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Study sets matching "clin med"

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Study sets matching "clin med"

49 terms
CLIN MED - GU Neoplasms
Kidney Cancer
Pathology of renal cell carcinoma
RCC: Risk factors
RCC - Hereditary/Genetic Risks
Renal Cell Carcinoma 80 - 85%... Transitional cell of rena…
Clear cell (proximal tubule) 75 - 85 %... Papillary (chromo…
Tobacco - accounts for 1/3 of cases... Obesity... HTN... Heavy an…
Von Hippel-Lindau disease - autosomal dominant... - 35% will…
Kidney Cancer
Renal Cell Carcinoma 80 - 85%... Transitional cell of rena…
Pathology of renal cell carcinoma
Clear cell (proximal tubule) 75 - 85 %... Papillary (chromo…
21 terms
Osteomyelitis & Septic Arthritis (clin med)
osteomyelitis (general)
debridement
hematogenous osteomyelitis
IVDA
infection localized to bone... FKA - "abscessus in medulla"... "ne…
dead tissue removed... poorly-vascularized tissue is unlikely to…
more common in children (in long bones)... in adults usually 50+…
intravenous drug abuse
osteomyelitis (general)
infection localized to bone... FKA - "abscessus in medulla"... "ne…
debridement
dead tissue removed... poorly-vascularized tissue is unlikely to…
43 terms
CLIN MED - Pediatric Cardiology
Fetal circulation
At birth
Congenital Heart Disease
Congenital Heart Disease: *Cause and R…
Right and left heart act in parallel, rather than in series…
Lungs:... - expand ... - fluid is cleared... Placenta is gone (clam…
Most common congenital disorder... Critical congenital heart…
Fetal circulation
Right and left heart act in parallel, rather than in series…
At birth
Lungs:... - expand ... - fluid is cleared... Placenta is gone (clam…
96 terms
Clin Med Lecture 2
What is pathology?
What is a disease?
What are some theories that explain im…
What is the wear-and-tear theory?
structural and functional changes as a result of disease or t…
something that affects the whole body
wear-and-tear theory... free radical theory... telomere aging clock…
some cells cannot regenerate... - brain and heart cells cannot r…
What is pathology?
structural and functional changes as a result of disease or t…
What is a disease?
something that affects the whole body
28 terms
Heart Failure Clin Med
Heart Failure
Heart Failure
Ejection Fraction (EF)
Normal EF
Amount of blood ejected from the ventricle with each heart beat
50%.
Heart Failure
Heart Failure
47 terms
CLIN MED - Viral Hepatitis
Viral Hepatitis
Hepatitis A
HAV presentation
HAV physical exam
Acute vs. chronic... Pathogens:... hepatitis A (HAV)... hepatitis B…
Spread via fecal-oral route... ... Risk factors: ... - *internatio…
Prodrome:... - fatigue... - malaise... - nausea, vomiting, diarrh…
jaundice (70%)... ... hepatomegaly (80%)
Viral Hepatitis
Acute vs. chronic... Pathogens:... hepatitis A (HAV)... hepatitis B…
Hepatitis A
Spread via fecal-oral route... ... Risk factors: ... - *internatio…
39 terms
CLIN MED - Cardiomyopathies
What are cardiomyopathies?
Classification
Echocardiography
Causes
Diseases of heart muscle... associated with dysfunction of the…
Dilated cardiomyopathy... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy... Restrict…
**is the key diagnostic study
Genetic... Acquired diseases of the myocardium... Secondary cause…
What are cardiomyopathies?
