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Study sets matching "cloning plants animals"

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Study sets matching "cloning plants animals"

8 terms
Cloning in plants and animals
Reproductive cloning
Non-reproductive cloning
plants Natural clones
plants Artificial clones
the term used for the process of artificially cloning whole o…
process of making many identical copies without the intention…
Many plants reproduce asexually in nature. They do this by ve…
Many plants can reproduce by fragmentation, which is when a s…
Reproductive cloning
the term used for the process of artificially cloning whole o…
Non-reproductive cloning
process of making many identical copies without the intention…
12 terms
Cloning Plants and Animals
Tissue culture
The tissue pieces are grown in
Vegetative reproduction
Preferred characteristics of plants
Process that involves cutting small pieces of tissue from the…
A sterile liquid or gel which provides all the substances nee…
Asexual reproduction from the roots leaves and stem of a plant
Disease resistance, fruit colour, flower shape
Tissue culture
Process that involves cutting small pieces of tissue from the…
The tissue pieces are grown in
A sterile liquid or gel which provides all the substances nee…
11 terms
cloning in plants and animals
clones
reproductive cloning
non-reproductive cloning
totipotent
genetically identical to parent... mitosis... asexual reproduction
production of an organism that has identical nuclear DNA
production/ harvest of stem cells
cells can differentiate into any cell... can form a new organism
clones
genetically identical to parent... mitosis... asexual reproduction
reproductive cloning
production of an organism that has identical nuclear DNA
12 terms
Cloning in plants and animals
Reproductive cloning
Non-reproductive
What plants is Micropropagation used f…
Micropropagation method
Production of a new individual with the genotype of an existi…
Supplies replacement cells whose genotype matches that of an…
-Are difficult to grow from seed... -do not have a natural metho…
1)explants of tissue taken from young developing stems that h…
Reproductive cloning
Production of a new individual with the genotype of an existi…
Non-reproductive
Supplies replacement cells whose genotype matches that of an…
cloning plants and animals
vegetative reproduction
produced plants that are genetically i…
useful if they want to stock up on pla…
cuttings
What is the name of the asexual reproduction where you can us…
What type of plants does vegetative reproduction produce?
Why is having plants that are genetically identical useful fo…
A simple type of vegetative reproduction is to take what?
vegetative reproduction
What is the name of the asexual reproduction where you can us…
produced plants that are genetically i…
What type of plants does vegetative reproduction produce?
12 terms
Cloning in plants and animals
Reproductive cloning
Non-reproductive cloning
Nuclear transfer
Albino frogs used to produce the nucle…
Production of offspring which are genetically identical to ei…
Use of stem cells in order to regenerate replacement cells, t…
Somatic nucleus ... Injected into enucleate egg cell, from anoth…
Offspring visibly different from egg donor... To show that the o…
Reproductive cloning
Production of offspring which are genetically identical to ei…
Non-reproductive cloning
Use of stem cells in order to regenerate replacement cells, t…
19 terms
Cloning in Plants in Animals
cloning
natural cloning
artificial cloning
reproductive cloning
process of producing genetically identical cells or organisms…
mitosis ... identical twins
reproductive and non reproductive
involves cloning whole organisms ... used for research purposes…
cloning
process of producing genetically identical cells or organisms…
natural cloning
mitosis ... identical twins
Cloning in plants and animals
clone
natural clones
asexual reproduction can occur in
advantages of asexual reproduction
genes, cells or organisms which are genetically identical
-identical twins in humans caused by the zygote splitting int…
prokaryotes: binary fission DNA replicated and cell divides i…
-quick as no need for development of sex organs or transferri…
clone
genes, cells or organisms which are genetically identical
natural clones
-identical twins in humans caused by the zygote splitting int…
16 terms
Cloning in plants and animals
What is reproductive cloning?
What is Non-Reproductive cloning?
What is Vegetative Propagation?
