# Study sets matching "chemistry mcat dat general"

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What is the approximate mass of a proto…

What is the atomic number of an element…

What does the mass number of an element…

What is an isotope?

One atomic mass unit (amu)

The number of protons found in an atom of that element

The sum of protons and neutrons in the atom's nucleus.

Atoms that share an atomic number but have different mass numb…

What is the approximate mass of a proto…

One atomic mass unit (amu)

What is the atomic number of an element…

The number of protons found in an atom of that element

Solving for the energy of a quanta

Solving for angular momentum of an elec…

Solving for energy of an electron

Solving for the electromagnetic energy…

-Use Planck's equation... -E=hf... -Planck's constant: h= 6.626 x…

L=nh/2π... -n=principal quantum number... -h=planck's constant (6.6…

E= - (Rh/n^2)... Rh=Rydberg unit of energy... 2.18 x 10^-18 J/elect…

E=hc/λ... -h (Planck's constant): 6.626 x 10^-34 Jxs... -c (speed o…

Solving for the energy of a quanta

-Use Planck's equation... -E=hf... -Planck's constant: h= 6.626 x…

Solving for angular momentum of an elec…

L=nh/2π... -n=principal quantum number... -h=planck's constant (6.6…

Stereogenic centers

Bond length ____ with increases in elec…

buffer

Strong acids

Stereogenic centers include chiral carbons and double-bonded c…

decreases

resist changes in pH, by neutralizing ... usually weak acid with…

completely dissociate ... HCl, HI, HBr, HClO4, HNO3, H2SO4

Stereogenic centers

Stereogenic centers include chiral carbons and double-bonded c…

Bond length ____ with increases in elec…

decreases

Effective Charge

Ionization Energy

Electron Affinity

Atomic Radius

Net positive charge experience by electrons in an atom. Increa…

Energy that a ground-state gaseous atom must absorb to dischar…

The amount of energy released or spent when an electron is add…

The distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of…

Effective Charge

Net positive charge experience by electrons in an atom. Increa…

Ionization Energy

Energy that a ground-state gaseous atom must absorb to dischar…

Rate Law

by summing the exponents of associated…

reactant concentrations make up the rat…

make one reactant concentration constan…

An experimentally determined mathematical expression showing t…

how do you determine the overall rate for a reaction?

what role do product and reactant concentrations play in the r…

how are reaction rates experimentally measured?

Rate Law

An experimentally determined mathematical expression showing t…

by summing the exponents of associated…

how do you determine the overall rate for a reaction?

protons

neutron

electron

atomic number

has a positive charge and mass around 1 amu

has no charge and a mass around 1 amu

has a negative charge and negligible mass

the number of protons in a given element

protons

has a positive charge and mass around 1 amu

neutron

has no charge and a mass around 1 amu

Atomic mass

Atomic number

If you change the number of protons in…

Orbitals

The sum of an atoms protons and neutrons

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Change protons---> different molecule... Change neutrons---> isot…