Diseases of heart muscle... associated with dysfunction of the…
Classification
Dilated cardiomyopathy... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy... Restrict…
71 terms
Clin Med- Neuromuscular Dz
Def- ______________... -Muscle Disease w/…
Def- ______________... -Nerve Disease w/…
Pt presents w/ Muscle Weakness, Troubl…
Def- ______________... -Muscle Movements/…
Myopathies (Ex Polymyositis)
Neuropathies (Ex: DM)
Myopathy (Reflexes drop out early in Neuropathies and proport…
Fasiculations
Def- ______________... -Muscle Disease w/…
Myopathies (Ex Polymyositis)
Def- ______________... -Nerve Disease w/…
Neuropathies (Ex: DM)
85 terms
Clin Med Angina
What is angina pectoris
What's chronic stable angina
What are 3 criteria for stable angina
WHat's criteria for unstable angina
An imbalance between coronary blood flow and myocardial oxyge…
A pattern of chest pain or discomfort that does not change ap…
substernal chest pain... exertion chest pain... chest pain relieved…
1.Rest angina... 2. Severe angina of new onset, or ... 3. An increa…
What is angina pectoris
An imbalance between coronary blood flow and myocardial oxyge…
What's chronic stable angina
A pattern of chest pain or discomfort that does not change ap…
145 terms
Clin Med Photo Exam
acanthosis nigricans
actinic keratosis
alopecia areata
angioedema
acanthosis nigricans
actinic keratosis
165 terms
Clin Med - Derm
Bulk of layer is Fat cells
Entire body ... (mostly palms/soles/foreh…
Inactive until puberty... Armpit, Groin r…
Stimulated by sex hormones (testostero…
hypodermis
Eccrine sweat glands
Apocrine sweat glands
Sebaceous glands
Bulk of layer is Fat cells
hypodermis
Entire body ... (mostly palms/soles/foreh…
Eccrine sweat glands
23 terms
Fall Clin Med PFTs
Spirometry
Indications for Spirometry
absolute contraindications for SPiro…
FVC
measures the amt of airflow from the lungs in a volume VS tim…
suspect pulmonary dz ... evaluate progression of a pulmonary or…
recent MI... unstable angina... thoracic aneurysms... pneumothorax... any…
Forced Vital Capacity... volume of air forcefully expired after…
Spirometry
measures the amt of airflow from the lungs in a volume VS tim…
Indications for Spirometry
suspect pulmonary dz ... evaluate progression of a pulmonary or…
68 terms
CLIN MED - Neoplastic Disease
Benign lung tumors
Hamartoma
Hamartoma - imaging
Bronchial adenomas ???
Not common... < 5% of all lung tumors... Hamartomas... Mucous gland…
Most common of the benign lung tumors (75%)... Twice as common…
" popcorn" calcification is the classic x-ray appearance (o…
Term has been used loosely in the past and included both beni…
Benign lung tumors
Not common... < 5% of all lung tumors... Hamartomas... Mucous gland…
Hamartoma
Most common of the benign lung tumors (75%)... Twice as common…
46 terms
CLIN MED - Thyroid Diseases
Thyroid diseases
Thyroid gland
Follicular cells produce
Iodine and thyroglobulin pair up to make
Euthyroid goiter... Toxic nodular goiter... Hyperthyroidism... Hypo…
Located anterior to trachea, inferior to larynx... Contains *tw…
thyroglobulin... Thyroglobulin is transported to follicle lum…
T3 and T4
Thyroid diseases
Euthyroid goiter... Toxic nodular goiter... Hyperthyroidism... Hypo…
Thyroid gland
Located anterior to trachea, inferior to larynx... Contains *tw…
41 terms
Arthritis (clin med)
DDX for osteoarthritis or rheumatoid a…
DX for joint complaints
Osteoarthritis (OA)
crepitus
Fibromyalgia... Lyme Disease... Myelodysplastic Syndrome... Osteoarthr…
History:... Confirm that you are dealing with an MSK complaint... H…
most common type of arthritis and MSK disease. a normal conse…
due to disruption of the normally smooth articulating surface…
DDX for osteoarthritis or rheumatoid a…
Fibromyalgia... Lyme Disease... Myelodysplastic Syndrome... Osteoarthr…
DX for joint complaints
History:... Confirm that you are dealing with an MSK complaint... H…
54 terms
CLIN MED - Transfusions
ABO blood group system
antigen types
Inheritance
Antigens and Antibodies
There are 2 major antigens that can be found on the surface o…
You naturally make antibodies against whatever antigen you do…
ABO blood group system
There are 2 major antigens that can be found on the surface o…
antigen types
78 terms
Fall Clin Med Asthma
Asthma
Cause of asthma
Symptoms of asthma
Epidemiology
chronic lung disease characterized by inflammation and narrow…
exact cause unknown
reoccuring symptoms of airway obstruction... -dyspnea... -wheezing…
affects all ages but peak age of diagnosis is 3 yo... children…
Asthma
chronic lung disease characterized by inflammation and narrow…
Cause of asthma
exact cause unknown
51 terms
CLIN MED - Lipid Disorders
For Today
What are lipoproteins?
