Study sets matching "chemistry equilibrium"

Study sets
Classes
Users

Study sets matching "chemistry equilibrium"

10 terms
Chemistry: Equilibrium: Equilibrium Constants
law of mass action/equilibrium constan…
things which do not show up in the equ…
the product of the equilibrium constan…
the inverse of the equilibrium constan…
The ratio of the product concentrations, raised to their stoi…
liquids and solids
what the equilibrium constant for a multi-step process is equ…
what the equilibrium constant for a reverse reaction is equal…
law of mass action/equilibrium constan…
The ratio of the product concentrations, raised to their stoi…
things which do not show up in the equ…
liquids and solids
26 terms
Chemistry Equilibrium
Rate of reaction
Collision Theory
Factors that influence rate of reactio…
Factors that influence rate of reactio…
amount of reactants which appear/disappear of the amount of p…
+ molecules must collide with each other for a reaction to oc…
CONCENTRATION - increase concentration > increase number of c…
TEMPERATURE - increase temperature (particles move faster) >…
Rate of reaction
amount of reactants which appear/disappear of the amount of p…
Collision Theory
+ molecules must collide with each other for a reaction to oc…
19 terms
Chemistry: Equilibrium
Activation Energy
Transition State
Activated Complex
Potential Energy Diagram
the difference between the starting energy of the reactants a…
the brief moment in which reactants are in the process of tur…
the temporary, unstable substance that forms during the trans…
shows how the energy stored in the bonds of reactants and pro…
Activation Energy
the difference between the starting energy of the reactants a…
Transition State
the brief moment in which reactants are in the process of tur…
41 terms
Chemistry Kinetics and Equilibrium
Kinetics
Collision Theory
Factors affecting rate of reaction
Nature of reactants
study of the rate (speed) at which reactions occur
In order for a reaction to occur, reactant particles must col…
Nature of reactants, concentration, pressure, temp, surface a…
Ionic substances react faster, covalent substances react slower
Kinetics
study of the rate (speed) at which reactions occur
Collision Theory
In order for a reaction to occur, reactant particles must col…
Chemistry Equilibrium
Equilibrium
general equilibrium equation
ICE
K comparisons
when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the…
K = (C^cD^d)/(A^aB^b)... Products over reactants.... Only aqueous…
Initial, change, equilibrium
if K>>1, the reaction lies to the right. If K<<1, the reactio…
Equilibrium
when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the…
general equilibrium equation
K = (C^cD^d)/(A^aB^b)... Products over reactants.... Only aqueous…
Equilibrium(chemistry)
this type of reaction occurs only in o…
this type of reaction occurs in two di…
forward reaction
reverse reaction
completion reaction
reversible reaction
reactants converted to products
products converted into reactants
this type of reaction occurs only in o…
completion reaction
this type of reaction occurs in two di…
reversible reaction
Chemistry: Equilibrium
chemical equilibrium
Le Chatelier's Principle
away
towards
the point at which the rate of the forward reaction is equal…
theory that if you disturb an equilibrium, it will shift to u…
adding a reactant or product shifts the equilibrium ________…
removing a reactant or product shifts the equilibrium _______…
chemical equilibrium
the point at which the rate of the forward reaction is equal…
Le Chatelier's Principle
theory that if you disturb an equilibrium, it will shift to u…
Equilibrium- Chemistry
Collision Model
Activation energy
Catalyst
Enzyme
A model based on the idea that molecules must collide to react
The minimum quantity of energy to start a reaction
A substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed
A large molecule, usually a protein, that catalyzes biologica…
Collision Model
A model based on the idea that molecules must collide to react
Activation energy
The minimum quantity of energy to start a reaction
14 terms
Chemistry Equilibrium
Equilibrium
Dynamic Equilibrium
Types of Equilibrium
Solution Equilibrium
-2 different things occurring at equal rates... -results in cons…
-
-solution equilibruim... -Phase equilibrium... -Chemical equilibrium
-saturated solution... Rate of dissolving=rate of precipitation
