Study sets matching "clinical pharm"

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Study sets matching "clinical pharm"

Clinical Pharmacology
kinetics; absorption, distribution, me…
exceed toxic threshold; do not exceed…
bioavailability; shorter intestine, in…
glucaronidation; acetylate; sulfation;…
pharmaco_____ is the body's effects on a drug, _____ (4), whi…
if absorption is too quick, plasma concentrations of a drug _…
species differ in _____ of the same drug: cats have less pred…
species differences in drug metabolism are due to variation i…
kinetics; absorption, distribution, me…
pharmaco_____ is the body's effects on a drug, _____ (4), whi…
exceed toxic threshold; do not exceed…
if absorption is too quick, plasma concentrations of a drug _…
285 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
Physiologic changes during pregnancy a…
Placental drug transfer
Adverse reactions during pregnancy
What are the effects of drugs on stage…
- pregnancy can alter drug disposition... - renal flow doubles =…
- all drugs can cross the placenta; lipid soluble more easily…
- teratogenesis... - mother: osteoporosis from heparin ... - drug-d…
- pre-implementation (conception - 2w): "All or nothing"... - Em…
Physiologic changes during pregnancy a…
- pregnancy can alter drug disposition... - renal flow doubles =…
Placental drug transfer
- all drugs can cross the placenta; lipid soluble more easily…
132 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
most drugs produce their effects by...
drug binding often leads to...
Four primary drug targets are:
The only exception to proteins as targ…
binding to protein molecules
conformational change in the protein
1. ion channels... 2. enzymes... 3. carrier molecules... 4. receptors…
DNA on which a number of anti tumour and anti microbial drugs…
most drugs produce their effects by...
binding to protein molecules
drug binding often leads to...
conformational change in the protein
Clinical Pharmacology
Inhalation
Intradermal
Intramuscular (IM)
Intravenous (IV)
Drug administration route in which the patient inhales the dr…
Pertaining to the dermis area within the upper layers of the…
Area within a muscle
Area within a vein
Inhalation
Drug administration route in which the patient inhales the dr…
Intradermal
Pertaining to the dermis area within the upper layers of the…
48 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
Nucleus
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Channels or pores
Contains genetic material and controls the production of prot…
Separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment…
Contains various organelles important to cell production
Found in the cell membrane;... Allow for easier movement of spec…
Nucleus
Contains genetic material and controls the production of prot…
Cell membrane
Separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment…
247 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
pharmacokinetics
routes of drug administration
drug absorption
rate of absorption
the quantitative description of drug concentrations in the bo…
-parenteral (IV, subQ, IM)... -oral (tablets, capsules, suspensi…
the transfer of drug from its site of administration to the b…
how quickly a drug moves rom the site of aministration to sys…
pharmacokinetics
the quantitative description of drug concentrations in the bo…
routes of drug administration
-parenteral (IV, subQ, IM)... -oral (tablets, capsules, suspensi…
24 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
pharmacokinetics
pharmacodynamics
pharmacotherapeutics
chemical name
the study of how meds enter the body; are absorbed and distri…
the study of how drugs interact in the human body
Study of the use of drugs in treating disease
chemical formula for a drug
pharmacokinetics
the study of how meds enter the body; are absorbed and distri…
pharmacodynamics
the study of how drugs interact in the human body
83 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
Tolerance
Withdrawal
Dependance
CSA
Decreased response after chronic administration.
Bad symptoms if drugs are stopped abruptly.
Tolerance + Withdrawal
Based on medical use and potential for abuse. Split up into 5…
Tolerance
Decreased response after chronic administration.
Withdrawal
Bad symptoms if drugs are stopped abruptly.
