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Study sets matching "clinical epidemiology"

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Study sets matching "clinical epidemiology"

69 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
Describe how screening is intended to…
Screening indices: Reliability vs Vali…
Reliability vs Validity image
Some clinical epi indices are related…
- Screening is generally intended to reduce/prevent... cause-spe…
These two characteristics of a screening test measure very di…
Describe how screening is intended to…
- Screening is generally intended to reduce/prevent... cause-spe…
Screening indices: Reliability vs Vali…
These two characteristics of a screening test measure very di…
289 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
What do studies usually present us with?
How do we assess threats to internal v…
chance
bias
associations observed in a sample
1. chance... 2. bias... 3. confounding
random error ... statistics help us to quantify our uncertainty
misleading associations introduced by research methods; syste…
What do studies usually present us with?
associations observed in a sample
How do we assess threats to internal v…
1. chance... 2. bias... 3. confounding
13 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Accuracy
Sensitivity
Specificity
Science of the distribution and causes of disease in a popula…
The effect of Sensitivity and Specificity
The extent to which a test is accurate for those who have the…
The extent to which the test is accurate for those who do not…
Epidemiology
Science of the distribution and causes of disease in a popula…
Accuracy
The effect of Sensitivity and Specificity
289 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
What do studies usually present us with?
How do we assess threats to internal v…
chance
bias
associations observed in a sample
1. chance... 2. bias... 3. confounding
random error ... statistics help us to quantify our uncertainty
misleading associations introduced by research methods; syste…
What do studies usually present us with?
associations observed in a sample
How do we assess threats to internal v…
1. chance... 2. bias... 3. confounding
38 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
2 types of clinical research?
cross sectional study/prevalence study
prospective cohort study
cohort/case control study
experimental and observational
examine presence/absence of disease and exposure @ 1 particul…
enroll non-diseased subjects @ baseline... -collect exposure da…
"think backwards"... ident individ with an outcome of interest…
2 types of clinical research?
experimental and observational
cross sectional study/prevalence study
examine presence/absence of disease and exposure @ 1 particul…
29 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
Proportion
Prevalence
Risk
Incidence Rate
no. with disease / total no.
no. with disease at time / total no. in pop. at time
no. new cases in time / no. initially disease free
no. new cases of disease / (total no. disease free X time int…
Proportion
no. with disease / total no.
Prevalence
no. with disease at time / total no. in pop. at time
583 terms
clinical epidemiology
how to manage confounding
Multiple-armed clinical trial มีที่ใช้…
Factorial design มีที่ใช้ในกรณีใด หากท…
การทำ interim analysis ใน clinical tri…
prespecify confounding factors... in design state: randomization…
มีที่ใช้ในกรณีใดบ้าง มีหลายกรณีได ้แก่... 1.ต้องการเปรียบเทียบว่…
คำตอบที่ 1 มีที่ใช้ในกรณีใด... Factorial design มีที่ใช้ในกรณีที…
คำตอบที่ 1 มีวัตถุประสงค์เพื่ออะไร ควรทำหรือไม่... Interim analy…
how to manage confounding
prespecify confounding factors... in design state: randomization…
Multiple-armed clinical trial มีที่ใช้…
มีที่ใช้ในกรณีใดบ้าง มีหลายกรณีได ้แก่... 1.ต้องการเปรียบเทียบว่…
74 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
Hawthorne Effect
Prognosis Bias
Clinical trial
Experimental trial
Bias in an observational study when participants know they ar…
Bias when allocating treatment due to people in the treatment…
Diagnostic & treatment trials done on human, establish a trea…
Produces continuous data, often performed on animals
Hawthorne Effect
Bias in an observational study when participants know they ar…
Prognosis Bias
Bias when allocating treatment due to people in the treatment…
36 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
P(A|B)
To interpret diagnostic test results p…
Sensitivity
Specificity
the probability some event A will occur, given that a totally…
Pre-test probability of the disease... The sensitivity and speci…
proportion of people with the disease who have a positive tes…
proportion of people without the disease who have a negative…
P(A|B)
the probability some event A will occur, given that a totally…
To interpret diagnostic test results p…
Pre-test probability of the disease... The sensitivity and speci…
129 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
Disease Oriented Evidence
Patient Oriented Evidence
Pure Research
Experimental Research
patients don't really care about these values usually
patients usually do care about these things
Abstract, focuses on new knowledge for the sake of knowledge
Change on variable to examine its effect on another
Disease Oriented Evidence
patients don't really care about these values usually
Patient Oriented Evidence
patients usually do care about these things
11 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
2x2 table
screening test
