#### Study sets matching "clinical epidemiology"

#### Study sets matching "clinical epidemiology"

Epidemiology

Accuracy

Sensitivity

Specificity

Science of the distribution and causes of disease in a popula…

The effect of Sensitivity and Specificity

The extent to which a test is accurate for those who have the…

The extent to which the test is accurate for those who do not…

Epidemiology

Science of the distribution and causes of disease in a popula…

Accuracy

The effect of Sensitivity and Specificity

Define Clinical Epidemiology:

What are the 5 central concerns of Cli…

What is considered normal as common?

What is considered abnormal as associa…

application of epidemiological principles and methods to the…

being able to define what is normal vs abnormal, the accuracy…

classifies values that occur frequently as normal and those t…

the distinction between normal and abnormal can be based on d…

Define Clinical Epidemiology:

application of epidemiological principles and methods to the…

What are the 5 central concerns of Cli…

being able to define what is normal vs abnormal, the accuracy…

What do studies usually present us with?

How do we assess threats to internal v…

chance

bias

associations observed in a sample

1. chance... 2. bias... 3. confounding

random error ... statistics help us to quantify our uncertainty

misleading associations introduced by research methods; syste…

What do studies usually present us with?

associations observed in a sample

How do we assess threats to internal v…

1. chance... 2. bias... 3. confounding

What do studies usually present us with?

How do we assess threats to internal v…

chance

bias

associations observed in a sample

1. chance... 2. bias... 3. confounding

random error ... statistics help us to quantify our uncertainty

misleading associations introduced by research methods; syste…

What do studies usually present us with?

associations observed in a sample

How do we assess threats to internal v…

1. chance... 2. bias... 3. confounding

2 types of clinical research?

cross sectional study/prevalence study

prospective cohort study

cohort/case control study

experimental and observational

examine presence/absence of disease and exposure @ 1 particul…

enroll non-diseased subjects @ baseline... -collect exposure da…

"think backwards"... ident individ with an outcome of interest…

2 types of clinical research?

experimental and observational

cross sectional study/prevalence study

examine presence/absence of disease and exposure @ 1 particul…

number with disease/ total number

The proportion with the disease at a p…

number of people with the disease at a…

Proportion of new diseases occurring i…

What is the formula for proportion?

What is the definition of prevalence?

What is the formula for prevalence?

What is the definition of risk?

number with disease/ total number

What is the formula for proportion?

The proportion with the disease at a p…

What is the definition of prevalence?

Disease Oriented Evidence

Patient Oriented Evidence

Pure Research

Experimental Research

patients don't really care about these values usually

patients usually do care about these things

Abstract, focuses on new knowledge for the sake of knowledge

Change on variable to examine its effect on another

Disease Oriented Evidence

patients don't really care about these values usually

Patient Oriented Evidence

patients usually do care about these things

Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)

Drug Facts and Comparisons

American Hospital Formulary Service- D…

Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference

General: was extremely popular... Features: Contains package ins…

General: facilitates comparisons to make rational choices for…

General: used in inpatient settings, designated as the offici…

General: from the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Brita…

Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)

General: was extremely popular... Features: Contains package ins…

Drug Facts and Comparisons

General: facilitates comparisons to make rational choices for…

Clinical Epidemiology

Epidemiology

Positive Predictive Value

Accuracy of Testing

Science of making predictions about INDIVIDUAL PATIENTS using…

Science of the distribution and causes of disease in POPULATI…

The probability that subjects with a Positive screening test…

Sensitivity and Specificity

Clinical Epidemiology

Science of making predictions about INDIVIDUAL PATIENTS using…

Epidemiology

Science of the distribution and causes of disease in POPULATI…

Selection Bias

Measurement bias

Confounding

Bias (general definition)

Occurs when comparisons are made between groups of patients t…

Occurs when the methods of measurement are dissimilar among g…

Occurs when two factors are associated (travel together) and…

A process at any stage of inference tending to produce result…

Selection Bias

Occurs when comparisons are made between groups of patients t…

Measurement bias

Occurs when the methods of measurement are dissimilar among g…

2x2 table

screening test

good Snout (sensitivity rules out) test

confirmation test

Compare the results of the new test with the results on a cri…

must have as few face negatives results as possible

one that tells you more when the test is negative than when i…

identify when the condition is not present; fewer false posit…

2x2 table

Compare the results of the new test with the results on a cri…

screening test

must have as few face negatives results as possible

Hawthorne Effect

Prognosis Bias

Clinical trial

Experimental trial

Bias in an observational study when participants know they ar…

Bias when allocating treatment due to people in the treatment…

Diagnostic & treatment trials done on human, establish a trea…

Produces continuous data, often performed on animals

Hawthorne Effect

Bias in an observational study when participants know they ar…

Prognosis Bias

Bias when allocating treatment due to people in the treatment…

P(A|B)

To interpret diagnostic test results p…

Sensitivity

Specificity

the probability some event A will occur, given that a totally…

Pre-test probability of the disease... The sensitivity and speci…

proportion of people with the disease who have a positive tes…

proportion of people without the disease who have a negative…

P(A|B)

the probability some event A will occur, given that a totally…

To interpret diagnostic test results p…

Pre-test probability of the disease... The sensitivity and speci…

Proportion

Prevalence

Risk

Incidence Rate

no. with disease / total no.

no. with disease at time / total no. in pop. at time

no. new cases in time / no. initially disease free

no. new cases of disease / (total no. disease free X time int…

Proportion

no. with disease / total no.

