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Study sets matching "cognition chapter 7"

70 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
Memory
Information-processing model
Encoding
Storage
Any system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
Emphasizes how information changes when encoded, stored, retr…
1/3 basic tasks of memory: modification of information to fit…
1/3 basic tasks of memory: retention of encoded material over…
Memory
Any system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
Information-processing model
Emphasizes how information changes when encoded, stored, retr…
34 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
cognition
concept
prototype
heuristic
all the mental activities associated with higher-order thinki…
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
a mental image or best example of a category
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgm…
cognition
all the mental activities associated with higher-order thinki…
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
75 terms
Jeffers Chapter 7 Cognition
Memory
Encoding
Storage
Retrieval
the ability to store and retrieve information over time
the process of acquiring and entering information into memory
maintaining the encoded information over a period of time so…
Refers to the process of accessing stored information
Memory
the ability to store and retrieve information over time
Encoding
the process of acquiring and entering information into memory
24 terms
Cognition Chapter 7
lexicons
cognitive economy
semantic network
hierarchical semantic network model of…
mental dictionaries
facts are stored at the highest level possible (ex:mammals ha…
collection of nodes associated with all the words and concept…
nodes organized in hierarchies. canary is a bird(2 levels) is…
lexicons
mental dictionaries
cognitive economy
facts are stored at the highest level possible (ex:mammals ha…
39 terms
Chapter 7, cognition
Cognition
Piaget's clinical method
Schemes
Adaptation
the activity of knowing and the processes through which knowl…
a flexible question and answer technique used to discover how…
cognitive structures- organized patterns of action or thought…
the process of adjusting to the demands of the environment. O…
Cognition
the activity of knowing and the processes through which knowl…
Piaget's clinical method
a flexible question and answer technique used to discover how…
40 terms
Chapter 7 - Cognition
Cognition
Mental images
Concepts
Prototype
Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is pr…
Representations that stand in for objects or events that have…
Ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events,…
A concept that closely matches the defining characteristics o…
Cognition
Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is pr…
Mental images
Representations that stand in for objects or events that have…
70 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
Sensory Memory
Three Box/Information Processing Model
George Sperling
Iconic Memory
A split-second holding tank for incoming sensory information
Sensory-encoding->short term-encoding->long term
Researcher. Flashed a grid of nine letters to participants fo…
A split-second perfect photograph of a scene
Sensory Memory
A split-second holding tank for incoming sensory information
Three Box/Information Processing Model
Sensory-encoding->short term-encoding->long term
169 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
memory
what does human memory work closely with
what do memory patterns form?
what does memory do to meaningless inf…
any system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
the perceptual system ... takes in information from the senses a…
the raw material for thought and behavior
changes it into meaningful patterns
memory
any system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
what does human memory work closely with
the perceptual system ... takes in information from the senses a…
53 terms
Chapter 7 Cognition
memory
information-processing model
encoding
storage
any system (human, animal, or machine) that encodes, stores,…
a cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how informat…
Encoding-involves modification of information to fit the pref…
involves retention of encoded material over time (stored in c…
memory
any system (human, animal, or machine) that encodes, stores,…
information-processing model
a cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how informat…
21 terms
Cognition: Chapter 7 Terms
Mental Imagery
Visual Imagery
Auditory Imagery
Perception
the mental representation of stimuli when those stimuli are n…
the mental representation of visual stimuli.
the mental representation of auditory stimuli
uses previous knowledge to gather and interpret the stimuli r…
Mental Imagery
the mental representation of stimuli when those stimuli are n…
Visual Imagery
the mental representation of visual stimuli.