good Snout (sensitivity rules out) test
confirmation test
Compare the results of the new test with the results on a cri…
must have as few face negatives results as possible
one that tells you more when the test is negative than when i…
identify when the condition is not present; fewer false posit…
2x2 table
Compare the results of the new test with the results on a cri…
screening test
must have as few face negatives results as possible
66 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)
Drug Facts and Comparisons
American Hospital Formulary Service- D…
Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference
General: was extremely popular... Features: Contains package ins…
General: facilitates comparisons to make rational choices for…
General: used in inpatient settings, designated as the offici…
General: from the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Brita…
Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)
General: was extremely popular... Features: Contains package ins…
Drug Facts and Comparisons
General: facilitates comparisons to make rational choices for…
10 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
Clinical Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Positive Predictive Value
Accuracy of Testing
Science of making predictions about INDIVIDUAL PATIENTS using…
Science of the distribution and causes of disease in POPULATI…
The probability that subjects with a Positive screening test…
Sensitivity and Specificity
Clinical Epidemiology
Science of making predictions about INDIVIDUAL PATIENTS using…
Epidemiology
Science of the distribution and causes of disease in POPULATI…
10 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
Clinical epidemiology
Lead time
Lead time bias
Length bias
It focuses on patients and the application of epidemiological…
The difference in time between the date of diagnosis with scr…
When lead time is counted in the survival time of patients, i…
Slow progressing cases of disease with a better prognosis are…
Clinical epidemiology
It focuses on patients and the application of epidemiological…
Lead time
The difference in time between the date of diagnosis with scr…
9 terms
Clinical Epidemiology
What is clinical epidemiology?
What is epidemiology?
What are the 2 essential components of…
What are the equations for sensitivity…
Science of making predictions about individual patients using…
Science of distribution and causes of disease in populations
- Sensitivity (extent to which test is accurate for those who…
Sensitivity: TP / (TP + FN)... Specificity: TN / (TN + FP)
What is clinical epidemiology?
Science of making predictions about individual patients using…
What is epidemiology?
Science of distribution and causes of disease in populations
15 terms
Clinical and Epidemiology
Anaerobic infection
Specimen collection
Selective media
Differential media
Testing: must use oxygen-eliminating system (Plunger)
Take from sterile sites to avoid contamination
Removes nonpathogens... Allows for growth of pathogen... Ability to…
Exploits pathogen's unique biochemical properties... Strains gro…
Anaerobic infection
Testing: must use oxygen-eliminating system (Plunger)
Specimen collection
Take from sterile sites to avoid contamination
33 terms
Epidemiology and Clinical testing DIAL
Goal of screening:
Goal of diagnostic testing:
Various reasons for performing clinica…
gold standard of breast caner diagnosis
Identify individuals who likely may have disease or risk of d…
Determine with greater confidence the probability of disease…
1. Determining the probability of the presence of disease... 2.…
surgical excision and pathologic evaluation of the excised ti…
Goal of screening:
Identify individuals who likely may have disease or risk of d…
Goal of diagnostic testing:
Determine with greater confidence the probability of disease…
56 terms
Epidemiology Chapter 12 clinical epidemiology
reliability
validity
Reliability vs. validity
TP
how well the test performs in use over time (its repeatabilit…
how well the test actually measures what it is supposed to me…
it is possible for a measure to be highly reliable but invali…
true positive- outcome yes, positive test
reliability
how well the test performs in use over time (its repeatabilit…
validity
how well the test actually measures what it is supposed to me…
13 terms
Clinical Epidemiology 3
Null hypothesis
Reject the Null Hypothesis
Not Reject the Null Hypothesis
Inference
The idea that there is no difference in outcomes between comp…
When statistical tests show that the observed data is not con…
When statistical tests show that the observed data is consist…
The process of drawing a conclusion about a larger group of p…
Null hypothesis
The idea that there is no difference in outcomes between comp…
Reject the Null Hypothesis
When statistical tests show that the observed data is not con…
15 terms
Clinical Epidemiology 2
Proportion
Ratio
Incidence
Prevalence
Specific type of ratio in which those who are included in the…
A number with a numerator and denominator
Concept that is based on new cases of disease that develop ov…
Concept that is based on all cases of a disease at a single p…
Proportion
Specific type of ratio in which those who are included in the…
Ratio
A number with a numerator and denominator
26 terms
Clinical Epidemiology & Screening
Clinical Epidemiology
Purpose of Screening
Natural History of Disease
Screening Examples
Application of epidemiological knowledge, reasoning, and meth…
