# Study sets matching "clinical epidemiology"

number with disease/ total number

The proportion with the disease at a pa…

number of people with the disease at a…

Proportion of new diseases occurring in…

What is the formula for proportion?

What is the definition of prevalence?

What is the formula for prevalence?

What is the definition of risk?

number with disease/ total number

What is the formula for proportion?

The proportion with the disease at a pa…

What is the definition of prevalence?

Epidemiology

Accuracy

Sensitivity

Specificity

Science of the distribution and causes of disease in a populat…

The effect of Sensitivity and Specificity

The extent to which a test is accurate for those who have the…

The extent to which the test is accurate for those who do not…

Epidemiology

Science of the distribution and causes of disease in a populat…

Accuracy

The effect of Sensitivity and Specificity

What do studies usually present us with?

How do we assess threats to internal va…

chance

bias

associations observed in a sample

1. chance... 2. bias... 3. confounding

random error ... statistics help us to quantify our uncertainty

misleading associations introduced by research methods; system…

What do studies usually present us with?

associations observed in a sample

How do we assess threats to internal va…

1. chance... 2. bias... 3. confounding

What do studies usually present us with?

How do we assess threats to internal va…

chance

bias

associations observed in a sample

1. chance... 2. bias... 3. confounding

random error ... statistics help us to quantify our uncertainty

misleading associations introduced by research methods; system…

What do studies usually present us with?

associations observed in a sample

How do we assess threats to internal va…

1. chance... 2. bias... 3. confounding

Define Clinical Epidemiology:

What are the 5 central concerns of Clin…

What is considered normal as common?

What is considered abnormal as associat…

application of epidemiological principles and methods to the p…

being able to define what is normal vs abnormal, the accuracy…

classifies values that occur frequently as normal and those th…

the distinction between normal and abnormal can be based on di…

Define Clinical Epidemiology:

application of epidemiological principles and methods to the p…

What are the 5 central concerns of Clin…

being able to define what is normal vs abnormal, the accuracy…

Describe how screening is intended to w…

Screening indices: Reliability vs Valid…

Reliability vs Validity image

Some clinical epi indices are related t…

- Screening is generally intended to reduce/prevent... cause-spec…

These two characteristics of a screening test measure very dif…

Describe how screening is intended to w…

- Screening is generally intended to reduce/prevent... cause-spec…

Screening indices: Reliability vs Valid…

These two characteristics of a screening test measure very dif…

2 types of clinical research?

cross sectional study/prevalence study

prospective cohort study

cohort/case control study

experimental and observational

examine presence/absence of disease and exposure @ 1 particula…

enroll non-diseased subjects @ baseline... -collect exposure dat…

"think backwards"... ident individ with an outcome of interest…

2 types of clinical research?

experimental and observational

cross sectional study/prevalence study

examine presence/absence of disease and exposure @ 1 particula…

Selection Bias

Measurement bias

Confounding

Bias (general definition)

Occurs when comparisons are made between groups of patients th…

Occurs when the methods of measurement are dissimilar among gr…

Occurs when two factors are associated (travel together) and t…

A process at any stage of inference tending to produce results…

Selection Bias

Occurs when comparisons are made between groups of patients th…

Measurement bias

Occurs when the methods of measurement are dissimilar among gr…

EBM Defintion

Epidemiology Definition

Uses of Epidemiology

Descriptive Epidemiology

The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best…

Study of occurrence and distribution of health-related states…

1. Describe patterns of health/disease in populations... 2. To id…

Describe patterns in disease over time, between places and peo…

EBM Defintion

The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best…

Epidemiology Definition

Study of occurrence and distribution of health-related states…

Disease Oriented Evidence

Patient Oriented Evidence

Pure Research

Experimental Research

patients don't really care about these values usually

patients usually do care about these things

Abstract, focuses on new knowledge for the sake of knowledge

Change on variable to examine its effect on another

Disease Oriented Evidence

patients don't really care about these values usually

Patient Oriented Evidence

patients usually do care about these things

Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)

Drug Facts and Comparisons

American Hospital Formulary Service- Dr…

Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference

General: was extremely popular... Features: Contains package inse…

General: facilitates comparisons to make rational choices for…

General: used in inpatient settings, designated as the officia…

General: from the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britai…

Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)

General: was extremely popular... Features: Contains package inse…

Drug Facts and Comparisons

General: facilitates comparisons to make rational choices for…

Clinical Epidemiology

Epidemiology

Positive Predictive Value

Accuracy of Testing

Science of making predictions about INDIVIDUAL PATIENTS using…

Science of the distribution and causes of disease in POPULATIO…

The probability that subjects with a Positive screening test t…

Sensitivity and Specificity

Clinical Epidemiology

Science of making predictions about INDIVIDUAL PATIENTS using…

Epidemiology

Science of the distribution and causes of disease in POPULATIO…

P(A|B)