29 terms
Chapter 7 Cognition
Consolidation
Cued recall
Deep processing
Depth of processing
The process that transforms new memories into a state in whic…
A procedure for testing memory in which a participant is pres…
Processing that involves attention to meaning and relating an…
The idea that the processing that occurs as an item is being…
Consolidation
The process that transforms new memories into a state in whic…
Cued recall
A procedure for testing memory in which a participant is pres…
23 terms
Cognition chapter 7
Mental Imagery
Visual Imagery
Auditory Imagery
Imagery debate
mental representation of stimuli when those stimuli are not p…
mental representation... of visual stimuli.... Matlin, Margaret W.…
mental representation of auditory stimuli.... Matlin, Margaret…
Do our mental images resemble perception (using an... analog cod…
Mental Imagery
mental representation of stimuli when those stimuli are not p…
Visual Imagery
mental representation... of visual stimuli.... Matlin, Margaret W.…
15 terms
Cognition Chapter 7 Terms
Imaginal Code
Propositional Code
Functional equivalence hypothesis
Rule-governed concepts
A concrete means of mental representation that directly conve…
An abstract means of mental representation that is schematic…
States that visual imagery, while not identical to perception…
Specify the features and relations that define membership in…
Imaginal Code
A concrete means of mental representation that directly conve…
Propositional Code
An abstract means of mental representation that is schematic…
51 terms
Cognition / Chapter 7
context-dependent learning
context reinstatement
encoding specificity
memory
the context/environment in which you learn material matters/g…
strategy of thinking about the environment in which you learn…
what we encode is specific--not just the physical stimulus, b…
a vast network of ideas
context-dependent learning
the context/environment in which you learn material matters/g…
context reinstatement
strategy of thinking about the environment in which you learn…
10 terms
Cognition Chapter 7
Flashbulb memories are extremely detai…
In a study by Brewer and Treyens (1981…
In an experiment, Group A is asked to…
Michael and Maria both witnessed an au…
best predicted by the consequentiality of the event to partic…
people make assumptions using prior knowledge about what an a…
Group B recalled more of the passage but made more intrusion…
a yield sign, incorporating Michael's report into her own rec…
Flashbulb memories are extremely detai…
best predicted by the consequentiality of the event to partic…
In a study by Brewer and Treyens (1981…
people make assumptions using prior knowledge about what an a…
24 terms
Chapter 7: cognition
Cognition
imagery
concepts
prototype
refers collectively to processes of acquiring, storing, retri…
representation in the mind of sensory experience... visual, audi…
categories used to represent a class or group of objects, ppl…
embody the most typical features of concepts
Cognition
refers collectively to processes of acquiring, storing, retri…
imagery
representation in the mind of sensory experience... visual, audi…
Chapter 7 Cognition: Intelligence
Intelligence
Alfred Binet (1904)
Intelligence Quotient
140
Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experi…
Was a french psychologist that invented the IQ test, that was…
IQ = MA(mental age) / CA (chronological age) x 100
A 10 year old boy takes the IQ tests where his results show t…
Intelligence
Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experi…
Alfred Binet (1904)
Was a french psychologist that invented the IQ test, that was…
9 terms
Chapter 7 Cognition
Physiognomic Variability
Simultaneous Presentation
Sequential Presentation
Relative Judgment
Variables in features. White faces show mare variability in h…
all the suspects and foils are shown at the same time
show suspects and foils one at a time
identifying the person who, in the eyewitnesses opinion, look…
Physiognomic Variability
Variables in features. White faces show mare variability in h…
Simultaneous Presentation
all the suspects and foils are shown at the same time
23 terms
Cognition chapter 7
Mental Imagery
Visual Imagery
Auditory Imagery
Imagery debate
mental representation of stimuli when those stimuli are not p…
mental representation... of visual stimuli.... Matlin, Margaret W.…
mental representation of auditory stimuli.... Matlin, Margaret…
Do our mental images resemble perception (using an... analog cod…
Mental Imagery
mental representation of stimuli when those stimuli are not p…
Visual Imagery
mental representation... of visual stimuli.... Matlin, Margaret W.…
68 terms
Chapter 7 Cognition
Memory
Information processing model
Encoding
Storage
Any system that encodes, stores and retrieves information.
A cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how informat…
One of the three basic tasks of memory involving the modifica…
One of the three basic tasks of memory involving the retentio…
Memory
Any system that encodes, stores and retrieves information.
Information processing model
A cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how informat…
50 terms
Cognition: Chapter 7 Memory
Cognition
Three step process in memory
Hippocampus
Amygdala
The way in which information is processed and manipulated in…
1-Encoding: processing information into the memory... 2-Storage:…
-in the limbic system... -processes memories of information... - in…
-in the limbic system... -processes memories of emotions ... -emoti…
Cognition
The way in which information is processed and manipulated in…
Three step process in memory
1-Encoding: processing information into the memory... 2-Storage:…
22 terms
Cognition Chapter 7
Memory Errors
Influence of existing knowledge on mem…
Intrusions errors
Influence of theme on memory & intrusi…
difficult to separate memories for specific episodes with ass…
easy for new information to be integrated into an event
other knowledge intrudes into remembered event, inferring inf…
theme results in better memory but more intrusions
Memory Errors
difficult to separate memories for specific episodes with ass…
Influence of existing knowledge on mem…
easy for new information to be integrated into an event
118 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition & Memory
Concepts
Natural concepts
Artificial/Formal concepts
Concept hierarchies
mental representations of categories of items or ideas, based…
mental representations of objects and events drawn from our d…
concepts defined by rules... (ex. a square shape --> certain phy…
levels of concepts, from most general to most specific... (ex. a…
Concepts
mental representations of categories of items or ideas, based…
Natural concepts
mental representations of objects and events drawn from our d…
6 terms
CHAPTER 7 Bilingualism and Cognition
HISTORICALLY
INTELLIGENCE AND BILINGUALISM
SHARE COGNITIVE ADVANTAGES
DIVERGENT THINKING, CREATIVITY, EARLY…
HISTORICALLY, bilinguals were regarded as having a relatively…
Research on the relationship between INTELLIGENCE and BILINGU…
The ownership of two languages does not interfere with effici…
Bilinguals have advantages on certain thinking dimensions, pa…
HISTORICALLY
HISTORICALLY, bilinguals were regarded as having a relatively…
INTELLIGENCE AND BILINGUALISM
Research on the relationship between INTELLIGENCE and BILINGU…
26 terms
Comparative cognition - chapter 7
decision making
Marginal value
Ideal free distribution model
Collective decision making
Cognitive process of selecting one course over another
Net energy gain from foraging is lower than the average energ…
Number of animals in an area is proportional to the amount of…
Evolve coordinated Behavior
decision making
Cognitive process of selecting one course over another
Marginal value
Net energy gain from foraging is lower than the average energ…
42 terms
Chapter 7 - encoding - cognition
Encoding
Levels Of Processing Theory
Shallow processing
Deep processing
Forming mental representation of stimulus or experience ... Key…
Memory depends on depth of processing that item receives ... - w…
Paying little attention to meaning (repeating phone number ov…
Close attention, focus on meaning ... Better because 1) distinct…
Encoding
Forming mental representation of stimulus or experience ... Key…
Levels Of Processing Theory
Memory depends on depth of processing that item receives ... - w…
141 terms
Chapter 7 and 11 Cognition
Memory
Encoding
Storage
Sensory memory/register
learning through storage and retrieval of information.
the process of information in the memory, extracting the memo…
The holding of encoded information over time, storing stimuli…
Brief recording of senses in your memory.
Memory
learning through storage and retrieval of information.