Equilibrium
-2 different things occurring at equal rates... -results in cons…
Dynamic Equilibrium
-
Chemistry: Equilibrium
If K>1
If K<1
If Q<K
If Q>K
More products
Have more reactants
Shifts to products bc too many reactants
Shifts to reactants. Too many products
If K>1
More products
If K<1
Have more reactants
26 terms
AP Chemistry: Equilibrium
Activation Energy
Transition State
Activated Complex
Potential Energy Diagram
the difference between the starting energy of the reactants a…
the brief moment in which reactants are in the process of tur…
the temporary, unstable substance that forms during the trans…
shows how the energy stored in the bonds of reactants and pro…
Activation Energy
the difference between the starting energy of the reactants a…
Transition State
the brief moment in which reactants are in the process of tur…
8 terms
Chemistry: Equilibrium
Dynamic equilibrium
Reaction quotient
Magnitude of equilibrium constant
Le Chatelier's principle
Forward reaction and reverse reaction occur at an equal const…
Concentrations of products divided by concentrations of react…
When the reaction goes nearly to completion K >> 1.... If the re…
States that if a system at equilibrium is subjected to a smal…
Dynamic equilibrium
Forward reaction and reverse reaction occur at an equal const…
Reaction quotient
Concentrations of products divided by concentrations of react…
24 terms
Chemistry (Equilibrium)
Collision Model
Activation Energy
Exothermic Process
Endothermic Process
-Have enough energy to produce reaction (Must equal or exceed…
Minimum energy required to transform reactants into activated…
Process in which energy is released as it proceeds and surrou…
Energy is absorbed as it proceeds and surrounds becomes colde…
Collision Model
-Have enough energy to produce reaction (Must equal or exceed…
Activation Energy
Minimum energy required to transform reactants into activated…
5 terms
Equilibrium(Chemistry)
Dynamic equilibrium
Solution equilibrium
Vapour equilibrium
Chemical equilibrium
Observed when opposing forces are occurring at the same time…
When the number if particles dissolving is equal to the numbe…
When the number of molecules vaporizing is equal to the umber…
Occurs when the rate of formation of the products is equal to…
Dynamic equilibrium
Observed when opposing forces are occurring at the same time…
Solution equilibrium
When the number if particles dissolving is equal to the numbe…
Chemistry Equilibrium
Reversible Reactions
Dynamic Equilibrium
Phase Equilibrium
Solution Equilibrium
A reaction that can proceed both directions
When the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of…
When a phase change is occuring
Examples include solids in liquids, gases in liquids... -Satura…
Reversible Reactions
A reaction that can proceed both directions
Dynamic Equilibrium
When the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of…
11 terms
Chemistry: Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium
Dynamic Equilibrium
Haber Process
Law of Mass Action
The state where the concentrations of all reactants and produ…
When the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the…
...
, and represented by the equilibrium expression
Chemical Equilibrium
The state where the concentrations of all reactants and produ…
Dynamic Equilibrium
When the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the…
17 terms
Chemistry Equilibrium
pressure increase
pressure decrease
reactant concentration increase
reactant concentration decrease
shift towards fewest moles
shift towards most moles
shift right to make more products
shift left to make more reactants
pressure increase
shift towards fewest moles
pressure decrease
shift towards most moles
Ap Chemistry Equilibrium
Equilibrium constant
K>1
Forward reaction
Reverse reaction
k=products-reactants
Forward reaction is favored
Reactants to Products
Products to reactants
Equilibrium constant
k=products-reactants
K>1
Forward reaction is favored
32 terms
Chemistry equilibrium
state of eqium
position of eqium
state of eqium reached
eqium law
when the rates of forward and backward reaction are equal.
can be controlled by changing the conditions
in a closed system when the rates of reverse and forward reac…
describes how the eq constant (Kc) can be determined.
state of eqium
when the rates of forward and backward reaction are equal.