Using Elm trees as an example, describ…
The production of offspring which are genetically identical t…
Using stem cells in order to generate replacement cells, tiss…
Asexual Reproduction in plants by which structures are grown…
Molecular evidence has shown that all Elm tree specimens are…
What is reproductive cloning?
The production of offspring which are genetically identical t…
What is Non-Reproductive cloning?
Using stem cells in order to generate replacement cells, tiss…
11 terms
9 - Cloning in plants and animals
Uses of non-reproductive cloning
Natural clones in plants
How is tissue culture carried out
Advantages of cloning in agriculture
- Making copies of lengths of DNA by PCRfor use in research... -…
- Runners or stolons - Stems grow horizontally just below sur…
- Take cuttings from original plant called explants, often ta…
- Rapid way of producing new plants... - If apical bud is used a…
Uses of non-reproductive cloning
- Making copies of lengths of DNA by PCRfor use in research... -…
Natural clones in plants
- Runners or stolons - Stems grow horizontally just below sur…
9 terms
Cloning in Plants and Animals Questions
Describe the production of natural clo…
Advantages of asexual reproduction
Disadvantages of asexual reproduction
Describe the production of artificial…
- Asexual reproduction following damage to parent plant... - All…
- Quick due to no production of sex organs, no need to form s…
- No genetic variety so parental weakness will be present in…
- Small piece of tissue taken from plant to be cloned,unusual…
Describe the production of natural clo…
- Asexual reproduction following damage to parent plant... - All…
Advantages of asexual reproduction
- Quick due to no production of sex organs, no need to form s…
13 terms
Cloning of Plants and Animals
Proto-oncogenes
Oncogenes
Tumor - suppressor genes
Adult stem cell
Normal genes that promote cell division
Mutation to proto-oncognes (cancer-causing) that stimulate ce…
Normally inhibit cell division or function in the Reparto of…
Give rise to many, but not all, types of cells. (Less potenti…
Proto-oncogenes
Normal genes that promote cell division
Oncogenes
Mutation to proto-oncognes (cancer-causing) that stimulate ce…
19 terms
Cloning in Plants and Animals - Glossary
Annual
Auxin
Callus
Cloning
A plant that completes its life cycle in one year
A hormone produced by young plant tissues
A group of undifferentiated plant cells
Producing genetically identical copies of an organism
Annual
A plant that completes its life cycle in one year
Auxin
A hormone produced by young plant tissues
22 terms
(2) Cloning in plants and animals
Clone
Asexual reproduction
Vegetative propagation (definition)
Asexual reproduction: pros
Genes, cells, or whole organisms that carry genetically ident…
The production of new organisms (individuals or offspring) in…
The production of structures in an organism that can grow int…
- time and energy not spent finding a mate... - large numbers of…
Clone
Genes, cells, or whole organisms that carry genetically ident…
Asexual reproduction
The production of new organisms (individuals or offspring) in…
8 terms
cloning in plants and animals
Outline the differences between reprod…
Describe the production of natural clo…
Describe the production of artifical c…
What are the advantages of plant cloni…
-repro is the production of offspring which are genetically i…
1. The English elm is adapted to reproduce ASEXUALLY followin…
1. a small piece of tissue called the EXPLANT is taken from t…
1. many genetically identical plants can be produced from one…
Outline the differences between reprod…
-repro is the production of offspring which are genetically i…
Describe the production of natural clo…
1. The English elm is adapted to reproduce ASEXUALLY followin…
44 terms
Cloning in plants and animals
What is cloning?
What is asexual reproduction in plants…
Why do commercial plant growers use ve…
Why can a lack of genetic variation fr…
The production of genetically identical organisms.... Many plant…
Vegetative propagation
Because it produces genetically identical plants - if the par…
If a particular individual is well adapted to its environment…
What is cloning?