122 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
What is Ab, Cp, RE, K, F, Fe, Tmax & C…
Cp vs Cpt vs Cpo vs Cpss
What is zero order vs first order elim…
What is T1/2? ... - What does it depend o…
Ab- amount of drug in body ... Cp- concentration of drug in plas…
- Cp is conc in plasma... - Cpt is plasma conc at time... - Cpo is…
Zero order... - Will be metabolised at a constant rate regardles…
Time taken for the concentration or amount of drug to halve (…
What is Ab, Cp, RE, K, F, Fe, Tmax & C…
Ab- amount of drug in body ... Cp- concentration of drug in plas…
Cp vs Cpt vs Cpo vs Cpss
- Cp is conc in plasma... - Cpt is plasma conc at time... - Cpo is…
Clinical Pharmacology
Furosemide works by?
furosemide is a?
side effects of furosemide
Mannitol is a?
inhibits NaKCl cotransporter
loop of Henle diuretic
dehydration, metabolic alkalosis, hypoCl/K/Na, calciuresis
osmotic diuretic.
Furosemide works by?
inhibits NaKCl cotransporter
furosemide is a?
loop of Henle diuretic
21 terms
Clinical pharmacology
What is ADME?
What is the primary determinant of abs…
What does absorption describe?
Which 2 factors determine if an orally…
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.
The route of administration
How a drug gets from site of administration to the site of ac…
1) It needs to be absorbed by the GI tract.... 2) It needs to es…
What is ADME?
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.
What is the primary determinant of abs…
The route of administration
37 terms
Clinical pharmacology
What is ADME?
What is the primary determinant of abs…
What does absorption describe?
Which 2 factors determine if an orally…
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.
The route of administration
How a drug gets from site of administration to the site of ac…
1) It needs to be absorbed by the GI tract.... 2) It needs to es…
What is ADME?
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.
What is the primary determinant of abs…
The route of administration
clinical pharmacology
nucles
cel membrane
cytoplasm
proteins on the cell membrane
contains genetic material
serves as barrier or fluid barrier
contains various organelles
surfce can act either as: ... receptor sites- act ... histocompatib…
nucles
contains genetic material
cel membrane
serves as barrier or fluid barrier
Clinical Pharmacology
+/- of Premedication
Atropine
Buscopan
Glycopyrrolate
Pro: Reduce pain/anxiety, easier handling, reduce doses for m…
Anticholinergic... Indications: need to increase HR, need to dec…
Anticholinergic (Antispasmatic)... decrease smooth mm tone, for…
Anticholinergic ... Indications: need to increase HR, need to de…
+/- of Premedication
Pro: Reduce pain/anxiety, easier handling, reduce doses for m…
Atropine
Anticholinergic... Indications: need to increase HR, need to dec…
Clinical Pharmacology
Goal of Treatment in HTN emergency
Goal of treatment in HTN urgency
HTN emergency... route, drugs
Nitroprusside IV... MOA, +/-, when to use
1. lower BP by no more than 25% within one hour... 2. Lower to 1…
(no end organ damage but SYS >180 and DIAS >120)... -Lower BP wi…
Route: rapid, titratable control of BP via IV... Drugs: 1. Nitro…
MOA: arterial and venous dilator, decreases preload and after…
Goal of Treatment in HTN emergency
1. lower BP by no more than 25% within one hour... 2. Lower to 1…
Goal of treatment in HTN urgency
(no end organ damage but SYS >180 and DIAS >120)... -Lower BP wi…
Clinical Pharmacology
Tolerance
Withdrawal
Dependance
CSA
Decreased response after chronic administration.
Bad symptoms if drugs are stopped abruptly.
Tolerance + Withdrawal
Based on medical use and potential for abuse. Split up into 5…
Tolerance
Decreased response after chronic administration.
Withdrawal
Bad symptoms if drugs are stopped abruptly.
49 terms
Clinical pharmacology
CYP1A2
CYP2E1
CYP2C9
CYP2C19
marker drug: Theophylline ... Drug interaction: tobacco, green v…
marker drug: ethanol... Clinically relevant drugs: Paracetamol)…
marker drug: s-warfarin ... Clinically relevant drugs: anticoagu…
marker drug: s-mephenytoin... clinically relevant drugs: acid pu…
CYP1A2
marker drug: Theophylline ... Drug interaction: tobacco, green v…
CYP2E1
marker drug: ethanol... Clinically relevant drugs: Paracetamol)…
23 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
What range do you want plasma concentr…
Causes of being above minimum toxic co…
Causes of being below minimum effectiv…
Define K
Above Minimum effective conc... below minimum toxic conc
Overdose... Renal impairment... reduced metabolism... - liver impairm…
Non-adherence... Under prescribing... Increased metabolism... - enzym…
The rate of elimination constant
What range do you want plasma concentr…
Above Minimum effective conc... below minimum toxic conc
Causes of being above minimum toxic co…
Overdose... Renal impairment... reduced metabolism... - liver impairm…
83 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
Tolerance
Withdrawal
Dependance
CSA
Decreased response after chronic administration.