Types based on density and size
Sources of cholesterol:
Pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaques... ... Risk factors for…
Macromolecules that transport cholesterol, triglycerides and…
Chylomicrons - carry dietary lipids... Very low density lipopro…
Diet... Endogenous... - All cells can make cholesterol... Only hepat…
For Today
Pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaques... ... Risk factors for…
What are lipoproteins?
Macromolecules that transport cholesterol, triglycerides and…
154 terms
Clin Med Test
Vascular Route -Left Atrium
Atrium - Electricity
Atrium - EKG
Ventricle
Exam, Echo Cardiogram... High pressure state - Pulmonary Hyperte…
* pacemaker... * moves through m of atrium w contractions... * ente…
Shows electricity flows properly or leaks
Echo can show aortic valve... Coronary Angiogram can show corona…
Vascular Route -Left Atrium
Exam, Echo Cardiogram... High pressure state - Pulmonary Hyperte…
Atrium - Electricity
* pacemaker... * moves through m of atrium w contractions... * ente…
60 terms
CLIN MED - Pediatric Pulmonology
Hypersensitivity Disorders
Atopy
Atopic Dermatitis
Atopic Dermatitis: Signs & Symptoms
Type I: immediate hypersensitivity. IgE mediated.... - anaphylax…
Type 1 hypersensitivity ... IgE mediated... - *Atopic dermatitis…
Immunologic response causing cutaneous inflammation... Acute…
Dry skin, lichenified... Intensely *pruritic erythematous les…
Hypersensitivity Disorders
Type I: immediate hypersensitivity. IgE mediated.... - anaphylax…
Atopy
Type 1 hypersensitivity ... IgE mediated... - *Atopic dermatitis…
34 terms
CLIN MED - Brain tumors
Brain Tumors: 3 main groups:
Brain metastases from elsewhere (most…
Cancers that commonly spread to brain
Primary Brain Tumors
Primary benign tumors... Primary malignant tumors... Metastatic s…
5 - 10X more common than primary brain tumors... In adults with…
Lung 40%... Breast 20%... Melanoma 10%... Colorectal 7% ... Kidney 3%
ADULTS: 2/3 of primary brain tumors in adults are benign; inc…
Brain Tumors: 3 main groups:
Primary benign tumors... Primary malignant tumors... Metastatic s…
Brain metastases from elsewhere (most…
5 - 10X more common than primary brain tumors... In adults with…
28 terms
CLIN MED - HTN
HYPERTENSION
Primary (Essential) Hypertension:
Secondary Hypertension:
Primary HTN: pathophysiology
...
90% of cases... ... no cause can be identified
10% of cases... ... identifiable specific cause... ... develop at early…
1) Heart:... increase in CO d/t overactive SNS... 2) Blood Vessel…
HYPERTENSION
...