The production of genetically identical organisms.... Many plant…
What is asexual reproduction in plants…
Vegetative propagation
20 terms
f215 cloning in plants and animals
reproductive cloning
non-reproductive cloning (therapeutic…
natural clones e.g. vegetative propaga…
adv of vegetative propagation
cloning to create new organisms
cloning to create cells/tissues/organs that can replace those…
- production of root suckers that grows into a genetically id…
help the elm to spread because root suckers can grow all arou…
reproductive cloning
cloning to create new organisms
non-reproductive cloning (therapeutic…
cloning to create cells/tissues/organs that can replace those…
26 terms
Plant and Animal Cloning
How are cones produced naturally?
Give two examples of an organism which…
What is the artificial method of cloni…
What is the growing part of plant call…
Asexual reproduction.... Produces organisms which are genetical…
Bacteria.... Plants that form suckers or bulbs.
Micropropagation.
Meristem.
How are cones produced naturally?
Asexual reproduction.... Produces organisms which are genetical…
Give two examples of an organism which…
Bacteria.... Plants that form suckers or bulbs.
17 terms
Chapter 9-Cloning in Plants and Animals
Cloning
Vegetative Propagation
Sucker
Suckering
Producing genetically identical copies of an organism
Asexual reproduction of plants, either natural or artificial,…
An outgrowth from the roots of a plant that is capable of gro…
A natural method of vegetative propagation, occurs in the Eng…
Cloning
Producing genetically identical copies of an organism
Vegetative Propagation
Asexual reproduction of plants, either natural or artificial,…
9 terms
F215 Cloning in Plants and Animals
Difference between reproductive and no…
Describe the production of natural clo…
Describe the production of artificial…
Describe advantages of plant cloning i…
Reproductive cloning is the creation of organisms which are g…
-Following damage to the parent tree, the elm tree reproduces…
-Small piece of tissue is taken from original plant called th…
-Desired characteristics will appear in all clones... -Plants ca…
Difference between reproductive and no…
Reproductive cloning is the creation of organisms which are g…
Describe the production of natural clo…
-Following damage to the parent tree, the elm tree reproduces…
11 terms
Cloning in animals and plants F215
cloning definition
reproductive cloning used to...
non reproductive used to...
example of natural cloning- vegetative…
the production of genetically identical copies of an organism
used to make complete organism that is genetically identical…
used to make embryonic stem cells... embryonic stem cells harves…
suckers - shoot that grow at bottom of elm tree... buds usually…
cloning definition
the production of genetically identical copies of an organism
reproductive cloning used to...
used to make complete organism that is genetically identical…
11 terms
F215 Cloning In Plants And Animals
What is reproductive cloning?
What is non-reproductive cloning?
Describe the process of vegetative pro…
Describe the production of artificial…
-This is used to make a complete organism that's genetically…
-This is used to make embryonic stem cells that are genetical…
1) A sucker is a shoot that grows from the shallow roots of a…
1) Cells are taken from the original plant that's going to be…
What is reproductive cloning?
-This is used to make a complete organism that's genetically…
What is non-reproductive cloning?
-This is used to make embryonic stem cells that are genetical…
10 terms
GCSE Biology: Cloning Plants & Animals
Cuttings
Tissue culture
Embryo transplant
Process of embryo transplant
A method of making new plants from one original plant. Stems…
Also used to clone plants. A small piece of tissue is taken f…
Technique used to clone animals
Egg cells are taken from a cow & fertilised with sperm from a…
Cuttings
A method of making new plants from one original plant. Stems…
Tissue culture
Also used to clone plants. A small piece of tissue is taken f…
11 terms
F215 Cloning In Plants And Animals
What is reproductive cloning?
What is non-reproductive cloning?
Describe the process of vegetative pro…
Describe the production of artificial…
-This is used to make a complete organism that's genetically…
-This is used to make embryonic stem cells that are genetical…
1) A sucker is a shoot that grows from the shallow roots of a…
1) Cells are taken from the original plant that's going to be…
What is reproductive cloning?
-This is used to make a complete organism that's genetically…
What is non-reproductive cloning?
-This is used to make embryonic stem cells that are genetical…
13 terms
F215: Cloning in Plants and Animals
What is reproductive cloning used for?
