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Study sets matching "clinical chemistry"

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Study sets matching "clinical chemistry"

927 terms
Clinical Chemistry Final Exam
What kind of chemicals do labs buy?
Which chemicals are the best for labs
Which pure chemicals are used for chro…
What do the chemical labels show
Pre-prepared chemicals with varying purity
AR (Analytic Reagent Grade) and ultrapure are best for the lab
Ultrapure is used in chromatography assays
Labels show grade and percentage of impurities
What kind of chemicals do labs buy?
Pre-prepared chemicals with varying purity
Which chemicals are the best for labs
AR (Analytic Reagent Grade) and ultrapure are best for the lab
51 terms
Clinical Chemistry - ELECTROLYTES
Anions
Cations
Electrolytes
Osmolality
Negatively charged ions which move toward the anode
Positively charged ions which move toward the cathode
Ions capable of carrying an electrical charge (e.g. anions an…
The concentration of solutes per kilogram of solvent
Anions
Negatively charged ions which move toward the anode
Cations
Positively charged ions which move toward the cathode
27 terms
Clinical Chemistry
Clinical Chemistry: Enzyme applications
Enzymatic Measurement of Glucose
Standard clinical chemistry measuremen…
Use of Serum Enzymes as Diagnostic Ind…
Use enzymes to measure metabolic levels (e.g. glucose)... Use p…
with hexokinase:... Glucose + ATP → Glucose-6-P + ADP... with…
because NADH and NAD+ have different absoprtion at 300-350 wa…
might want to kinda memorize-ish this...."what makes sense" =…
Clinical Chemistry: Enzyme applications
Use enzymes to measure metabolic levels (e.g. glucose)... Use p…
Enzymatic Measurement of Glucose
with hexokinase:... Glucose + ATP → Glucose-6-P + ADP... with…
Clinical Chemistry
glucose
insulin
glycogenesis
glycogenolysis
main energy source of most body cells
hormone secreted by pancreas after meals when glucose levels…
glucose -> glycogen (for storage)
breakdown glycogen
glucose
main energy source of most body cells
insulin
hormone secreted by pancreas after meals when glucose levels…
46 terms
Clinical Chemistry
These are used in Chemical precipitati…
Progressive change in kidneys caused b…
one of the best reliable measures of a…
Increased levels of these can cause fa…
Heparin and Dextran sulfate
Diabetic Nephropathy
Microalbumin measurement
Uric acid, Ascorbic acid and bilirubin
These are used in Chemical precipitati…
Heparin and Dextran sulfate
Progressive change in kidneys caused b…
Diabetic Nephropathy
115 terms
Clinical Lab Clinical Chemistry
What percentage of the glomeruli in bo…
What laboratory test evaluates kidney…
Creatinine concentrations in serum are…
Nonrenal causes of increased levels of…
D. 70%
D. BUN
A. Hydration level
B. The amount of protein ingested
What percentage of the glomeruli in bo…
D. 70%
What laboratory test evaluates kidney…
D. BUN
101 terms
Clinical Chemistry-Proteins
Metabolism
Hormones that help regulate digestion
Protein synthesis
Catabolism
Digestion proteins such as pepsin and tripsin
cortisol, aldosterone, growth hormone, PTH
liver, ribosomes, Ig's from plasma... hemoglobin
Liver->urea breakdown product formed, filtered by the kidney…
Metabolism
Digestion proteins such as pepsin and tripsin
Hormones that help regulate digestion
cortisol, aldosterone, growth hormone, PTH
65 terms
Clinical Chemistry Reference Ranges
Albumin
Total Protein
Troponin I
Myoglobin
3.5-5.5 g/dl
6.5-8.5 g/dl
0.0-0.6 ng/ml
30.0-90.0 ng/ml
Albumin
3.5-5.5 g/dl
Total Protein
6.5-8.5 g/dl
99 terms
Clinical Chemistry
serum chemistry
enzymology
intracellularly
low
chemical assays which measure the level of a dissolved substa…
measurement of blood enzyme levels and their correlation to o…
most enzymes are formed and function (intracellularly/interce…
the blood level of enzymes in a healthy animal is (high/low)
serum chemistry
chemical assays which measure the level of a dissolved substa…
enzymology
measurement of blood enzyme levels and their correlation to o…
14 terms
Clinical Chemistry
Principles that govern analytical tech…
Spectrophotomerty
Beer - Lambert Law (Beer's law)
Application of Beer's law
Spectrophotometry... Electroanalytical Methods... Chromatography... Os…
The measurement of the light transmitted by a solution to det…
A linear relationship between the absorbance and the concentr…
Absorbance and transmittance
Principles that govern analytical tech…
Spectrophotometry... Electroanalytical Methods... Chromatography... Os…
Spectrophotomerty
The measurement of the light transmitted by a solution to det…
142 terms
Clinical Chemistry
Three primary units of the metric system
ampere
kelvin
candela
Length = meter... Mass = Gram... Volume = liter
electric current
temperature
light intensity
Three primary units of the metric system
Length = meter... Mass = Gram... Volume = liter
ampere
electric current
52 terms
Clinical Chemistry; Methods
Spectrophotometry
Single beam spectrophotometer
Double Beam spectrophotometer
Formulas to Remember
The measurement of the intensity of light at selected wavelen…
1. A beam of light is passed through a monochromator that iso…
Is the same is the single beam except all components are doub…
A=abc... A=2-log %T... C(u)=A(u) x C(s)/A(s)... Where A=absorbance... a=a…
Spectrophotometry
The measurement of the intensity of light at selected wavelen…
Single beam spectrophotometer
1. A beam of light is passed through a monochromator that iso…
64 terms
Clinical Pathology: Clinical Chemistry
Evaluation of Renal Function
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
Creatinine
Serum Phosphorus Concentration
...
- Decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) results in incre…
- Elevation indicates that < 25% of functioning renal mass re…
- Increase is not seen until > 85% of nephrons are nonfuction…
Evaluation of Renal Function
...
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
- Decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) results in incre…
47 terms
Clinical Chemistry - Nonprotein Nitrogen Compounds
Urea Nitrogen (BUN): % of total NPN
Urea Nitrogen (BUN): Source in Body
Urea Nitrogen (BUN): Clinical Signific…
Urea Nitrogen (BUN): Hyper-
45-50%
Released as a result of the breakdown of proteins
Renal function, hydration status, nitrogen balance, adequacy…
Azotemia - Elevated concentration of urea in the blood:... Prere…
Urea Nitrogen (BUN): % of total NPN
45-50%
Urea Nitrogen (BUN): Source in Body
Released as a result of the breakdown of proteins
222 terms
BOC Clinical Chemistry
d (Diagnosis of hypoglycemia in adults.)
a (GTT diet preparation.)
b (Normal 2 hour postprandial value.)
b (Ratio of CSF glucose to blood gluco…
1) Following overnight fasting, hypoglycemia in adults is def…
3) The preparation of a patient for standard glucose toleranc…
4) If a fasting glucose was 90 mg/dL, which of the following…
5) A healthy person with a blood glucose of 80 mg/dL (4.4 mmo…
d (Diagnosis of hypoglycemia in adults.)
1) Following overnight fasting, hypoglycemia in adults is def…
a (GTT diet preparation.)
3) The preparation of a patient for standard glucose toleranc…
35 terms
CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
VISIBLE SPECTRUM AND INVISIBLE SPECTRUM
ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT
Branch of medical science involved in the analysis of biologi…
Uses prism or grating to isolate a narrow range of wavelength…
two kinds of light;
(400 nm) visible spectrum
CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
Branch of medical science involved in the analysis of biologi…
SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
Uses prism or grating to isolate a narrow range of wavelength…
365 terms
Clinical Chemistry
10
12.9
17.1
0.357
Conversion factor for albumin
Conversion factor for T4
Conversion factor for bilirubin
Conversion factor for BUN
10
Conversion factor for albumin
12.9
Conversion factor for T4
493 terms
CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
Clinical Chemistry
quantitative tests
qualitative testing
purpose of C.C.
includes quantitative analysis of various analytes dissolved…
provide an actual number
indicates the presence or absence of specific chemicals
evaluate changes, to diagnose and prescribe treatment
Clinical Chemistry
includes quantitative analysis of various analytes dissolved…
quantitative tests
provide an actual number
143 terms
Clinical Chemistry
40 mL
0.2 g/dL
0.03
Specimen brought to lab immediately, p…
How many milliliters of 0.5 NaOH are required to make 100 mL…
A patient sample for uric acid gave an absorbance reading of…
3 mg/dL is equivalent to ______ g/L
Which of the following statements describes optimal condition…
40 mL
How many milliliters of 0.5 NaOH are required to make 100 mL…
0.2 g/dL
A patient sample for uric acid gave an absorbance reading of…
319 terms
Clinical Chemistry Comprehensive Exam
Intracellular Fluid (ICF)
Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
Osmolality
Cation
-Fluid inside the cell... -2/3 of the body water... -Where dissolve…
1. Intravascular - fluid in the vascular system.... -Yellow prot…
-The measurement of the number of dissolved solute particles…
Pos charge that move toward cathode.
