond
the force that holds two atoms together
octet rule
atoms lose, gain, or share electrons in order to acquire a fu…
17 terms
Chapter 8 Chemistry (T)
alloy
anion
cation
chemical bond
mixture of elements that has metallic properties p. 230
another name for a negative ion p. 214
positively charged ion p. 212
force that hold two atoms together; formed by the attraction…
alloy
mixture of elements that has metallic properties p. 230
anion
another name for a negative ion p. 214
14 terms
Chemistry: Chapter 8 vocab
Single covalent bond
Structural formula
Unshared pair
Double covalent bond
A bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons.
A chemical formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in a m…
A pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms.
A bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons.
Single covalent bond
A bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons.
Structural formula
A chemical formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in a m…
41 terms
Pearson Chemistry: Chapter 8
Covalent Bond
Molecule
Diatomic molecule
Molecular compound
Atoms held together by sharing electrons. A bond formed by th…
A neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
A molecule that contains two atoms.
A compound that is composed of molecules.
Covalent Bond
Atoms held together by sharing electrons. A bond formed by th…
Molecule
A neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
33 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8
Linear (bonding regions)(lone pairs)
Linear (bonding regions)(lone pairs)
Trigonal Planar (bonding regions)(lone…
Bent/Angular (bonding regions)(lone pa…
(No central atom) (No Central Atom)
(2)(0)
(3)(0)
(2)(1)
Linear (bonding regions)(lone pairs)
(No central atom) (No Central Atom)
Linear (bonding regions)(lone pairs)
(2)(0)
15 terms
Modern Chemistry Chapter 8
chemical equation
indicators of chemical reaction
precipitate
word equation
group of chemical formulas and numbers that can be used to re…
evolution of energy as heat and light; production of gas; for…
solid produced from chemical reaction in solution and separat…
an equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical…
chemical equation
group of chemical formulas and numbers that can be used to re…
indicators of chemical reaction
evolution of energy as heat and light; production of gas; for…
20 terms
Chemistry chapter 8 Matter and Temperature
Archimedes' Principle
Bernoulli's Principle
buoyant force
Charles Law
States that the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the f…
As the velocity of a fluid increase the pressure exerted by t…
upward force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid
If pressure is kept constant, then as temperature increases,…
Archimedes' Principle
States that the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the f…
Bernoulli's Principle
As the velocity of a fluid increase the pressure exerted by t…
9 terms
CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 8
covalent bond
molecule
force of repulsion
force of attraction
the chemical bond that results from sharing valence electrons
formed when two or more atoms bond covalently
like-charged electrons, like-charged protons
protons that attract the other atom's electron
covalent bond
the chemical bond that results from sharing valence electrons
molecule
formed when two or more atoms bond covalently
30 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8
covalent bond
molecule
lewis structure
sigma bond
chemical bond that results from sharing valence electrons
forms when 2 or more atoms bond covalently
representation of the arrangements of electrons in a molecule
single covalent bonds; occurs when the pair of shared electro…
covalent bond
chemical bond that results from sharing valence electrons
molecule
forms when 2 or more atoms bond covalently
Chemistry chapter 8
Chemical bond
Anion
Cation
Ionic bond
The force that holds two atoms together
An ion that has a negative charge
An ion with a positive charge
The electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particl…
Chemical bond
The force that holds two atoms together
Anion
An ion that has a negative charge
chemistry test (chapter 8)
a molecular formula shows how many ato…
the representative unit of a molecular…
in covalent bonds, electron sharing oc…
in a coordinate covalent bond, the sha…
what information does a molecular formula provide?
what representative units define molecular compounds and ioni…
what is the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds?
how are coordinate covalent bonds different from other covale…
a molecular formula shows how many ato…
what information does a molecular formula provide?
the representative unit of a molecular…
what representative units define molecular compounds and ioni…
81 terms
Chemistry - Chapter 8
oxidation numbers
+1
+2
+1
represent the number of electrons that an atom in a compound…
Alkali metal oxidation numbers
Alkaline-earth metal oxidation numbers
Oxidation number of hydrogen when bonded to another nonmetal.