Cloning
What is NON-reproductive cloning (ther…
Why is reproductive cloning used?
To make a complete organism genetically identical to another…
genetically identical cells/organism, natural or artificial,…
To make embryonic stem cells that are genetically identical t…
1. Research purposes (test new drugs), clones allow variables…
What is reproductive cloning used for?
To make a complete organism genetically identical to another…
Cloning
genetically identical cells/organism, natural or artificial,…
19 terms
Biology F215- cloning in plants and animals
A Clone
Reproductive Cloning
Non-reproductive Cloning (Therapeutic…
Cell potency- Totipotent
A cell or an entire organism that is genetically identical to…
Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an anim…
Therapeutic cloning is the production of human embryos for us…
Cells that can divide into all types of cells... Can form a ne…
A Clone
A cell or an entire organism that is genetically identical to…
Reproductive Cloning
Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an anim…
11 terms
OCR Biology - Ch. 9 Cloning in Plants and Animals
What is a clone?
What is reproductive cloning and non-r…
Describe the production of natural clo…
Describe the production of clones usin…
A genetically identical individual that is produced via asexu…
Non-reproductive cloning is on a smaller scale, just some cel…
It only reproduced by vegetative propagation through suckerin…
- Calluses are used to produce the explant group of cells.... -…
What is a clone?
A genetically identical individual that is produced via asexu…
What is reproductive cloning and non-r…
Non-reproductive cloning is on a smaller scale, just some cel…
19 terms
OCR Biology F215 - Cloning In Animals And Plants
Clone
Examples of asexual reproduction
Advantages of asexual reproduction
Disadvantages of asexual reproduction
A genetically identical organism to another individual
Binary fission ... Mitosis ... Budding ... VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION
- Quick, many offspring produced in a short period of time ... -…
- If a new disease/change in the environment, all offspring a…
Clone
A genetically identical organism to another individual
Examples of asexual reproduction
Binary fission ... Mitosis ... Budding ... VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION
22 terms
5.2.1 Cloning in Plants and Animals
A clone is
What are examples of how clones can be…
What are advantages of asexual reprodu…
What are disadvantages of asexual repr…
a gene, cell or whole organism which carries identical geneti…
Identical twins being produced when a zygote splits into two.…
quick- organism reproduce rapidly and take advantage of resou…
does not produce any genetic variety so if the environment ch…
A clone is
a gene, cell or whole organism which carries identical geneti…
What are examples of how clones can be…
Identical twins being produced when a zygote splits into two.…
10 terms
Plant Cloning
mitosis
vegetative propagation
cloning
basal sprouts
A type of cell division that results in two identical daughte…
Plants that can clone themselves or reproduce asexually from…
A process in which a cell, cell product, or organism is copie…
Root suckers forming from the meristem tissue close to the gr…
mitosis
A type of cell division that results in two identical daughte…
vegetative propagation
Plants that can clone themselves or reproduce asexually from…
9 terms
Animal Cloning
Clone
Totipotent stem Cells
Splitting Embryo
Nuclear Transfer
An organism that is genetically identical to the organism fro…
Stem cells that can differentiate into any type of specialise…
Cells from developing embryo are separated out and go in to p…
Taking a body cell, removing the nucleus and transferring it…
Clone
An organism that is genetically identical to the organism fro…
Totipotent stem Cells
Stem cells that can differentiate into any type of specialise…
10 terms
Cloning plants
Cloning plants is easier than cloning…
In plant cloning you need to remove
To get the best resulting clone you ne…
The removed pieces of tissue are grown…
their ability to differentiate, where as animals loose this a…
several small pieces of tissue from the parent plant
tissue from fast growing root and shoot tips
growth medium consisting of nutrients and growth hormones
Cloning plants is easier than cloning…
their ability to differentiate, where as animals loose this a…
In plant cloning you need to remove
several small pieces of tissue from the parent plant
28 terms
Animal Cloning
Gene Cloning
How many types of Artificial cloning i…
Therapeutic cloning
Reproductive Cloning
Mainly used for unstudied genes
Three
Is aimed at creating tissues to replace injured or diseased t…
Produces copies of whole animals
Gene Cloning
Mainly used for unstudied genes
How many types of Artificial cloning i…
Three
11 terms
Cloning plants
Cloning plants is easier than cloning…
In plant cloning you need to remove
To get the best resulting clone you ne…
The removed pieces of tissue are grown…
their ability to differentiate, where as animals loose this a…
several small pieces of tissue from the parent plant
tissue from fast growing root and shoot tips
growth medium consisting of nutrients and growth hormones
Cloning plants is easier than cloning…
their ability to differentiate, where as animals loose this a…
In plant cloning you need to remove
several small pieces of tissue from the parent plant
9 terms
Cloning Plants
What are clones?