Intracellular Fluid (ICF)
-Fluid inside the cell... -2/3 of the body water... -Where dissolve…
Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
1. Intravascular - fluid in the vascular system.... -Yellow prot…
38 terms
Clinical chemistry
Quality Assurance
Continuous quality improvement
Pre-analytical
Analytical
Is a system that maintains the integrity of the entire proces…
What does CQI?
Sample transport, sticking patients.
QC, running patients
Quality Assurance
Is a system that maintains the integrity of the entire proces…
Continuous quality improvement
What does CQI?
157 terms
Clinical Laboratory - clinical chemistry
TERM - liquid portion of while blood a…
TERM - liquid portion of clotted blood…
T/F - most them test results will be t…
if plasma is required form a venipunct…
Plasma
Serum
T
heparin
TERM - liquid portion of while blood a…
Plasma
TERM - liquid portion of clotted blood…
Serum
175 terms
Clinical Chemistry
Nephron
Two functions of the nephron/kidney
Steps of urine formation
Location of filtration in the nephrons
Functional unit of the kidney
1) Filtration... 2) Reabsorption
1) Filtration... 2) Reabsorption... 3) Storage/excretion
From the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule
Nephron
Functional unit of the kidney
Two functions of the nephron/kidney
1) Filtration... 2) Reabsorption
284 terms
Clinical Chemistry
vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)
growth, third trimester of pregnancy
binding capacity of thyroxine-binding…
a normal finding. Cortisol exhibits a…
The urinary excretion product measured as an indicator of epi…
Which 2 conditions can "physiologically" elevate serum alkali…
The T3 resin uptake test is a measure of:
During an evaluation of renal function, a patient had plasma…
vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)
The urinary excretion product measured as an indicator of epi…
growth, third trimester of pregnancy
Which 2 conditions can "physiologically" elevate serum alkali…
58 terms
Clinical Chemistry - ELECTROLYTES (UPDATED)
Anions
Cations
Electrolytes
Osmolality
Negatively charged ions which move toward the anode
Positively charged ions which move toward the cathode
Ions capable of carrying an electrical charge (e.g. anions an…
The concentration of solutes per kilogram of solvent
Anions
Negatively charged ions which move toward the anode
Cations
Positively charged ions which move toward the cathode
15 terms
CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
plasma
serum
anti-coagulant
hemoconcentration
liquid portion of anti-coagulated blood
liquid portion of the clotted blood
substance that prevent coagulation to happen
result of prolonged torniquet application
plasma
liquid portion of anti-coagulated blood
serum
liquid portion of the clotted blood
493 terms
CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
Clinical Chemistry
quantitative tests
qualitative testing
purpose of C.C.
includes quantitative analysis of various analytes dissolved…
provide an actual number
indicates the presence or absence of specific chemicals
evaluate changes, to diagnose and prescribe treatment
Clinical Chemistry
includes quantitative analysis of various analytes dissolved…
quantitative tests
provide an actual number
46 terms
Clinical Chemistry Self Study
1. Which of the following specimens sh…
What term is used to describe this pla…
Is the liquid part of the blood in the…
When considering the collection of sam…
Tubes 2-4... Tube 1 is normal
Lipemic
Plasma, the light blue topped tubes have sodium citrate addit…
Blood must be drawn and collected in tubes in a specific orde…
1. Which of the following specimens sh…
Tubes 2-4... Tube 1 is normal
What term is used to describe this pla…
Lipemic
100 terms
Clinical Chemistry
Glucose
Test to monitor diabetes
two major enzymes that control glucose
fasting glucose normal range
stored in the liver in form of glycogen... NR: 74-106 mg/dL... grey…
Hemoglobin A1c (Glycosylated Hgb)
insulin and hormones
fasting from 8 to 12 hours... 100-125 mg/dL
Glucose
stored in the liver in form of glycogen... NR: 74-106 mg/dL... grey…
Test to monitor diabetes
Hemoglobin A1c (Glycosylated Hgb)
120 terms
Clinical Chemistry
10
1.0
17.1
0.357
Conversion factor for Albumin and Total Protein
Conversion factor for Na, K, and Cl
Conversion factor for Bilirubin