Primary (Essential) Hypertension:
90% of cases... ... no cause can be identified
109 terms
clin med III
Acute Bronchitis
Acute Bronchiolitis
Acute Epiglottitis
Croup
Sx: Cough +/- Sputum, Dyspnea, Fevers, sore throat, HA, Myalg…
EP: Young children and infants <2 years old... E: RSV most commo…
-Severe, life- threatening infection of epiglottis by viral o…
-Laryngotracheobronchitis... -EP: Children 6 months- 5 years; pr…
Acute Bronchitis
Sx: Cough +/- Sputum, Dyspnea, Fevers, sore throat, HA, Myalg…
Acute Bronchiolitis
EP: Young children and infants <2 years old... E: RSV most commo…
74 terms
CLIN MED - MKS Arthritis
"degenerative joint disease"... Most com…
Osteoarthritis morphology
Osteoarthritis pathogenesis
Risk Factors for OA
Osteoarthritis
Failure of articular cartilage with loss of cartilage - probl…
Not a "normal" part of aging... Possible mechanism:... Initial dam…
Age - getting older ... Female - more common and more likely to…
"degenerative joint disease"... Most com…
Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis morphology
Failure of articular cartilage with loss of cartilage - probl…
66 terms
CLIN MED - radiology
Ordering Studies criteria
Imaging Modalities
X-RAYS Positives
x-ray Negatives
History... Specific site of symptoms... What you suspect (i.e. radi…
Radiography... CT... MRI... Not covered... Ultrasound... Nuclear medicine
High spatial resolution... cheap... fast... accessible
Radiation (negligible, .001mSV)... Insensitive for soft tissues…
Ordering Studies criteria
History... Specific site of symptoms... What you suspect (i.e. radi…
Imaging Modalities
Radiography... CT... MRI... Not covered... Ultrasound... Nuclear medicine
51 terms
CLIN MED - Cerebrovascular Disease
Atherosclerosis
Early atherosclerotic changes:
Atherosclerosis Pathology
Atherosclerosis Evaluation
*CAN LEAD TO ALL TYPES OF STROKE... Epidemiology: begins in chi…
fatty streak with thickening of intima (short arrow) and a so…
endothelial dysfunction ---> inflammatory & immunologic facto…
Silent process. ... Evidence of plaque formation in one locatio…
Atherosclerosis
*CAN LEAD TO ALL TYPES OF STROKE... Epidemiology: begins in chi…
Early atherosclerotic changes:
fatty streak with thickening of intima (short arrow) and a so…
53 terms
CLIN MED - Seizures/Epilepsy
Basic Concepts: What is a seizure?
Seizure
Epilepsy
Seizure: Key Points
Seizure: An electrical storm in the brain... "A seizure is a tr…
physical sign... not just a convulsion:... - sensory... - motor... -…
is the disease process
Seizure is not simply a convulsion - may be sensory, motor, a…
Basic Concepts: What is a seizure?
Seizure: An electrical storm in the brain... "A seizure is a tr…
Seizure
physical sign... not just a convulsion:... - sensory... - motor... -…
8 terms
Nose Clin Med
Anterior - Kiesselbach Plexus ... Posteri…
Posterior Bleed ... Etio: Severe trauma,…
Deviated Septum ... Etio: congenital, tra…
Test for Cystic fibrosis ... Tx: Nasal co…
Source of Anterior Bleed? Source of Posterior Bleed?
Pt presents with profuse hemorrhaging from the nose. Pt has a…
3yo presents with the following...what are you concerned for?…
Anterior - Kiesselbach Plexus ... Posteri…
Source of Anterior Bleed? Source of Posterior Bleed?
Posterior Bleed ... Etio: Severe trauma,…
Pt presents with profuse hemorrhaging from the nose. Pt has a…
161 terms
Clin Med Exam 3 Lab
Acrocyanosis
Cafe-au-lait spots
Cutis marmorata
Dupuytren's contracture
Acrocyanosis
Cafe-au-lait spots
164 terms
Intro to Clin Med II
Schistosomiasis
Noninvasive Cestode Infections
Invasive Cestode Infections... Cysticerco…
Invasive Cestode Infections... Echinococc…
Caused by 5 different species of blood flukes carried by cert…
Tapeworm contracted from undercooked beef, pork, fish... Usually…
Tissue infection with cysts f T. solium after ingesting food…
Acquired by ingesting food contaminated with K9 feces contain…
Schistosomiasis
Caused by 5 different species of blood flukes carried by cert…
Noninvasive Cestode Infections
Tapeworm contracted from undercooked beef, pork, fish... Usually…
212 terms
Clin med exam 3 lecture
Dyspnea
Wheezing
Cough
Causes of cough
- Shortness of breath... - Painless but uncomfortable awareness…
- Occurs in partial airway obstruction (narrowed airways) fro…
- A reflex response to stimuli that irritate receptors in the…
- Mucus, pus, and blood ... - External agents such as dust, fore…
Dyspnea
- Shortness of breath... - Painless but uncomfortable awareness…
Wheezing
- Occurs in partial airway obstruction (narrowed airways) fro…
58 terms
Clin Med: Dizziness and Vertigo
Dizziness- Common?