Detect disease among individuals in a population... Help diagnos…
Progression of a disease process in an individual over time,…
Pap Smear... Mammogram... PSA Test... PPD Test
Clinical Epidemiology
Application of epidemiological knowledge, reasoning, and meth…
Purpose of Screening
Detect disease among individuals in a population... Help diagnos…
26 terms
Clinical Epidemiology Ch. 1
clinical sciences
population sciences
epidemiology
health services research
provide information that can be used to care for individual p…
study large groups of people
study o disease occurrence in human populations
study of how non-biologic factors affect patients' health... ex.…
clinical sciences
provide information that can be used to care for individual p…
population sciences
study large groups of people
73 terms
Clinical Epidemiology Glossary
Absolute risk
Absolute risk difference
Absolute risk reduction (ARR)
Adjustment
The observed or calculated probability of an event in the pop…
The difference in the risk for disease or death between an ex…
the difference in the absolute risk (rates of adverse events)…
A summarizing procedure in which the effects of differences i…
Absolute risk
The observed or calculated probability of an event in the pop…
Absolute risk difference
The difference in the risk for disease or death between an ex…
59 terms
Epidemiology, clinical pathology, necropsy
Epidemiology
endemic
endemic examples
enzootic
the study of the factors determining the frequency and distri…
a dz that is present within a population at all times
influenza, roundworm/hookworm
an endemic dz in animals
Epidemiology
the study of the factors determining the frequency and distri…
endemic
a dz that is present within a population at all times
16 terms
Clinical Epidemiology Class 1
Clinical Epidemiology
Epidemiology
What is the science of testing?
Sensitivity
science of making predictions about individual patients using…
science of the distribution and causes of disease in populati…
Accuracy (sensitivity and specificity), precision, predictive…
extent to which the test is accurate for those who have the d…
Clinical Epidemiology
science of making predictions about individual patients using…
Epidemiology
science of the distribution and causes of disease in populati…
15 terms
Epidemiology Clinical Trials and Survival Analysis
Case Series
Historical control trial
Historical control trial advantages vs…
Simultaneous (concurrent) non-randomiz…
Treated groups with no comparison group. Difficult to conclud…
Clinical trial in which all new patients are assigned to the…
Advantages... a. Requires fewer new patients than a randomized c…
Comparison group is selected and data collected in a manner c…
Case Series
Treated groups with no comparison group. Difficult to conclud…
Historical control trial
Clinical trial in which all new patients are assigned to the…
63 terms
Clinical Epidemiology final
clinical epidemiology
two major areas of evidence
diagnosis
treatment
"the application of epidemiologic principles and methods to p…
1) diagnosis ... 2) treatment
how to evaluate a test and use it to estimate the probability…
how to determine whether a treatment is beneficial in patient…
clinical epidemiology
"the application of epidemiologic principles and methods to p…
two major areas of evidence
1) diagnosis ... 2) treatment
21 terms
Basic Clinical Epidemiology
In epidemiology, ____ ____ is the basi…
4 stages of disease study
Classical Epidemiology works at which…
the study of actual patients in health…
systematic observation
1. submolecular or molecular... 2. tissue/organ... 3. patients leve…
4. community/ population level
clinical epidemiology
In epidemiology, ____ ____ is the basi…
systematic observation
4 stages of disease study
1. submolecular or molecular... 2. tissue/organ... 3. patients leve…
10 terms
Epidemiology/ Clinical trials
Conclusion that there is no difference…
Double blinding reduces what kind of b…
Percentage indicating the actual diffe…
Percentage indicating relative reducti…
Beta error
Observer bias
Absolute Risk Reduction... ARR= Control Rate- Tx Rate
Relative Risk Reduction... RRR= ARR/ Control Rate
Conclusion that there is no difference…
Beta error
Double blinding reduces what kind of b…
Observer bias
31 terms
Ch. 12 - Clinical Epidemiology
Case-fatality rate
clinical epidemiology
external validity
lead time
The proportion of people with a given disease who die from th…
Focuses specifically on patients and the application of epide…
The degree that the results of a study may be generalized to…
Difference in time between the date of diagnosis with screeni…
Case-fatality rate
The proportion of people with a given disease who die from th…
clinical epidemiology
Focuses specifically on patients and the application of epide…
6 terms
Clinical Diagnosis and Epidemiology
Can only diagnose with _ x ray
Tooth mobility. _ up to 1 mm, _ 1-2 mm…
Furcation. _ can be felt by probe tip.…
_ more accurate than probing
fmx
I, II, III
1 2 3 4
clinical attachment loss
Can only diagnose with _ x ray
fmx
Tooth mobility. _ up to 1 mm, _ 1-2 mm…
I, II, III
29 terms
Chp. 12 Clinical Epidemiology
Clinical Epidemiology
Screening
Mass Screening
Selective Screening
Focuses specifically on patients and the application of epide…
Used to suggest or detect disease among individuals in a popu…
Application of screening tests to the total population
Applying a screening test to a high-risk group.