position of eqium
can be controlled by changing the conditions
Chemistry (Equilibrium)
equilibrium
dynamic equilibrium
constant
temperature
rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reve…
reaction is proceeding in the forward and in the reverse dire…
At equilibrium, the concentrations of all reactants and produ…
Equilibrium is ____________ dependent.
equilibrium
rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reve…
dynamic equilibrium
reaction is proceeding in the forward and in the reverse dire…
9 terms
Chemistry: Equilibrium
reversible reactions
dynamic equilibrium
static equilibrium
entropy
can proceed towards making products or reactants... don't procee…
forward and reverse reaction rates are still going, but at th…
forward and reverse rates have stopped
measure of distribution of energy... equilibrium when max. entro…
reversible reactions
can proceed towards making products or reactants... don't procee…
dynamic equilibrium
forward and reverse reaction rates are still going, but at th…
Chemistry Equilibrium
What happens when Kc is large? (larger…
What happens when Kc is small? (less t…
Kc
Qc
Forward
Reverse
equilibrium constant
reaction quotient
What happens when Kc is large? (larger…
Forward
What happens when Kc is small? (less t…
Reverse
10 terms
Chemistry - Equilibrium
Le Chatelier's Principle:
Kc=
Does concentration affect the position…
Does pressure affect the position of e…
If there's a change in concentration, pressure or temperature…
products^(number of moles) / reactants^(number of moles)
yes
yes
Le Chatelier's Principle:
If there's a change in concentration, pressure or temperature…
Kc=
products^(number of moles) / reactants^(number of moles)
46 terms
Chemistry Equilibrium
Equilibrium
Where can equilibrium only occur?
Are the quantities of reactants and pr…
When does equilibrium occur
When forward and reverse reactions happen at the same time
In a system where reactants and products do not leave the sys…
No
During physical processes such as change of state or dissolving
Equilibrium
When forward and reverse reactions happen at the same time
Where can equilibrium only occur?
In a system where reactants and products do not leave the sys…
42 terms
Ap Chemistry Equilibrium
Equilibrium constant
K>1
Forward reaction
Reverse reaction
k=products-reactants
Forward reaction is favored
Reactants to Products
Products to reactants
Equilibrium constant
k=products-reactants
K>1
Forward reaction is favored
Regents Chemistry Kinetics and Equilibrium
Kinetics
Catalyst
Entropy
Le Chatelier's Principal
a branch of chemistry that is concerned with the rates of che…
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by l…
The measure of the randomness or disorder in a system.
A responds to relieve any stress on the equilibrium system.
Kinetics
a branch of chemistry that is concerned with the rates of che…
Catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by l…
13 terms
Chemistry - Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium
General Equilibrium equation
Reversible reactions
Equilibrium Equation
A state in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions a…
aA + bB = cC + dD... A, B are reactants... C, D are products... a, b,…
Reactions that can go in either direction, from products to r…
K eq = equlibrium constant (unitless)... K eq = Products/Reactan…
Chemical Equilibrium
A state in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions a…
General Equilibrium equation
aA + bB = cC + dD... A, B are reactants... C, D are products... a, b,…
Chemistry Kinetics and Equilibrium
Kinetics
Reaction
Rate determining step
Collision Theory
study of the rate or speed at which reactions occur
the breaking and reforming of bonds to make new compounds or…
the slowest step of the reaction
In order for a reaction to occur, reactant particles must col…
Kinetics
study of the rate or speed at which reactions occur
Reaction
the breaking and reforming of bonds to make new compounds or…
8 terms
Chemistry - Equilibrium
equilibrium
dynamic equilibrium
heterogeneous equilibrium
closed system
both forward and reverse reactions occurring simultaneously w…
the forward and reverse reactions are occurring at equal rate…
when reactants and products are in different states