What is an advantage of cloning plants…
What happens in cutting?
What is an advantage of cutting?
Clones are genetically identical individuals.
With cloned plants we know *exactly what the characteristics…
In cutting a cutting is taken from the starter plant and a ho…
An advantage of cutting is it is cheap.
What are clones?
Clones are genetically identical individuals.
What is an advantage of cloning plants…
With cloned plants we know *exactly what the characteristics…
11 terms
Cloning in plants
Define a clone
Natural vegetative propagation
Example of NVP
Advantage to elm tree of VP?
- Genetically identical to parent... - Produced by asexual repro…
- Runners... - Tubers... - Suckers (grow from meristem tissue)
English elm tree... Suckers grow into clonal patch... The clonal pa…
Helps elm spread... When tree is stressed or dies new clones for…
Define a clone
- Genetically identical to parent... - Produced by asexual repro…
Natural vegetative propagation
- Runners... - Tubers... - Suckers (grow from meristem tissue)
7 terms
cloning of plants
what is an advantage of cloning plants?
what would happen if we used seeds?
what are the advantages of cutting? (2)
what is cutting?
we know the characteristics.
offspring will be different
quickly and cheaply
cutting off a piece of the desired plant off and using hormon…
what is an advantage of cloning plants?
we know the characteristics.
what would happen if we used seeds?
offspring will be different
34 terms
Cloning Animals
Cloning by Embryo Splitting
Dolly
Dolly: why did it work?
Dolly: How?
easiest way to clone an animal ... 1. embryo is split into 2 hal…
the first animal to be cloned from adult somatic cells; nucle…
starved the mammary cells -- removed growth factors to stop c…
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer ... 1. donor egg from black face s…
Cloning by Embryo Splitting
easiest way to clone an animal ... 1. embryo is split into 2 hal…
Dolly
the first animal to be cloned from adult somatic cells; nucle…
Ch. 11 Cloning of Plants and Animals & The Genetic Basis of Cancer
Most cells express only a small percen…
One way to approach these questions is…
On a larger scale, the technique descr…
In animals, a good indication that dif…
• If all genes are still present but some are turned off, hav…
In plants, this ability is common.... • A differentiated plant c…
• Such an organism, produced through asexual reproduction fro…
• When a salamander loses a leg, for example, certain cells i…
Most cells express only a small percen…
• If all genes are still present but some are turned off, hav…
One way to approach these questions is…
In plants, this ability is common.... • A differentiated plant c…
9 terms
cloning animals
what are totipotent stem cells?
name the two methods of artificially c…
describe the splitting embryos method…
describe the nuclear transfer method t…
cells that are capable of differentiating into any type of ad…
splitting embryos and nuclear transfer
cells from a developing embryo are separated out so that each…
a differentiated cell is taken from an adult and its nucleus…
what are totipotent stem cells?
cells that are capable of differentiating into any type of ad…
name the two methods of artificially c…
splitting embryos and nuclear transfer
10 terms
Ch.11- Cloning of Plants and Animals/ The Genetic Basis of Cancer
Nuclear Transplantation
Reproductive Cloning
Therapeutic Cloning
Proto-Oncogenes
replacing the nucleus of an egg cell or zygote with a nucleus…
implant embryo in surrogate mother for development; new anima…
remove embryonic stem cells and grow in culture for medical t…
normally promote cell division ; mutations of these enhance a…
Nuclear Transplantation
replacing the nucleus of an egg cell or zygote with a nucleus…
Reproductive Cloning
implant embryo in surrogate mother for development; new anima…
8 terms
Cloning in Plants and Animals (OCR A2 Biology 5.2.1)
Reproductive cloning
Non-reproductive cloning
Vegetative propagation
Suckering
Cloning to produce new organisms
Cloning to produce organs, tissues or cells.