Prevalence

no. with disease at time / total no. in pop. at time

Clinical epidemiology

Lead time

Lead time bias

Length bias

It focuses on patients and the application of epidemiological…

The difference in time between the date of diagnosis with scr…

When lead time is counted in the survival time of patients, i…

Slow progressing cases of disease with a better prognosis are…

Clinical epidemiology

It focuses on patients and the application of epidemiological…

Lead time

The difference in time between the date of diagnosis with scr…

Describe how screening is intended to…

Screening indices: Reliability vs Vali…

Reliability vs Validity image

Some clinical epi indices are related…

- Screening is generally intended to reduce/prevent... cause-spe…

These two characteristics of a screening test measure very di…

Describe how screening is intended to…

- Screening is generally intended to reduce/prevent... cause-spe…

Screening indices: Reliability vs Vali…

These two characteristics of a screening test measure very di…

What is the diagnostic process?

What is clinical epidemiology?

What is primary prevention?

What is secondary prevention?

An effort to recognize the class of a patient's illness and c…

The study of those things (tests) that help us arrive at accu…

Maintaining health via a wellness plan

Treating subclinical disease

What is the diagnostic process?

An effort to recognize the class of a patient's illness and c…

What is clinical epidemiology?

The study of those things (tests) that help us arrive at accu…

Anaerobic infection

Specimen collection

Selective media

Differential media

Testing: must use oxygen-eliminating system (Plunger)

Take from sterile sites to avoid contamination

Removes nonpathogens... Allows for growth of pathogen... Ability to…

Exploits pathogen's unique biochemical properties... Strains gro…

Anaerobic infection

Testing: must use oxygen-eliminating system (Plunger)

Specimen collection

Take from sterile sites to avoid contamination

reliability

validity

Reliability vs. validity

TP

how well the test performs in use over time (its repeatabilit…

how well the test actually measures what it is supposed to me…

it is possible for a measure to be highly reliable but invali…

true positive- outcome yes, positive test

reliability

how well the test performs in use over time (its repeatabilit…

validity

how well the test actually measures what it is supposed to me…

EBM Defintion

Epidemiology Definition

Uses of Epidemiology

Descriptive Epidemiology

The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best…

Study of occurrence and distribution of health-related states…

1. Describe patterns of health/disease in populations... 2. To i…

Describe patterns in disease over time, between places and pe…

EBM Defintion

The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best…

Epidemiology Definition

Study of occurrence and distribution of health-related states…

Skewed

Standard deviation

Standard error

Statistics

An asymmetrical frequency distribution

A measure of how widely dispersed are the individual observat…

The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a samp…

The science of collecting, summarising, presenting, interpret…

Skewed

An asymmetrical frequency distribution

Standard deviation

A measure of how widely dispersed are the individual observat…

Features of a positively skewed distri…

Features of a negatively skewed distri…

Why are computers used in selection of…

Why are cross-sectional studies prone…

Long tail to the right... mode<median<mean

Long tail to the left... mode>median>mean

The method of sampling can be checked at a later date to ensu…

Experimenters cannot ascertain whether the exposure came befo…

Features of a positively skewed distri…

Long tail to the right... mode<median<mean

Features of a negatively skewed distri…

Long tail to the left... mode>median>mean

What is clinical epidemiology?

What is epidemiology?

What are the 2 essential components of…

What are the equations for sensitivity…

Science of making predictions about individual patients using…

Science of distribution and causes of disease in populations

- Sensitivity (extent to which test is accurate for those who…

Sensitivity: TP / (TP + FN)... Specificity: TN / (TN + FP)

What is clinical epidemiology?

Science of making predictions about individual patients using…

What is epidemiology?

Science of distribution and causes of disease in populations

Goal of screening:

Goal of diagnostic testing:

Various reasons for performing clinica…

gold standard of breast caner diagnosis

Identify individuals who likely may have disease or risk of d…

Determine with greater confidence the probability of disease…

1. Determining the probability of the presence of disease... 2.…

surgical excision and pathologic evaluation of the excised ti…

Goal of screening:

Identify individuals who likely may have disease or risk of d…

Goal of diagnostic testing:

Determine with greater confidence the probability of disease…

Null hypothesis

Reject the Null Hypothesis

Not Reject the Null Hypothesis

Inference

The idea that there is no difference in outcomes between comp…

When statistical tests show that the observed data is not con…

When statistical tests show that the observed data is consist…

The process of drawing a conclusion about a larger group of p…

Null hypothesis

The idea that there is no difference in outcomes between comp…

Reject the Null Hypothesis

When statistical tests show that the observed data is not con…