Conversion factor for BUN
10
Conversion factor for Albumin and Total Protein
1.0
Conversion factor for Na, K, and Cl
28 terms
Clinical Chemistry
ALP
ALT
AST
SDH
Liver Enzymes that assist in various chemical reactions. incr…
Liver specific enzyme. Determines hepatic cell damage NOT liv…
Enzyme NOT liver specific, can be increased due to live damag…
evaluates liver damage in large animals instead of ALT
ALP
Liver Enzymes that assist in various chemical reactions. incr…
ALT
Liver specific enzyme. Determines hepatic cell damage NOT liv…
15 terms
Clinical Chemistry
C: Urine... Urine is the only fluid of th…
A: Research Laboratory... All laboratorie…
A: Triglycerides... Fasting blood sugar/g…
D: Both A and B... Either an amber tube o…
All of the following are potentially infectious except:... A: Bl…
Who would not be required to comply with CLIA '88?... A: Researc…
Which of the following tests requires a fasting specimen?... A:…
Bilirubin is broken down when exposed to light, how should th…
C: Urine... Urine is the only fluid of th…
All of the following are potentially infectious except:... A: Bl…
A: Research Laboratory... All laboratorie…
Who would not be required to comply with CLIA '88?... A: Researc…
25 terms
Clinical Chemistry
amylase
calcium
cholesterol
electrolyte
one group of enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and other…
mineral important for blood clotting, enzyme activation, lact…
substance occuring in animal tissue, egg yolks, various oils,…
a subtance in a solution, conducts an electric current and is…
amylase
one group of enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and other…
calcium
mineral important for blood clotting, enzyme activation, lact…
26 terms
Clinical Chemistry
In a spectrophotometer, what is the mo…
What instrumentation principle is desc…
Titration in which the titrant is elec…
_______________ is an acute phase reac…
A) Tungsten... B) Deuterium
Nephelometry
Coulometry
alpha1-antitrypsin
In a spectrophotometer, what is the mo…
A) Tungsten... B) Deuterium
What instrumentation principle is desc…
Nephelometry
65 terms
Clinical Chemistry
Bicarbonate(total)
Calcium(total)
Cholride
Magnesium
18-30meq/L
9-11meq/dL... 4.5-5.5meq/L
98-106meq/L
1.8-3.6mg/dL... 1.5-3.0meq/L
Bicarbonate(total)
18-30meq/L
Calcium(total)
9-11meq/dL... 4.5-5.5meq/L
113 terms
Clinical Chemistry
The turbid appearance of lipemic serum…
A trough blood sample for routine ther…
To quantitative urinary vanillylmandel…
Describe the production of catecholami…
D. Triglycerides... Lipemia is due to the presence of large fat…
B. Just before the next scheduled dose... Individuals differ ma…
A. 24-hour urine collection... VMA is a metabolite of the catec…
Production: Tyrosine--> L-DOPA--> Dopamine--> Norepinephrine…
The turbid appearance of lipemic serum…
D. Triglycerides... Lipemia is due to the presence of large fat…
A trough blood sample for routine ther…
B. Just before the next scheduled dose... Individuals differ ma…
Clinical chemistry
List the hormones that lower the blood…
List the consequences of Hypoglycemia
What is the best anticoagulant for glu…
What major bebfit of POCT for blood gl…
Insulin, Gluconeogenesis, and Glucagon
An excessive dose of insulin.... Can lead to nausea, muslce spas…
Gray top tube
(Cheaper and faster) Balance accuracy of within many other fa…
List the hormones that lower the blood…
Insulin, Gluconeogenesis, and Glucagon
List the consequences of Hypoglycemia
An excessive dose of insulin.... Can lead to nausea, muslce spas…
17 terms
Clinical Chemistry--Clinical Toxicology
An analgesic that can cause severe hap…
An analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inf…
Leads to CNS depression ... >400 mg/dL na…
Combines tightly with heme Fe2+ of hem…
Acetaminophen
Salicytate
Ethanol
CO
An analgesic that can cause severe hap…
Acetaminophen
An analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inf…
Salicytate
15 terms
Clinical Chemistry
What samples are ideal to get?
What increases if you where to get a p…
What do you label the sample tube with?
Plasma collected in tubes containing _…
Preprandial. Postprandial may produce erroneous results
blood glucose concentration... BUN... Lipids (lipemia)
Collection date & time... Owners name and patients name... Patients…
heparin
What samples are ideal to get?