Asexual reproduction in plants
Reproduction using buds, called suckers, that grow from meris…
Reproductive cloning
Cloning to produce new organisms
Non-reproductive cloning
Cloning to produce organs, tissues or cells.
17 terms
Plant cloning
Clone
How plant reproduce asexually
Tubes
Runners
Individually produces asexually and is genetically identical…
Tubes... Runners... Plantlets
Grow shoots e.g. Potato
E.g. Strawberries
Clone
Individually produces asexually and is genetically identical…
How plant reproduce asexually
Tubes... Runners... Plantlets
14 terms
Cloning in animals
What are the two types?
What are the two starting organisms in…
In embryo splitting the sperm and eggs…
This produces what type of diploid cel…
Splitting embryos... Nuclear transfer
High value MALE... High value FEMALE
In vitro fertilisation
Totipotent
What are the two types?
Splitting embryos... Nuclear transfer
What are the two starting organisms in…
High value MALE... High value FEMALE
Plant clones
New plants can be produced by...
Cutting
Cuttings are used to
Root growth in the cuttings is promote…
placing the cut end of a shoot in water or soil
parts of a plant, e.g. the stem, that have meristems and are…
produce new plants with the same desirable features as the pa…
plant hormones (using plant hormone powder)
New plants can be produced by...
placing the cut end of a shoot in water or soil
Cutting
parts of a plant, e.g. the stem, that have meristems and are…
11 terms
Animal cloning
Cloning is making an exact
Clones are described as
Cloning occurs
Identical twins are
copy of another organism
genetically identical organisms
naturally in plants and animals
clones of each other
Cloning is making an exact
copy of another organism
Clones are described as
genetically identical organisms
8 terms
Animal Cloning
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
A diploid (normal) body cell is taken (e.g. a liver cell)
The nucleus is taken out of it (full number of chromosomes) a…
An unfertilised egg cell is taken, the nucleus (with half the…
The nucleus of the body cell is injected into the cytoplasm o…
Stage 1
A diploid (normal) body cell is taken (e.g. a liver cell)
Stage 2
The nucleus is taken out of it (full number of chromosomes) a…
11 terms
Animal Cloning
Main advantage of cloning from adult c…
Dolly the Sheep was produced from
Requires source of recipient eggs
enucleation
Allows evaluation of phenotype... BUT environment interacts wit…
adult mammary cell
Need to be from species of interest... Slaughter ovaries are a…
removal of oocyte nucleus by gentle aspiration
Main advantage of cloning from adult c…
Allows evaluation of phenotype... BUT environment interacts wit…
Dolly the Sheep was produced from
adult mammary cell
12 terms
animal cloning
what are totipotent stem cells
what are animal clones
methods of artificially cloning animals
embryo splitting method
stem cells capable of differentiating into any type of cell f…
genetically identical organisms with the same genotype from t…
embryo splitting... nuclear transfer
sperm and egg fertilise to form a zygote that grows into a ba…
what are totipotent stem cells
stem cells capable of differentiating into any type of cell f…
what are animal clones
genetically identical organisms with the same genotype from t…
16 terms
Animal Cloning
1st cloning experiment
Early Embryo
Embryo
Human Clones
Hans Driesh 1885
sperate cells into 4 individual cells
each genetical identical
identical twins (monozygotic)
1st cloning experiment
Hans Driesh 1885
Early Embryo
sperate cells into 4 individual cells
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