Bad symptoms if drugs are stopped abruptly.
Tolerance + Withdrawal. May develop physical dependence WITHO…
Based on medical use and potential for abuse. Split up into 5…
Tolerance
Decreased response after chronic administration.
Withdrawal
Bad symptoms if drugs are stopped abruptly.
Clinical Pharmacology
Furosemide works by?
furosemide is a?
side effects of furosemide
Mannitol is a?
inhibits NaKCl cotransporter
loop of Henle diuretic
dehydration, metabolic alkalosis, hypoCl/K/Na, calciuresis
osmotic diuretic.
Furosemide works by?
inhibits NaKCl cotransporter
furosemide is a?
loop of Henle diuretic
32 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
BMS
BMS
BMS
BMS
Rx: Benadryl (Diphenhydramine Elixir) 12.5mg/5ml alcohol free…
Rx: Diazepam 2mg ... Disp: ... Sig: 1-2 tablets tid
Rx: Zostrix (CAPSAICIN) 0.025% topical, OTC... Disp:... Sig: Appl…
Rx: Benadryl 12.5mg/5ml elixir 4oz with 4oz of Kaopectate (or…
BMS
Rx: Benadryl (Diphenhydramine Elixir) 12.5mg/5ml alcohol free…
BMS
Rx: Diazepam 2mg ... Disp: ... Sig: 1-2 tablets tid
22 terms
Pharmacology (Clinical)
APAP drug class, action, S/E, and nurs…
Steven's Johnson syndrome
Bacolfen trade name, drug class, actio…
Zyrtec generic name, drug class, actio…
- Antipyretics, analgesic... - Inhibits synthesis of prostagland…
disorder so skin and mucous membranes. Starts with flu like s…
-Gablofen... - anti-spasmatic, skeletal muscle relaxers... - inhibi…
-Cetirizine... - anti-histamine, cold/allergy remedy... - antagonis…
APAP drug class, action, S/E, and nurs…
- Antipyretics, analgesic... - Inhibits synthesis of prostagland…
Steven's Johnson syndrome
disorder so skin and mucous membranes. Starts with flu like s…
63 terms
clinical pharmacology
Premeds cons
anticholinergics - mostly used in what…
atropine effects
atropine class
have to restrain p.... adds cost... side effects
small animal
increased HR... decreased secretions... bronchodilation
anticholinergic
Premeds cons
have to restrain p.... adds cost... side effects
anticholinergics - mostly used in what…
small animal
Clinical Pharmacology
pharmacology
pharmacotherapeutics
pharmacokinetics
pharmacodynamics
study of drugs
use of specific drugs to prevent, treat, or diagnose disease
how the body interacts with drugs (Absorption, Distribution,…
analysis of what and how (mechanism of action) the drug affec…
pharmacology
study of drugs
pharmacotherapeutics
use of specific drugs to prevent, treat, or diagnose disease
Clinical Pharmacology
Generic name
Trade name
USP
History of USP
Non-proprietary and does not belong to a company
Brand name/proprietary name
United States Pharmacopeia
1820 a group of physicians agreed upon a common recipe to mak…
Generic name
Non-proprietary and does not belong to a company
Trade name
Brand name/proprietary name
Clinical Pharmacology
Contraindications
Aqueous
Vicocity or vicious
Scored
Symptoms and conditions that make a tx or procedure inadvicea…
Medication prepared with water
Thick liquid
Slashed - a tablet manufacturered with an invention for divis…
Contraindications
Symptoms and conditions that make a tx or procedure inadvicea…
Aqueous
Medication prepared with water
Clinical Pharmacology
Therapeutic Index
Enteral Route of drug adminstration
Sublingual Route of drug adminstration
Rectal Route of drug adminstration
The closer the index is to 1, the more toxic the drug.
oral; Primary route; Safer; Must be lipid soluble to pass thr…
Absorbed via oral mucosa into venous system
Poor absorption; Ease of use
Therapeutic Index
The closer the index is to 1, the more toxic the drug.