oxidation numbers
represent the number of electrons that an atom in a compound…
+1
Alkali metal oxidation numbers
19 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8
Ionic Bonds
Covalent Bonds
Metallic Bonds
Lewis Symbols
Forms from an electron transfer from a metal to a nonmetal (c…
Electron pair shared by two atoms (simultaneously in the vale…
Electron sea model: free and mobile electrons within a matrix…
A way to visualize the valence electrons of the atoms with dots
Ionic Bonds
Forms from an electron transfer from a metal to a nonmetal (c…
Covalent Bonds
Electron pair shared by two atoms (simultaneously in the vale…
18 terms
Chapter 8 Chemistry
pyramidal
trigonal planar
tetrahedral
bent
angle - 120 degrees... sp^2 orbitals
angle - 109.5 degrees
angle - 105 degrees
pyramidal
trigonal planar
angle - 120 degrees... sp^2 orbitals
49 terms
Chemistry - Chapter 8
covalent bond
molecule
diatomic molecule
molecular compound
atoms held together by sharing electrons
a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
a molecule consisting of two atoms
a compound composed of molecules
covalent bond
atoms held together by sharing electrons
molecule
a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
18 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8
(s)
(g)
(l)
(aq)
solid
gas
liquid
aqueous
(s)
solid
(g)
gas
103 terms
Chapter 8 Chemistry
Three Quantum Numbers
Fourth Quantum Number
When a beam of atoms that have one or…
Spin Quantum Number (ms)
n, l, and m(l): describe the size (energy), shape, and orient…
Describes a property called spin, which is a property of the…
It splits into two beams. Each electron behaves as if it were…
A number, either +1/2 or -1/2, that indicates the direction o…
Three Quantum Numbers
n, l, and m(l): describe the size (energy), shape, and orient…
Fourth Quantum Number
Describes a property called spin, which is a property of the…
52 terms
Chemistry: Chapter 8
Covalent bond
Molecule
Diatomic molecule
7 diatomic molecules
non-metal atoms held together by sharing electrons joined by…
neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
a molecule consisting of two atoms
H₂, N₂, O₂, F₂, Cl₂, Br₂, and I₂
Covalent bond
non-metal atoms held together by sharing electrons joined by…
Molecule
neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
14 terms
Chapter 8 Chemistry
Covalent Bond
Endothermic reaction
exothermic reaction
Lewis Structure
A chemical bond between two non-metal atoms where pairs of el…
In which a greater amount of energy is required to break the…
In which more energy is released than is required to break bo…
A model that uses electron-dot structures to show how electro…
Covalent Bond
A chemical bond between two non-metal atoms where pairs of el…
Endothermic reaction
In which a greater amount of energy is required to break the…
38 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8
covalent bond
molecular compound
diatomic molecule
molecule
the atoms held together by sharing electrons
a compound composed of molecules; composed of 2 or more diffe…
a molecule consisting of 2 atoms
a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
covalent bond
the atoms held together by sharing electrons
molecular compound
a compound composed of molecules; composed of 2 or more diffe…
34 terms
Chemistry chapter 8
Mono
Di
Tri
Tetra
1
2
3
4
Mono
1
Di
2
28 terms
chemistry chapter 8
alcohol
aldehyde
alkene
amide
an organic compound that has hydroxyl (-OH) group bonded to a…
a class of organic compounds that contains a carbonyl (C=O) g…
a type of hydrocarbon that contains carbon-carbon double bond…
an organic compound in which a carbon containing the carbonyl…
alcohol
an organic compound that has hydroxyl (-OH) group bonded to a…
aldehyde
a class of organic compounds that contains a carbonyl (C=O) g…
23 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8
chemical change
chemical reaction
reactant
product
A change that occurs when one or more substances change into…
the process by which one or more substances change to produce…
A chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemic…
A substance produced in a chemical reaction
chemical change
A change that occurs when one or more substances change into…
chemical reaction
the process by which one or more substances change to produce…
26 terms
AP Chemistry Chapter 8
bond energy
ionic bonding
ionic compound
Coulomb's Law
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal t…
E = 2.31 x 10^-19 (Q1Q2 / r) where E is the energy of interac…
bond energy
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
ionic bonding
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
48 terms
Chapter 8 Chemistry
covalent bond
molecule
example of molecule
diatomic molecule
atoms held together by sharing of electrons
neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
oxygen molecules= each consist of oxygen atoms joined by cova…
consists of two atoms; example is oxygen
covalent bond
atoms held together by sharing of electrons
molecule
neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
20 terms
chemistry chapter 8
quantum mechanics
the periodic table is organized...
nerve signal transmission
Periodic property
- explains how electrons are arranged in atoms and its proper…
according to the atom's properties
it is mediated by ion movement ... - Na+ goes out of the cell ... -…
a property that is predictable based on an elements position…
quantum mechanics
- explains how electrons are arranged in atoms and its proper…
the periodic table is organized...