a system where no matter or energy can enter or exit
equilibrium
both forward and reverse reactions occurring simultaneously w…
dynamic equilibrium
the forward and reverse reactions are occurring at equal rate…
20 terms
Chemistry equilibrium
Law of mass action
Homogenous equilibrium
Heterogenous equilibrium
Liquid vapor equilibrium
Expresses ratio of reactants and products at equilibrium
Reactants and products all in the same state
Reactants and products not all in same state
When particles leave and return to liquid at the same rate
Law of mass action
Expresses ratio of reactants and products at equilibrium
Homogenous equilibrium
Reactants and products all in the same state
16 terms
Chemistry equilibrium
products
reactants
s & l
equilibrium
Keq > 1, rxn favors
Keq < 1, rxn favors
omitted from equilibrium expressions
rates of opposing rxns are equal
products
Keq > 1, rxn favors
reactants
Keq < 1, rxn favors
8 terms
Equilibrium chemistry
Keq > 1
Keq < 1
Keq = 1
Pressure increase
Products favored
Reactants favored
Neither favored
Direction with least number of moles of gas
Keq > 1
Products favored
Keq < 1
Reactants favored
10 terms
Chemistry - Equilibrium
dynamic equilibrium
position of equilibrium
Change: add reactants
Change: add products
RATES of forward and reverse reactions are equal ... observable…
this number determines whether there are more products or rea…
shift to right (more products are made)
Shift to left (more reactants are made)
dynamic equilibrium
RATES of forward and reverse reactions are equal ... observable…
position of equilibrium
this number determines whether there are more products or rea…
43 terms
Chemistry : Equilibrium
When the rate of the forwrd reaction i…
Favours the side with the least number…
Favours the side with the most number…
It will favour the endothermic reaction
What is a dynamic equilibium?(2)
What effect does increasing pressure on the position of equil…
What effect does decreasing pressure have on the position of…
What effect does increasing temperature have on the position…
When the rate of the forwrd reaction i…
What is a dynamic equilibium?(2)
Favours the side with the least number…
What effect does increasing pressure on the position of equil…
11 terms
Chemistry - Equilibrium +
Undestanding Dynamic Equilibria notes…
Equilibrium Constant
Understanding Dynamic Equilibria (cont).
BIG IDEA - EQUILIBRIUM
From "slow steps", you can have the rate laws. For example, r…
notated by "K". Equilibrium constant = [products]/[reactants]…
A -> B... - 1:1 ratio... - rate(for) = k1[A]'... - rate(rev) = k-1[B]'…
Its not about getting the same value for both the reactants a…
Undestanding Dynamic Equilibria notes…
From "slow steps", you can have the rate laws. For example, r…
Equilibrium Constant
notated by "K". Equilibrium constant = [products]/[reactants]…
Chemistry: Equilibrium
Le Chatlier Principle
3 most common stresses
Le Chatelier's Principle
Concentration Changes
if you add a stress you can change the equilibrium of the sys…
-changing the concentration... -changing the temperature... -changi…
If a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system…
Add more reactants --> shifts to the products... Add more produ…
Le Chatlier Principle
if you add a stress you can change the equilibrium of the sys…
3 most common stresses
-changing the concentration... -changing the temperature... -changi…
Chemistry Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium
Catalyst
Activation Energy
Enzyme
Reactants and products have no further tendency to change
Speeds up chemical reactions
Minimum energy required to break chemical bonds
Protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems
Chemical Equilibrium
Reactants and products have no further tendency to change
Catalyst
Speeds up chemical reactions
12 terms
Chemistry equilibrium
Increase in reactant
Decrease in reactant
Increase in product
Decrease in products
Shift to the right
Shift to the left
Shift to the left
Shift to the right
Increase in reactant
Shift to the right
Decrease in reactant
Shift to the left
6 terms
chemistry- equilibrium
(concentration )... increase in reactants
(concentration) ... increase in products
(temperature) ... increase- shift to the…
(temperature) ... decrease-
shift right
shift left
...
...