Dizziness Case Presentation
Vertigo
syncope
Very common ... 20 - 30 % of adults have dizziness each year... c…
potential causes:medications... anemia... vertigo... low BP... *have pt d…
feeling like you are moving when you are not
fainting or feeling like you are going to faint... associated wi…
Dizziness- Common?
Very common ... 20 - 30 % of adults have dizziness each year... c…
Dizziness Case Presentation
potential causes:medications... anemia... vertigo... low BP... *have pt d…
46 terms
gout and pseudogout (Clin med)
crystal induced arthropathies
crystals
MSU crystals
CPPD cystals
deposition of crystals into joints and soft tissues, resultin…
monosodium urate (MSU)... calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPPD)…
crystals seen in gout
crystals seen in pseudogout
crystal induced arthropathies
deposition of crystals into joints and soft tissues, resultin…
crystals
monosodium urate (MSU)... calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPPD)…
26 terms
Clin Med: Dermatology terms
Macule
Papule
Alopecia
Comedones
Flat skin lesion... Different color than surrounding skin
Small raised skin lesion
Partial or complete hair loss... Generic term
Blackheads (open, dirty), whiteheads (closed)
Macule
Flat skin lesion... Different color than surrounding skin
Papule
Small raised skin lesion
35 terms
CLIN MED - MSK Infections
MSK infections
CC: 25yo man hx IV drug abuse c/o pain…
synovial cavity is where
In children
Septic Arthritis... Osteomyelitis
septic arthritis
effusion and infection develop
vessels crossing the ephysis ... infection in infants
MSK infections
Septic Arthritis... Osteomyelitis
CC: 25yo man hx IV drug abuse c/o pain…
septic arthritis
12 terms
Clin Med 1: Bovine Breeds ID
Holstein
Jersey
Ayrshire
Guernsey
Holstein
Jersey
113 terms
Fall Clin Med Sepsis
Bacteremia
Septicemia
Sepsis
SIRS
presence of viable bacteria in bloodstream
infection as a result of bacteria or their toxins in the bloo…
SIRS that has a proven or suspected microbial etiology
systemic inflammatory response syndrome
Bacteremia
presence of viable bacteria in bloodstream
Septicemia
infection as a result of bacteria or their toxins in the bloo…
99 terms
Fall Clin Med HIV
HIV definition
race/ethnicity associated with highest…
HIV infection stage 0
HIV infection stage 1
blood-borne disease typically transmitted via sexual interc…
Black/African American (47%)
negative HIV test within 6 months of first HIV infection diag…
6 months after diagnosis and CD4+ T lymphocyte count *>/= 500…
HIV definition
blood-borne disease typically transmitted via sexual interc…
race/ethnicity associated with highest…
Black/African American (47%)
105 terms
VTI Clin Med I Terms
Balance
Confrontation
High in rear
High stationed
Overall proportion and symmetry of confrontation
Physical makeup
Dog that is higher over its rear quarters than over its front…
Tall and long legged
Balance
Overall proportion and symmetry of confrontation
Confrontation
Physical makeup
60 terms
Clin Med Lecture 1
What is stress (noun)?
What is stress (verb)?
What are two types of stress a person…
How are emotional and physical stress…
Pressure or tension exerted on a material object
give particular emphasis or importance to in speech or writing
emotional and physical
a patient's emotional stress could have caused their physical…
What is stress (noun)?
Pressure or tension exerted on a material object
What is stress (verb)?
give particular emphasis or importance to in speech or writing
72 terms
CLIN MED - Gynecologic Oncology
Cervical Cancer: Epidemiology
Cervical Cancer: Pathology
Cervical Cancer: Human Papilloma Virus
Cervical Cancer: Risk Factors
Difference between developed countries (screening) vs. countr…
Squamous Cell carcinoma: 70%... Adenocarcinoma: 25%
BIGGEST RISK FACTOR - for cervical cancer... Key factor in th…
Early onset of sexual activity... Multiple sexual *partne…
Cervical Cancer: Epidemiology
Difference between developed countries (screening) vs. countr…
Cervical Cancer: Pathology
Squamous Cell carcinoma: 70%... Adenocarcinoma: 25%
29 terms
Headache Clin Med
Pertinant Hx
Duration of Onset/Season
Severity
Region
...