To interpret diagnostic test results pr…

Sensitivity

Specificity

the probability some event A will occur, given that a totally…

Pre-test probability of the disease... The sensitivity and specif…

proportion of people with the disease who have a positive test…

proportion of people without the disease who have a negative t…

P(A|B)

the probability some event A will occur, given that a totally…

To interpret diagnostic test results pr…

Pre-test probability of the disease... The sensitivity and specif…

2x2 table

screening test

good Snout (sensitivity rules out) test

confirmation test

Compare the results of the new test with the results on a crit…

must have as few face negatives results as possible

one that tells you more when the test is negative than when it…

identify when the condition is not present; fewer false positi…

2x2 table

Compare the results of the new test with the results on a crit…

screening test

must have as few face negatives results as possible

Skewed

Standard deviation

Standard error

Statistics

An asymmetrical frequency distribution

A measure of how widely dispersed are the individual observati…

The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a sampl…

The science of collecting, summarising, presenting, interpreti…

Skewed

An asymmetrical frequency distribution

Standard deviation

A measure of how widely dispersed are the individual observati…

Clinical epidemiology

Lead time

Lead time bias

Length bias

It focuses on patients and the application of epidemiological…

The difference in time between the date of diagnosis with scre…

When lead time is counted in the survival time of patients, it…

Slow progressing cases of disease with a better prognosis are…

Clinical epidemiology

It focuses on patients and the application of epidemiological…

Lead time

The difference in time between the date of diagnosis with scre…

classical vs. clinical epi

purposes of diagnosis

differential diagnosis

preferred study design for evaluating d…

classical = screening, detection... clinical = diagnosis, focus o…

classify condition... determine prognosis... identify interventiosn

method to decide b/t alternatives to explain s/s

prospective cohort

classical vs. clinical epi

classical = screening, detection... clinical = diagnosis, focus o…

purposes of diagnosis

classify condition... determine prognosis... identify interventiosn

Features of a positively skewed distrib…

Features of a negatively skewed distrib…

Why are computers used in selection of…

Why are cross-sectional studies prone t…

Long tail to the right... mode<median<mean

Long tail to the left... mode>median>mean

The method of sampling can be checked at a later date to ensur…

Experimenters cannot ascertain whether the exposure came befor…

Features of a positively skewed distrib…

Long tail to the right... mode<median<mean

Features of a negatively skewed distrib…

Long tail to the left... mode>median>mean

What is the diagnostic process?

What is clinical epidemiology?

What is primary prevention?

What is secondary prevention?

An effort to recognize the class of a patient's illness and ca…

The study of those things (tests) that help us arrive at accur…

Maintaining health via a wellness plan

Treating subclinical disease

What is the diagnostic process?

An effort to recognize the class of a patient's illness and ca…

What is clinical epidemiology?

The study of those things (tests) that help us arrive at accur…

What is the study of distribution and d…

What is the study of health effects of…

Is diagnostic testing based on individu…

Evaluate to classify a condition, deter…

Classical

Clinical

Individual

Diagnosis

What is the study of distribution and d…

Classical

What is the study of health effects of…

Clinical

What is clinical epidemiology?

What is epidemiology?

What are the 2 essential components of…

What are the equations for sensitivity/…

Science of making predictions about individual patients using…

Science of distribution and causes of disease in populations

- Sensitivity (extent to which test is accurate for those who…

Sensitivity: TP / (TP + FN)... Specificity: TN / (TN + FP)

What is clinical epidemiology?

Science of making predictions about individual patients using…

What is epidemiology?

Science of distribution and causes of disease in populations

reliability

validity

Reliability vs. validity

TP

how well the test performs in use over time (its repeatability…

how well the test actually measures what it is supposed to mea…

it is possible for a measure to be highly reliable but invalid…

true positive- outcome yes, positive test

reliability

how well the test performs in use over time (its repeatability…

validity

how well the test actually measures what it is supposed to mea…

Goal of screening:

Goal of diagnostic testing:

Various reasons for performing clinical…

gold standard of breast caner diagnosis

Identify individuals who likely may have disease or risk of di…

Determine with greater confidence the probability of disease i…

1. Determining the probability of the presence of disease... 2. A…

surgical excision and pathologic evaluation of the excised tis…

Goal of screening:

Identify individuals who likely may have disease or risk of di…

Goal of diagnostic testing:

Determine with greater confidence the probability of disease i…

Null hypothesis

Reject the Null Hypothesis

Not Reject the Null Hypothesis

Inference

The idea that there is no difference in outcomes between compa…

When statistical tests show that the observed data is not cons…

When statistical tests show that the observed data is consiste…

The process of drawing a conclusion about a larger group of pe…

Null hypothesis

The idea that there is no difference in outcomes between compa…

Reject the Null Hypothesis

When statistical tests show that the observed data is not cons…

Most important events in clinical medic…

What are the 5 D's

disease

discomfort

Health outcome of patients... the 5 D's

Discomfort, Dissatisfaction, Disability, Disease, Death

a set of symptoms and signs

patient symptoms (pain)

Most important events in clinical medic…

Health outcome of patients... the 5 D's

What are the 5 D's

Discomfort, Dissatisfaction, Disability, Disease, Death