regions around the nucleus in which given electron or electron…

Atomic mass

The sum of an atoms protons and neutrons

Atomic number

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Dynamic Equilibrium

Static Equilibrium

Law of Mass Action

K c

~ F and R rxn still going, but the rates are equal

~ Reactions have stopped

~ If system is at eqbm at constant temp then the ratio is cont…

~ Solution... ~ p for gas... kf/kr

Dynamic Equilibrium

~ F and R rxn still going, but the rates are equal

Static Equilibrium

~ Reactions have stopped

Atomic Radius Trend

Ionic Radius Trend

Ionization Energy Trend

Electron Affinity Trend

An atom's electron cloud represents almost all of its volume.…

An ion's electron cloud represents almost all of its volume. A…

Ionization energy is the minimum amount of energy required to…

Electron affinity is the energy change when adding an electron…

Atomic Radius Trend

An atom's electron cloud represents almost all of its volume.…

Ionic Radius Trend

An ion's electron cloud represents almost all of its volume. A…

proton

neutron

electron

nucleus

positive charge... 1 amu... p... p +... 1/1 H

no charge... 1 amu... n0... 1/0 n

negative charge... negligible mass... e-... 0/-1 e

protons + neutrons... e- move around

proton

positive charge... 1 amu... p... p +... 1/1 H

neutron

no charge... 1 amu... n0... 1/0 n

Isolated System

Closed System

Open System

Process

~ Cannot exchange matter or energy with surroundings

~ System can exchange energy but not matter

~ Can exchange both energy and matter

~ System experiences change in [ ], temp, pressure

Isolated System

~ Cannot exchange matter or energy with surroundings

Closed System

~ System can exchange energy but not matter

Solution

Mixtures

Solute

Solvent

~ Homogeneous of 2+ substances that combine to form one

~ Gases dissolved in other gases... ~ Any solution

~ Dissolved in solvent

~ Remains in same phase after mixing... ~ Or component in greater…

Solution

~ Homogeneous of 2+ substances that combine to form one

Mixtures

~ Gases dissolved in other gases... ~ Any solution

Galvanic and Concentration cells house

Galvanic Cells

Salt Bridge

Daniell Cell

~ Spont. rxns

~ Nonrechargeable batteries ... ~ aka voltaic cells. ... ~ Spontaneo…

~ Connects two solutions ... ~ Consists of an inert salt. ... ~ When…

~ A zinc electrode is placed in an aqueous ZnSO4 solution, and…

Galvanic and Concentration cells house

~ Spont. rxns

Galvanic Cells

~ Nonrechargeable batteries ... ~ aka voltaic cells. ... ~ Spontaneo…

Solving for the energy of a quanta

Solving for angular momentum of an elec…

Solving for energy of an electron

Solving for the electromagnetic energy…

-Use Planck's equation... -E=hf... -Planck's constant: h= 6.626 x…

L=nh/2π... -n=principal quantum number... -h=planck's constant (6.6…

E= - (Rh/n^2)... Rh=Rydberg unit of energy... 2.18 x 10^-18 J/elect…

E=hc/λ... -h (Planck's constant): 6.626 x 10^-34 Jxs... -c (speed o…

Solving for the energy of a quanta

-Use Planck's equation... -E=hf... -Planck's constant: h= 6.626 x…

Solving for angular momentum of an elec…

L=nh/2π... -n=principal quantum number... -h=planck's constant (6.6…

Proton

Neutron

Electron

Nucleus

subatomic particle... has a positive charge and a mass around 1…

subatomic particle... has no charge and a mass around 1 amu

subatomic particle... has a negative charge and negligible mass

contains the protons and neutrons... electrons move around it

Proton

subatomic particle... has a positive charge and a mass around 1…

Neutron

subatomic particle... has no charge and a mass around 1 amu

Three atomic sub particles

Protons

Protons mass

Atomic number (Z)

Protons - neutrons and electrons

found in the nucleus and have a positives charges e=1.6 *10^19

Approximately on atomic mass unit (amu)

the number of protons found in that specific elements Act as i…

Three atomic sub particles

Protons - neutrons and electrons

Protons

found in the nucleus and have a positives charges e=1.6 *10^19

Thermochemistry

System

Surroundings or environment

Isolated system

The study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactio…

The matter that is being observed.... The total amount of reacta…

Everything outside of the system

The system cannot exchange energy (heat or work) or matter wit…

Thermochemistry

The study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactio…

System

The matter that is being observed.... The total amount of reacta…

ΔE = q(Heat) + w(Work)

K value on a graph

Relative Rate Expression

Rate Law

work = -Pressure*ΔVolume... +q = Heat absorbed by system from sur…

The absolute value of the slope (Right by x) of the equation o…

Using the rate of a certain reactant or product to then use th…

- Shows rate of reaction... - Does not contain products... - k is th…

ΔE = q(Heat) + w(Work)

work = -Pressure*ΔVolume... +q = Heat absorbed by system from sur…

K value on a graph

The absolute value of the slope (Right by x) of the equation o…

alpha Decay

Beta+ Decay

Noble Gases

Cathode

A type of radioactive decay where the nucleus releases a heliu…

A type of radioactive decay where the nucleus emits a positron…

The last group of elements on the periodic table (He, Ne, Ar,…

The electrode where reduction takes place.... The cathode has a…

alpha Decay

A type of radioactive decay where the nucleus releases a heliu…

Beta+ Decay

A type of radioactive decay where the nucleus emits a positron…

Pressure (P)

Volume (V)

Temperature (T)

STP

Expressed in atm or mmHg=torr (Pascal Pa)... 1atm=760mmHg=760torr…

Expressed in L or mL

Expressed in K or C

273 degrees K and 1atm

Pressure (P)

Expressed in atm or mmHg=torr (Pascal Pa)... 1atm=760mmHg=760torr…

Volume (V)

Expressed in L or mL

What is the Bohr model of the atom?

n quantum number

l quantum number

ml quantum number

Nucleus with higher and higher energy levels (n) as circles

Principle quantum number... Represents shells (Periods)

Azimuthal quantum number... Represents subshells (s, p, d, f)

Magnetic quantum number... Specific orbital (Orientation in space)

What is the Bohr model of the atom?

Nucleus with higher and higher energy levels (n) as circles

n quantum number

Principle quantum number... Represents shells (Periods)