Clinical Epidemiology
Focuses specifically on patients and the application of epide…
Screening
Used to suggest or detect disease among individuals in a popu…
Clinical Microbiology and Epidemiology
Epiemiology
Endemic
Pandemic
Epidemic
examines distribution and determinants of disease frequency i…
disease always present at a low frequency in a population; ly…
epidemic that occurs over a wide geographic area
high frequency over short time - flu is yearly epidemic
Epiemiology
examines distribution and determinants of disease frequency i…
Endemic
disease always present at a low frequency in a population; ly…
156 terms
Clinical Epidemiology one 2015
Basic epidemiological concepts
Perspectives on Infectious Disease
U.S. life expectancy at birth
Factors influencing patterns of disease
- disease is not random... - disease is 'multifactorial'- result…
- microbial perspective (germ theory, disease caused by patho…
- going up since 1900s
- age-structure of populations... - socioeconomic status... - nutri…
Basic epidemiological concepts
- disease is not random... - disease is 'multifactorial'- result…
Perspectives on Infectious Disease
- microbial perspective (germ theory, disease caused by patho…
GI Clinical Epidemiology
Cohort studies are used to establish
Prospective cohort study
Retrospective cohort study
Research design that argues most convi…
Association, not causation
Measure exposure and variables at T=0, track incidence going…
Have incidences at T=0, go back and measure exposure and vari…
RCT
Cohort studies are used to establish
Association, not causation
Prospective cohort study
Measure exposure and variables at T=0, track incidence going…
28 terms
Intro to EBM and Clinical Epidemiology
Describe the history and development o…
Define the term EBM
Name the components of EBM
List the steps used to make an evidenc…
EBM originally intended to aid the clinician in providing the…
Evidence-Based Medicine - The conscientious, explicit, and ju…
Research Evidence, Clinical experience, Patient values, Exper…
Answerable Question Evidence (it) Critically reviewing it A…
Describe the history and development o…
EBM originally intended to aid the clinician in providing the…
Define the term EBM
Evidence-Based Medicine - The conscientious, explicit, and ju…
11 terms
McCann - Clinical Epidemiology
Clinical Epidemiology
Evidence-Based Medicine
Types of Data
What can we assume if the data follows…
Application of epidemiologic principles and methods to proble…
Application of clinical epidemiology to the care of patients
- Binary... - Categorical... - Continuous
Get an idea of how the data is spread out for a contunuous cl…
Clinical Epidemiology
Application of epidemiologic principles and methods to proble…
Evidence-Based Medicine
Application of clinical epidemiology to the care of patients
31 terms
Epidemiology and Clinical Research
Classification of Epidemiologic studie…
Descriptive epi studies
Analytic epi studies
Experimental studies
Descriptive studies... Analytic studies... Experimental studies
describe occurrence of exposure... describe occurrence of outcome
Describe an association between exposure and outcome
Test whether an intervention can prevent or control disease o…
Classification of Epidemiologic studie…
Descriptive studies... Analytic studies... Experimental studies
Descriptive epi studies
describe occurrence of exposure... describe occurrence of outcome
64 terms
Neoplasia: Epidemiology and Clinical Features
most common cancers in men (US)
most common cancers in women (US)
cancers accounting for highest death r…
cancers accounting for highest death r…
1. prostate, 2. lung, 3. colon, 4. urinary tract
1. breast, 2. lung, 3. colon, 4. uterus
1. lung, 2. prostate, 3. colon
1. lung, 2. breast, 3. colon
most common cancers in men (US)
1. prostate, 2. lung, 3. colon, 4. urinary tract
most common cancers in women (US)
1. breast, 2. lung, 3. colon, 4. uterus
27 terms
Clinical Epidemiology - Weak Spots
Features of a positively skewed distri…
Features of a negatively skewed distri…
Why are computers used in selection of…
Why are cross-sectional studies prone…
Long tail to the right... mode<median<mean
Long tail to the left... mode>median>mean
The method of sampling can be checked at a later date to ensu…
Experimenters cannot ascertain whether the exposure came befo…
Features of a positively skewed distri…
Long tail to the right... mode<median<mean
Features of a negatively skewed distri…
Long tail to the left... mode>median>mean
8 terms
CODO- Clinical Epidemiology of Therapy
what is EER?... formula and written defi…
what is CER?
what is RR?
interpret these values:... 1. RR < 1... 2.…
Experimental Event Rate: the risk of disease (event) in the t…
Control Event Rate: the risk of disease (event) in the contro…
Relative Risk ... RR = EER/ CER
RR< 1 means the treatment is effective ... RR = 1 means the tre…
what is EER?... formula and written defi…
Experimental Event Rate: the risk of disease (event) in the t…
what is CER?