Enteral Route of drug adminstration
oral; Primary route; Safer; Must be lipid soluble to pass thr…
83 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
Tolerance
Withdrawal
Dependance
CSA
Decreased response after chronic administration.
Bad symptoms if drugs are stopped abruptly.
Tolerance + Withdrawal
Based on medical use and potential for abuse. Split up into 5…
Tolerance
Decreased response after chronic administration.
Withdrawal
Bad symptoms if drugs are stopped abruptly.
Clinical Pharmacology
A ________ is any chemical that can af…
__________ is the study of drugs and t…
__________ _____________ is the study…
_________ is the use of drugs to diagn…
Drug
Pharmacology
Clinical pharmacology
Therapeutics
A ________ is any chemical that can af…
Drug
__________ is the study of drugs and t…
Pharmacology
clinical pharmacology
Pharmacology
Clinical Pharmacology
Pharmacokinetics
Clinical Pharmacokinetics
The study of the interaction of chemicals with living systems
The study of the interaction of drugs with human body.
The actions of the body on the drug
The actions of human body on the drug ... Including: absorption,…
Pharmacology
The study of the interaction of chemicals with living systems
Clinical Pharmacology
The study of the interaction of drugs with human body.
131 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
Mirapex generic name
Mirapex/pramipexole pharmacology and u…
Mirapex/pramipexole ADRs
Flovent generic name
pramipexole... DA agonist
DA agonist... Parkinson's 0.5-1.5mg tid... RLS 0.125-0.5mg qd... Titra…
Titrate and taper!... MC: nausea, dizziness, constipation, hallu…
fluticasone... corticosteroid
Mirapex generic name
pramipexole... DA agonist
Mirapex/pramipexole pharmacology and u…
DA agonist... Parkinson's 0.5-1.5mg tid... RLS 0.125-0.5mg qd... Titra…
Clinical Pharmacology
Drug
Hormones
Xenobiotics
Pharamcodynamics
A chemical agent that affects biological systems
Endogenous chemical
exogenous... Toxin-biological e.g. botulism... Poison-ACHase inhibi…
the action of the drug on the body
Drug
A chemical agent that affects biological systems
Hormones
Endogenous chemical
Clinical Pharmacology
Schedule I Substances
Schedule II Substances
Schedule III Substances
Schedule IV Substances
-No accepted medical use in US... - High abuse potential ... Includ…
-high abuse potential... -severe psychic or physical dependence…
-less abuse potenial than those in Schedules I and II... - inclu…
phenobarbital, zolpidem, chloral hydrate, chlordiazepoxide, d…
Schedule I Substances
-No accepted medical use in US... - High abuse potential ... Includ…
Schedule II Substances
-high abuse potential... -severe psychic or physical dependence…
Clinical Pharmacology
3 potential side effects of succinylch…
NDNM longest/shortest 1/2 lives
Pavulon undesired side-effect
Propofol (Diprivan) Good for what pt.,…
hypertension, hyperkalemia, malignant hyperthermia
Pavulon (Pancoronium) 100mins/Mivacurium(2mins)
Hypotension from histamine release.