Masses - Worse in morning... Cluster - cyclical ... Tension - worse…
Interference in daily act., relief w/ analgesics
Migraine/cluster = 1 sided... Tension = Global/Occiptal/around c…
Pertinant Hx
...
Duration of Onset/Season
Masses - Worse in morning... Cluster - cyclical ... Tension - worse…
225 terms
Dermatology- Clin Med
4 functions of the skin
What are the two layers of the epiderm…
Which skin layer/s do not have blood v…
which skin layer contains sebaceous gl…
-Protective barrier... -Holds body fluids within its boundaries…
--Outer - dead keratinized cells... --Inner - keratin and melanin
epidermis
Dermis
4 functions of the skin
-Protective barrier... -Holds body fluids within its boundaries…
What are the two layers of the epiderm…
--Outer - dead keratinized cells... --Inner - keratin and melanin
81 terms
VTI ClinMed1 - Dogs
Labrador Retriever (Sporting)
Brittany (Sporting)
Pointer (Sporting)
Chesapeake Bay Retriever (Sporting)
Labrador Retriever (Sporting)
Brittany (Sporting)
38 terms
Clin Med Exam 3 -- Pictures
Acrocyanosis
Kyphosis
Salmon patch
lordosis
Acrocyanosis
Kyphosis
62 terms
Fall Clin Med Oncology
preventable causes of cancer due to ex…
preventable causes of cancer due to li…
cancer prevention tips
Colon cancer screening guidelines
pesticides and chemicals... processed and artificial foods... chemi…
obesity... stress... poor sleeping habits... lack of sunshine exposure…
avoid sugar (< 25 g/day)... optimize Vit D (70 ng/ml)... maintain h…
*Colonoscopy... start at age 50... every 10 years if normal until 7…
preventable causes of cancer due to ex…
pesticides and chemicals... processed and artificial foods... chemi…
preventable causes of cancer due to li…
obesity... stress... poor sleeping habits... lack of sunshine exposure…
48 terms
CLIN MED - Pneumonia
Mrs MP is 68 yo very active female pre…
Mr FB is 66 yo with long standing seve…
Ms JA is an 83 yo female with advanced…
Mr MT is an 86 yo male w/ PMH signific…
PMH - HTN well controlled for which she takes Lisinopril
PMH - ETOH and >60 pack years... - anyone in the ICU is concern…
PMH - HTN well controlled, advanced dementia, mutliple falls…
PMH - Afib on Apixiban, and OSA
Mrs MP is 68 yo very active female pre…
PMH - HTN well controlled for which she takes Lisinopril
Mr FB is 66 yo with long standing seve…
PMH - ETOH and >60 pack years... - anyone in the ICU is concern…
Clin Med - Rheum
Fibromyalgia Cause
Fibromyalgia Association
Fibromyalgia Px
Fibromyalgia Dx
etiology unknown... soft tissue pain syndrome... female 30-50 y/o
IBS, tension/migraine headaches, TMJ, depression, anxiety... (ma…
chronic, aching, pain, stiffness... involves whole body (neck, s…
dx of exclusion... widespread pain index... sympt present same leve…
Fibromyalgia Cause
etiology unknown... soft tissue pain syndrome... female 30-50 y/o
Fibromyalgia Association
IBS, tension/migraine headaches, TMJ, depression, anxiety... (ma…
30 terms
CLIN MED - GI Imaging
GI imaging
KUB xray
Positions
Bowel Gas Pattern
Plain Radiographs... Ultrasound... CT
kidneys... ureter... bladder... *doesn't proved much informat…
AP ... decubitus
know normal appearance ... normal bowel diameter:... - *3cm small…
GI imaging
Plain Radiographs... Ultrasound... CT
KUB xray
kidneys... ureter... bladder... *doesn't proved much informat…
36 terms
Clin med- Adolescent med
Early adolescence... Mid adolescence... La…
during what phase do eating disorder d…
During what pahse do boys start to out…
Experimentation with ETOH and tobacco…
Early adolescence: 11-14... Mid adolescence: 15-17... Late adoles…
Early adolescence
early adolescence
9th
Early adolescence... Mid adolescence... La…
Early adolescence: 11-14... Mid adolescence: 15-17... Late adoles…
during what phase do eating disorder d…
Early adolescence
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