according to the atom's properties
5 terms
Chemistry: Chapter 8
stoichiometry
limiting reactant
theoretical yield
actual yield
the numerical relationship between chemical quantities in a b…
the reactant that makes the least amount of product; the reac…
the amount of product that can be made in a chemical reaction…
the amount of product actually produced by a chemical reaction
stoichiometry
the numerical relationship between chemical quantities in a b…
limiting reactant
the reactant that makes the least amount of product; the reac…
15 terms
Chemistry: Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions
chemical equation
precipitate
coefficient
word equation
a representation, with symbols and formulas, of the identitie…
a solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction i…
a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a…
an equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical…
chemical equation
a representation, with symbols and formulas, of the identitie…
precipitate
a solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction i…
41 terms
Pearson Chemistry: Chapter 8 - Ketterling
Covalent Bond
Molecule
Diatomic molecule
Molecular compound
Atoms held together by sharing electrons. A bond formed by th…
A neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
A molecule that contains two atoms.
A compound that is composed of molecules.
Covalent Bond
Atoms held together by sharing electrons. A bond formed by th…
Molecule
A neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
15 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8 Vocabulary
Chemical Equation
Coefficient
Formula Equation
Precipitate
A representation, with symbols and formulas, of the identitie…
A small whole number that appears in front of the formula in…
A representation of the reactants and products of a chemical…
A solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction i…
Chemical Equation
A representation, with symbols and formulas, of the identitie…
Coefficient
A small whole number that appears in front of the formula in…
22 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8
Precipitation
Precipitate
Precipitation reaction
Strong electrolyte
The formation of a solid in a chemical reaction.
The solid that forms in a precipitation reaction
A reaction in which a solid forms and separates from the solu…
Substance that dissolves in water by dissociating completely…
Precipitation
The formation of a solid in a chemical reaction.
Precipitate
The solid that forms in a precipitation reaction
6 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8
carboxylic acid
phenols
ester
amines
carboxylic acid
phenols
14 terms
Chapter 8 chemistry terms
covalent bond
molecule
lewis structure
sigma bonds
the chemical bond that results from sharing valence electrons
formed when two or more atoms bond covalently
a model that uses electron-dot structures to show how electro…
(σ) single covalent bonds
covalent bond
the chemical bond that results from sharing valence electrons
molecule
formed when two or more atoms bond covalently
44 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8 Vocabulary
Covalent bond
Molecule
Diatomic molecule
Molecular compound
A bond between atoms when they are held together by sharing e…
A neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
A molecule that contains 2 atoms
A compound composed of molecules
Covalent bond
A bond between atoms when they are held together by sharing e…
Molecule
A neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
31 terms
chemistry vocabulary chapter 8
bond dissocation energy
bonding orbital
covalent bond
coordinate covalent bond
energy needed to break a covalent bond
a molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of…
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons bet…
a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding el…
bond dissocation energy
energy needed to break a covalent bond
bonding orbital
a molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of…
Chemistry - Chapter 8 & 9
Lattice energy
Covalent Bonds
Bond energy
Bond dipole
The energy required to completely separate a mole of a solid…
Atoms share e-, Attractions between electrons and nuclei,... Rep…
Delta H required to break a particular bond. Always ENDOTHERMIC
When two atoms share electrons unequally
Lattice energy
The energy required to completely separate a mole of a solid…
Covalent Bonds
Atoms share e-, Attractions between electrons and nuclei,... Rep…
13 terms
Chemistry Chapter 8 Terms
Greek prefix system
Oxidation number
Oxidation number of a compound
Oxidation number of an ion
used for naming covalent compounds (di-, tri-, penta-, hexa-,…
The number assigned to each atom in a compound to indicate ho…
The sum of all the oxidation numbers for the atoms in a neutr…
The sum of all the oxidation numbers for the atoms in an ion…
Greek prefix system
used for naming covalent compounds (di-, tri-, penta-, hexa-,…
Oxidation number
The number assigned to each atom in a compound to indicate ho…
13 terms
Chapter 8 Modern Chemistry
chemical equation
precipitate
coefficient
word equation
a way to describe a chemical reaction using chemical formulas…
a solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction
A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that i…
an equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical…
chemical equation
a way to describe a chemical reaction using chemical formulas…
precipitate
a solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction
13 terms
Chapter 8 Vocabulary - Modern Chemistry
chemical equation
precipitate
coefficient
word equation
represents, with symbols and formulas, the identities and rel…
A solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction i…
a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a…
an equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical…
chemical equation
represents, with symbols and formulas, the identities and rel…
precipitate
A solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction i…
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