Good- decreases ICP (good with head injuries), anti-emetic, m…
3 potential side effects of succinylch…
hypertension, hyperkalemia, malignant hyperthermia
NDNM longest/shortest 1/2 lives
Pavulon (Pancoronium) 100mins/Mivacurium(2mins)
15 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
Optimal order of determinants of drug…
Therapeutics Initiative purpose
TI Method for effect of their letters
Reference-based pricing
Diagnostic condition... Evidence... Pharmaco knowledge... Experience... E…
Providen physiciands and pharmacists with up-to-date, evidenc…
-paired communities of physicians... -one of each pair assigned…
- least expensive ACEIs fully covered... - more expensive ones c…
Optimal order of determinants of drug…
Diagnostic condition... Evidence... Pharmaco knowledge... Experience... E…
Therapeutics Initiative purpose
Providen physiciands and pharmacists with up-to-date, evidenc…
90 terms
Clinical pharmacology
what is pharmacokinetics?
what is pharmacodynamics?
what are the 2 main pharmacokinetic pr…
what are the 2 main pharmacodynamic pr…
movement of a drug into, through and out of a body and it lin…
what a drug does to the body and it links concentration to ef…
1- clearance... 2- volume of distribution
1- Emax ... 2- C50
what is pharmacokinetics?
movement of a drug into, through and out of a body and it lin…
what is pharmacodynamics?
what a drug does to the body and it links concentration to ef…
60 terms
Clinical Pharmacology -- Exam 1
Side Effect
Idiosyncratic Response (Effect)
Iatrogenic Response (Effect)
Toxicity
Unwanted effects of drugs that appear at normal doses require…
Rare adverse drug response resulting from a genetic predispos…
Response where a drug causes a disease-like state;for example…
Unwanted effects of drugs that appear as drug dosage is incre…
Side Effect
Unwanted effects of drugs that appear at normal doses require…
Idiosyncratic Response (Effect)
Rare adverse drug response resulting from a genetic predispos…
Clinical Pharmacology
Pharmacology
Pharmacotherapeutics
Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacodynamics
study of drugs
use of specific drugs to prevent, treat, or diagnose disease
how the body interacts with drugs-absorption, distribution, m…
analysis of what and how the drug affects the body (mechanism…
Pharmacology
study of drugs
Pharmacotherapeutics
use of specific drugs to prevent, treat, or diagnose disease
106 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
What is a drug?
What are the sources of drugs?
What are the uses of drugs?
What was the worlds first synthetic dr…
It is any chemical that affects the physiologic processes of…
Plants, animals, minerals, synthetic chemical compounds, biot…
Therapeutic, preventative/prophylactic, diagnostic, curative,…
Acetylsalicylic acid, 'aspirin' which is a NSAID, analgesic a…
What is a drug?
It is any chemical that affects the physiologic processes of…
What are the sources of drugs?
Plants, animals, minerals, synthetic chemical compounds, biot…
63 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
What legislation do veterinary surgeon…
What is a POM-V drug?
What is a POM-VPS?
What does it mean for an animal to be…
Veterinary Medicines Regulations 2013... Misuse of drugs act
A prescription only medicine that can only be prescribed by a…
Prescription only medicine that can only be prescribed by a v…
Must have examined the animal (or herd) recently enough that…
What legislation do veterinary surgeon…
Veterinary Medicines Regulations 2013... Misuse of drugs act
What is a POM-V drug?
A prescription only medicine that can only be prescribed by a…
59 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
T or F:... Bioavailability is the percent…
Name an example of a drug with zero or…
You can assume a drug is completely cl…
the autonomic nervous system is divide…
True
alcohol
false
sympathetic and parasympathetic
T or F:... Bioavailability is the percent…
True
Name an example of a drug with zero or…
alcohol
Clinical Pharmacology
What antimicrobials are concentration…
What antimicrobials are time-dependent?
Most common bacterial cause of canine…
Other bacterial causes of pyoderma in…
Aminoglycosides... Fluoroquinolones... Metronidazole... Azithromycin
Penicillins... Cephalosporins... Other "static antimicrobials
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
S. schleiferi, S. lufdenensis, S. haemolyticus, S. Epidermidi…
What antimicrobials are concentration…
Aminoglycosides... Fluoroquinolones... Metronidazole... Azithromycin
What antimicrobials are time-dependent?
Penicillins... Cephalosporins... Other "static antimicrobials
9 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
What's the first-line treatment for de…
Why are SSRIs good for first line tx?
What do SSRIs do?