Encoding
the process of information in the memory, extracting the memo…
13 terms
Human Cognition Chapter 7
Encoding
Retrieval
Maintenance rehearsal
Elaborative rehearsal
The process of acquiring information and transforming it into…
The process of transferring information from LTM to working m…
Done without any consideration of meaning or making connectio…
Remember the phone number by considering meaning or making co…
Encoding
The process of acquiring information and transforming it into…
Retrieval
The process of transferring information from LTM to working m…
14 terms
Animal Cognition Chapter 7
Generation effect
Chunking
Interference
Retroactive interference
Active attempts to retrieve information from memory result in…
Grouping responses in a memory task
Information competes for memory information
The learning of new information interferes with the retention…
Generation effect
Active attempts to retrieve information from memory result in…
Chunking
Grouping responses in a memory task
74 terms
cognition chapter 7
memory
encoding
storage
retrieval
encodes, stores, and retrieves information
modify information (change) to fit what you prefer
retention of encoding material over time
ecovery of information from your memory
memory
encodes, stores, and retrieves information
encoding
modify information (change) to fit what you prefer
67 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
cognition
cognitive development
Piaget's constructivism approach
constructivism
activity of knowing something and the process through which w…
changes in thinking, memory, and problem solving
active type of exploration, gain knowledge by going and doing
children active in development and construct understanding th…
cognition
activity of knowing something and the process through which w…
cognitive development
changes in thinking, memory, and problem solving
27 terms
Chapter 7 Cognition
memory
information-processing model
encoding
storage
any system-human, animal, or machine that encodes, stores, an…
a cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how informat…
one of the three basic tasks of memory, involving the modific…
one of the three basic tasks of memory, involving retention o…
memory
any system-human, animal, or machine that encodes, stores, an…
information-processing model
a cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how informat…
53 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
Cognition
Mental Images
Concepts
Formal Concepts
"Thinking", mental activity in the brain
Visual representations of objects or events in the mind
Ideas representing a class or category
Have rigid definitions (square, amnesia, neuron)
Cognition
"Thinking", mental activity in the brain
Mental Images
Visual representations of objects or events in the mind
40 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
Mental images
Concepts
Formal concepts
Natural concepts
Picture-like representations of objects and events
idea that represents category of objects, events, or activiti…
defined by specific rules or features
form as a result of real world experience (fuzziness)
Mental images
Picture-like representations of objects and events
Concepts
idea that represents category of objects, events, or activiti…
74 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
memory
information-processing model
encoding
storage
A system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information.
Memory takes meaningless sensory information and converts it…
Adjusting information into a useful format automatically, whi…
The retention of encoded material over time that allows for u…
memory
A system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information.
information-processing model
Memory takes meaningless sensory information and converts it…
41 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
Thinking (Cognition)
Mental Imagery
How people think
Prototypes
mental activity that goes in the brain when a person is proce…
-mental representations that stand for objects or events and…
-ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events…
a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics o…
Thinking (Cognition)
mental activity that goes in the brain when a person is proce…
Mental Imagery
-mental representations that stand for objects or events and…
67 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
memory
encoding
storage
retrieval
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and…
The processing of information into the memory system--for exa…
The retention of encoded information over time.
The process if getting information out of memory storage.