Preprandial. Postprandial may produce erroneous results
What increases if you where to get a p…
blood glucose concentration... BUN... Lipids (lipemia)
49 terms
clinical lab - basic clinical chemistry
normal or reference values
chemistry panel grouping
proteins
total protein normal range
range of values for a particular chemistry test from healthy…
some tests are "bundled" according to the system or organ tar…
essential components of cells and body fluids. some made by b…
6-8.3 g/dl
normal or reference values
range of values for a particular chemistry test from healthy…
chemistry panel grouping
some tests are "bundled" according to the system or organ tar…
31 terms
Clinical Chemistry (Acids/Bases)
__ mmol/L of acids come from our diet…
What is the function of a buffer? What…
Maintenance of acid-base balance requi…
What organ's most important function i…
90; sulfuric acid
Reset changes in pH; consists of weak acid/base and its salt.
Production and excretion
Kidneys
__ mmol/L of acids come from our diet…
90; sulfuric acid
What is the function of a buffer? What…
Reset changes in pH; consists of weak acid/base and its salt.
64 terms
Clinical Pathology: Clinical Chemistry
Evaluation of Renal Function
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
Creatinine
Serum Phosphorus Concentration
...
- Decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) results in incre…
- Elevation indicates that < 25% of functioning renal mass re…
- Increase is not seen until > 85% of nephrons are nonfuction…
Evaluation of Renal Function
...
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
- Decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) results in incre…
65 terms
Clinical Chemistry
Clinical Chemistry
Bodily fluids
Spectrophotometry, Nephelometry, Turbi…
Spectrophotometry
The branch of medical science involved in the analysis of bio…
Biological materials usually analyzed in Clinical Chemistry
6 basic analytical techniques
Uses prisms or gratings to isolate a narrow range of waveleng…
Clinical Chemistry
The branch of medical science involved in the analysis of bio…
Bodily fluids
Biological materials usually analyzed in Clinical Chemistry
46 terms
Clinical Chemistry
340 nm
cardiac muscle > liver > sk muscle > k…
liver and kidney (mostly liver)
20% cytoplasm, 80% mitochondria
NADH absorbance
AST tissue sources
ALT tissue sources
AST location in the cell
340 nm
NADH absorbance
cardiac muscle > liver > sk muscle > k…
AST tissue sources
26 terms
Clinical chemistry
Bicarbonate
Lithium
Potassium
Sodium
1
1
1
1
Bicarbonate
1
Lithium
1
9 terms
Clinical Chemistry
Hypernatraemia
Hyponatraemia
Hyperkalaemia
Hypokalaemia
Presentation... -lethargy... -thirst... -weakness... -irritability... -confu…
Plasma Na+ concentration depends on amount of both Na and wat…
Plasma K>6.5 is an emergency and needs urgent treatment due t…
If K+<2.5 urgent treatment is required. Note that hypokalaemi…
Hypernatraemia
Presentation... -lethargy... -thirst... -weakness... -irritability... -confu…
Hyponatraemia
Plasma Na+ concentration depends on amount of both Na and wat…
74 terms
Clinical chemistry
Blood (Serum)
Diaphoretic substance
Sialogigic substance
Synovial fluid
Most common specimen
Substance that facilitate sweating
Substance that facilitate production of saliva
Substance collected in joints to test uric acid
Blood (Serum)
Most common specimen
Diaphoretic substance
Substance that facilitate sweating
10 terms
Clinical Chemistry
Protein (Globulin, Albumin)
Bilirubin
Bile Acids
Enzymes (AIP, ACP, ALT, AST)
Liver
Liver
Liver
Liver
Protein (Globulin, Albumin)
Liver
Bilirubin
Liver
59 terms
Clinical Chemistry Exam 1
Accuracy
Precision
Mean
Median
The closeness with which a measurement comes to the true value
The degree of reproducibility in the measurement of a substance
Sum of all of a set divided by the number in the set (average)
The point on the scale that has equal number of observations…
Accuracy
The closeness with which a measurement comes to the true value
Precision
The degree of reproducibility in the measurement of a substance
115 terms
Clinical Chemistry
# of electrons = # of protons
10%
2 electrons
8 electrons
Atoms:... The nucleus contains protons and so, is positively cha…
___ of NaCl solution is hypertonic (high concentration) and R…
Atoms:... The first shell or orbit closest to the nucleus contai…
Atoms:... The second and third shells contain a maximum of _____…
# of electrons = # of protons
Atoms:... The nucleus contains protons and so, is positively cha…
10%
___ of NaCl solution is hypertonic (high concentration) and R…
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