What're the 2 mechanisms of action for…
SSRI
safety in overdose, ease of titration to target dose
block re-uptake of serotonin
1. receptor triggering of signaling cascades... 2. change gene e…
What's the first-line treatment for de…
SSRI
Why are SSRIs good for first line tx?
safety in overdose, ease of titration to target dose
97 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
Anaerobic bacteria
Gram positive bacteria
Wimpy gram negative bacteria
Enteric gram negative bacteria
Clostridium... Peptostreptococcus... Bacterioides... Fusobacterium
Streptococcus... Staphylococcus... Enterococcus
Bordetella... Pasteurella... Mannheimia
E. coli... Klebsiella... Proteus... Enterobacter... Salmonella
Anaerobic bacteria
Clostridium... Peptostreptococcus... Bacterioides... Fusobacterium
Gram positive bacteria
Streptococcus... Staphylococcus... Enterococcus
97 terms
Clinical pharmacology-antibiotics
narrow
broad
bacteriostatic
bactericidal
inhibits gram positive or gram negative
inhibits gram positive and gram negative
inhibits the growth of microbe
kills the microbe
narrow
inhibits gram positive or gram negative
broad
inhibits gram positive and gram negative
11 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
Clinical Pharmacology
3 key aspects: 1.) Pharmaceutics
3 key aspects: 2.) Pharmacokinetics
3 key aspects: 3.) Pharmacodynamics
The scientific study and application of how particular chemic…
The general area of study concerned with the formulation, man…
The processes that occur as a drug is absorbed, distributed,…
How a drug works in the body to produce its therapeutic and n…
Clinical Pharmacology
The scientific study and application of how particular chemic…
3 key aspects: 1.) Pharmaceutics
The general area of study concerned with the formulation, man…
Clinical Pharmacology
Define efficacious
Most important component of ideal drug
Define safe
Define predictable
Drug elicits reponse intended
Efficacious
Safe at high concentration and for long periods of administra…
Know how patient will respond
Define efficacious
Drug elicits reponse intended
Most important component of ideal drug
Efficacious
9 terms
Clinical Pharmacology
Mestinon or Regonol
Tacrine or Cognex
Aricept
Fluox or Prozac
AI:... Pyridostigmine bromide... For: ... Myasthenia Gravis... Mechanis…
AI: Tetrohydroaminoacridine ... For:... Alzheimer's Disease... Mecha…
AI: Donepezil... For:... Alzheimer's Disease... Mechanism: ... Can help…
AI: Fluoxetine... For: ... Antidepressants... Mechanism: ... 1) Bind to…
Mestinon or Regonol
AI:... Pyridostigmine bromide... For: ... Myasthenia Gravis... Mechanis…
Tacrine or Cognex
AI: Tetrohydroaminoacridine ... For:... Alzheimer's Disease... Mecha…
Clinical Pharmacology
Ligand Gated Ion Channels- Excitatory
Ligand Gated Ion Channels- Inhibitory
GPCRs
Affinity
Fast synaptic signalling = 0.1-2ms... ligand binds to extracellu…
Fast synaptic signalling = 0.1-2ms... ligand binds to extracellu…
Slow synaptic signalling = seconds to minutes... slow synapases…
How tightly a drug binds a receptor... Kd = dissociation constan…
Ligand Gated Ion Channels- Excitatory
Fast synaptic signalling = 0.1-2ms... ligand binds to extracellu…
Ligand Gated Ion Channels- Inhibitory
Fast synaptic signalling = 0.1-2ms... ligand binds to extracellu…
Clinical Pharmacology
Pharmacodynamics
Pharmocokinetics
Drugs interact with
Receptor affinity:
Study of biochem and phys effects of drugs, mode of action an…
Study of the time course and extent of drug exposure (absorpt…
Ion channels... Nuclear receptors... Enzymes... GPCRs... Receptor kinases
Strength of binding between devices drug and receptor (measur…
Pharmacodynamics
Study of biochem and phys effects of drugs, mode of action an…
Pharmocokinetics
Study of the time course and extent of drug exposure (absorpt…
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