Control Event Rate: the risk of disease (event) in the contro…
20 terms
Clinical Epidemiology - Glossary of Epidemiological and Statistical Terms 1
Accuracy
Aetiology
Allele
Ascertainment
How close on average is the sample statistic to the populatio…
The science of causality
The alternative form of a gene that can exist at a single locus
The process of determining what is happening in a population…
Accuracy
How close on average is the sample statistic to the populatio…
Aetiology
The science of causality
17 terms
Clinical Epidemiology - Glossary of Epidemiological and Statistical Terms 6
Skewed
Standard deviation
Standard error
Statistics
An asymmetrical frequency distribution
A measure of how widely dispersed are the individual observat…
The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a samp…
The science of collecting, summarising, presenting, interpret…
Skewed
An asymmetrical frequency distribution
Standard deviation
A measure of how widely dispersed are the individual observat…
26 terms
Principles of Epidemiology and Clinical Research Design
Clinical trials (phases)
case control pros
case control disadvantages
Cross sectional study
Phase 1: safe dosing range (short duration in small cohorts)…
inexpensive... easy and quicker... rare diseases... chronic diseases
not causal... recall bias... rare risk factors... no incidence informa…
Multiple variables at same time... Large populations used... e.g. p…
Clinical trials (phases)
Phase 1: safe dosing range (short duration in small cohorts)…
case control pros
inexpensive... easy and quicker... rare diseases... chronic diseases
10 terms
Intro to Clinical Med (PT & epidemiology)
Sensitivity
Specificity
Positive Predictive Value
Negative Predictive Value
The proportion of positive results correctly identified by a…
The proportion of people WITHOUT a given condition who are co…
The Ratio of true positives to total number of positive test…
Ratio of true negatives to total negative test results.
Sensitivity
The proportion of positive results correctly identified by a…
Specificity
The proportion of people WITHOUT a given condition who are co…
57 terms
McMaster Clinical Epidemiology Review
Cohort
Prevalence
Incidence
Independent variable
Population of individuals sharing one or more attributes
# of affected individuals within a population... Proportion of a…
Proportion of new cases in a given period of time... New cases/…
Variable/exposure causes, influences, or is associated with t…
Cohort
Population of individuals sharing one or more attributes
Prevalence
# of affected individuals within a population... Proportion of a…
35 terms
Chapter 28 Clinical Microbiology and Epidemiology
John Snow
Epidemiology
Cholera outbreak in London (early 1850s)
2003 SARS outbreak
father of epidemiology... Germ Theory- diseases caused by germ…
branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distributio…
Snow first to methodically investigate the source of the dise…
1st known case of atypical pneumonia is in Guangdong Province…
John Snow
father of epidemiology... Germ Theory- diseases caused by germ…
Epidemiology
branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distributio…
37 terms
Epidemiology Section 14 - Clinical Trials
Observational Studies
Experimental Studies
The Top of the Evidence Period
Types of Trials
Case-Control ... Cross-Sectional ... Prospective cohort
Community trials... Clinical trials
Systematic Reviews & Meta-analyses
Preventative... Therapeutic
Observational Studies
Case-Control ... Cross-Sectional ... Prospective cohort
Experimental Studies
Community trials... Clinical trials
23 terms
Lecture 42: Clinical Microbiology and Epidemiology
Which drug-resistance mechanism allows…
Penicillin was discovered by _______.…
Which of the following would provide t…
An advantage of the use of PCR for ide…
drug efflux
alexander flemming
cell wall
allows identification of very small amounts of the pathogen i…
Which drug-resistance mechanism allows…
drug efflux
Penicillin was discovered by _______.…
alexander flemming
47 terms
250B Module 3: Clinical Epidemiology
Why screen?
Sensitivity
Specificity
Positive predictive value (PPV)
1. To reduce/prevent cause-specific morbidity/mortality (not…
P(T+|D+) = A / A+C... Proportion of subjects who test positive…
P(T-|D-) = D / B+D... Proportion of subjects who test negative…
P(D+|T+) = A / A+B... Probability of disease being present if t…
Why screen?
1. To reduce/prevent cause-specific morbidity/mortality (not…
Sensitivity
P(T+|D+) = A / A+C... Proportion of subjects who test positive…
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