memory
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and…
encoding
The processing of information into the memory system--for exa…
12 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
Additive strategy
Availability heuristic
Exemplars
Natural
The _________________________________________________________…
The ________________________________________________________i…
___________________________________________________________ a…
A ______________________________________________________ conc…
Additive strategy
The _________________________________________________________…
Availability heuristic
The ________________________________________________________i…
11 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
Thinking (cognition)
Mental Images
Concepts
Prototype
Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is pr…
Mental representations that stand for objects or events and h…
Ideas that represents a class or category of objects, events,…
A concept that closely matches the defining characteristics o…
Thinking (cognition)
Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is pr…
Mental Images
Mental representations that stand for objects or events and h…
Chapter 7: cognition
Formal concepts
natural concepts
prototype
Concepts
concepts that are defined by specific rules or features
concepts that people form as a result of their experience in…
a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics o…
allow for organization of all the perceptions of the world
Formal concepts
concepts that are defined by specific rules or features
natural concepts
concepts that people form as a result of their experience in…
36 terms
Chapter 7 cognition
Preverbal memories
Jean Piaget
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
1.Sensorimotor stage (0-2 years)
The reason why we cant remember anythung prior because of lan…
Adopted memory from nurse saying he was almost kiddnapped
1.SENSORIMOTOR... 2. PRE OCCUPATIONAL... 3. CONCRETE OPERATIONS ... 4.…
Exploring and learning the new world... - physical exploration... -…
Preverbal memories
The reason why we cant remember anythung prior because of lan…
Jean Piaget
Adopted memory from nurse saying he was almost kiddnapped
41 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
Alfred Binet
algorithm
analytical intelligence
basic level type
developed original IQ test
step-by-step procedure for solving a problem
ability to break problems down into component parts
an example of a type of concept around which other similar co…
Alfred Binet
developed original IQ test
algorithm
step-by-step procedure for solving a problem
31 terms
Chapter 7 - Cognition
Elements of Cognition
Concept
Prototype
Propositions
Concept [includes prototype]... Proposition... Cognitive Schema... Men…
Mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, a…
Best or most typical example of a category
Represent the relationship of concepts to one another to expr…
Elements of Cognition
Concept [includes prototype]... Proposition... Cognitive Schema... Men…
Concept
Mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, a…
53 terms
Chapter 7 - Cognition
Memory
Three-Box/Information-Processing Model
Levels of Processing Model
Sensory Memory
The capacity for storing and retrieving information.
Model that proposes that there are three stages that informat…
Explains how we remember what we do. Memories are neither lon…
A memory system that stores incoming sensory information for…
Memory
The capacity for storing and retrieving information.
Three-Box/Information-Processing Model
Model that proposes that there are three stages that informat…
40 terms
Chapter 7 Cognition
Cognition
Clinical Method
Scheme (or schema; plural; schemes or…
Organization
...
...
...
...
Cognition
...
Clinical Method
...
19 terms
Chapter 7:Cognition
Thinking
Mental images
Concepts
Prototype
mental activity that occurs in the brain when a person is org…
mental representations that stand for objects or events and h…
ideas representing a category of objects,events,or activities
example of a concept that closely matches the characteristics…
Thinking
mental activity that occurs in the brain when a person is org…
Mental images
mental representations that stand for objects or events and h…
27 terms
Cognition chapter 7
consolidation
cued recall
deep processing
depth of processing
the process that transforms new memories into a state in whic…
a procedure for testing memory in which a participant is pres…
processing that involves attention to meaning and relating an…
the idea that the processing that occurs as an item is being…
consolidation
the process that transforms new memories into a state in whic…
cued recall
a procedure for testing memory in which a participant is pres…
77 terms
Chapter 7 Cognition
memory
information-processing model
encoding
storage
any system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
a cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how informat…
one of the three basic tasks of memory, involving the modific…
one of the three basic tasks of memory, involving the retenti…
memory
any system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
information-processing model
a cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how informat…
23 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
Thinking
Mental Imagery
Concepts
Problem Solving
mental activity that goes on in brain while people are thinking
takes longer to view bigger mental images, helps people remem…
superordinate - fruit... basic level - apple... subordinate - grann…
trial and error... algorithms - step by step procedures ... heurist…
Thinking
mental activity that goes on in brain while people are thinking
Mental Imagery
takes longer to view bigger mental images, helps people remem…
12 terms
Chapter 7: Cognition
The Hunting Hypothesis
The Show-Off Hypothesis
The Savanna Hypothesis
Gathering Hypothesis
The idea that the crucial process creating human culture was…
Better hunters had more mates and higher status
We did most of out evolving on the savanna so we are attracte…
"Women Gatherers"
The Hunting Hypothesis
The idea that the crucial process creating human culture was…
The Show-Off Hypothesis
Better hunters had more mates and higher status
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