(concentration )... increase in reactants
shift right
(concentration) ... increase in products
shift left
chemistry equilibrium
equilibrium
arrehenius definition
bronsted/ lowry defintion
amphoteric
many reactions do not go to completion
acid is a substance that releases H ions in water... base a subs…
acid is a proton donor... a base is a proton acceptor... conjugate…
H2O can act as an acid or a base
equilibrium
many reactions do not go to completion
arrehenius definition
acid is a substance that releases H ions in water... base a subs…
Chemistry- Equilibrium
Chemical equilbrium
Equilibrium-constant expression
Equilibrium constant-Kc
Law of Mass Action
state reached by a reaction mixture when the rates of the for…
expression multiplying concentrations
value obtained for the equilibrium- constant expression when…
aA + bB --> dD + eE
Chemical equilbrium
state reached by a reaction mixture when the rates of the for…
Equilibrium-constant expression
expression multiplying concentrations
Chemistry: Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium
Reverse Reactions
Forward Reactions
Products are favored
forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate;... -the ra…
endothermic; don't go to completion and can occur in either d…
exothermic; go to completion
products > reactants
Chemical Equilibrium
forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate;... -the ra…
Reverse Reactions
endothermic; don't go to completion and can occur in either d…
Chemistry- Equilibrium
increase in pressure
decrease in pressure
increase in volume
decrease in volume
shifts to side with the least amount of particles
shifts to the side with the most particles
decrease in pressure(shifts to side with most particles)
increase in pressure(shifts to side with least amount of part…
increase in pressure
shifts to side with the least amount of particles
decrease in pressure
shifts to the side with the most particles
19 terms
Chemistry-Equilibrium
reversible reaction
<->
equilibrium
closed system
a reaction in which the conversion of reactants to products a…
symbol for reversible reaction
no net change occurs in the actual amounts of the components…
finite amounts
reversible reaction
a reaction in which the conversion of reactants to products a…
<->
symbol for reversible reaction
20 terms
Chemistry equilibrium
Equilibrium shift by addition
Shift by removal
Endothermic
Exothernic
Adding any reactant or product will shift the equilibrium awa…
Removing any reactant or product will shift equilibrium point…
Increase in temperature , bonds are broken
Decrease in temperature , bonds are formed
Equilibrium shift by addition
Adding any reactant or product will shift the equilibrium awa…
Shift by removal
Removing any reactant or product will shift equilibrium point…
25 terms
Chemistry equilibrium
Reversible Reaction
Chemical equilibrium
Conditions at equilibrium
Dynamic Equilibrium
any reaction which products can reform reactants
a state of balance in which the forward and reverse reactions…
conditions at ________?... reaction must be reversible ... system…
Characterized by constant change, activity, or progress.... (Re…
Reversible Reaction
any reaction which products can reform reactants
Chemical equilibrium
a state of balance in which the forward and reverse reactions…
15 terms
Chemistry->Equilibrium
Q > Ksp
Q < Ksp
Q = Ksp
Q < Keq
precipitate
no precipitate
saturation
shift right
Q > Ksp
precipitate
Q < Ksp
no precipitate
Chemistry Equilibrium
Higher concentration
Higher Temperature
Highest Entropy
Substance acting as a catalyst
faster reaction because there are more collisions per second
faster reaction
10 mL of water at 100ºC
enzymes in body
Higher concentration
faster reaction because there are more collisions per second
Higher Temperature
faster reaction
Chemistry Equilibrium
volume increases
volume decreases
pressure increases
pressure decreases
reaction shifts to side with more gas particles
reaction shifts to side with fewer gas particles
reaction shifts to side with fewer gas particles
reaction shifts to side with more gas particles
volume increases
reaction shifts to side with more gas particles
volume decreases
reaction shifts to side with fewer gas particles
25 terms
Chemistry Equilibrium
Rate of Development
3 things you need for a reaction
Reaction goes faster w __________ conc…
Equilibrium
rate of reaction rely on concentration and temp
- collisions need for energy to start... - High kinetic energy... -…
high- bc more collisions
forward reaction rate equals the backwards reaction rate
Rate of Development
rate of reaction rely on concentration and temp
3 things you need for a reaction
- collisions need for energy to start... - High kinetic energy... -…
1 of 10