Study sets matching "cognition memory 2"

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Study sets matching "cognition memory 2"

29 terms
Memory and Cognition Ch. 2
Parietal Lobe
Occipital lobe
Frontal Lobe
Pre-frontal
Space perception, Spatial manipulation, spacial attention, pe…
Sight/Vision
Voluntary Movement, Following complex rules and inhibiting re…
intention for action, executive functioning
Parietal Lobe
Space perception, Spatial manipulation, spacial attention, pe…
Occipital lobe
Sight/Vision
16 terms
Memory and Cognition: Lecture 2
Cognitive psychology
Wilhelm Wundt
Conscious processes
Structuralism
The topic of mental processes; a point of view of how to stud…
Researcher who established the first psychological lab in 1879
Wilhelm Wundt's definition of psychology: the study of ______…
An early school of psychology that used introspection to expl…
Cognitive psychology
The topic of mental processes; a point of view of how to stud…
Wilhelm Wundt
Researcher who established the first psychological lab in 1879
Memory and Cognition 2
Methods of Assessing Infant Memory
Habituation
Looking Time
Imitation
-Habituation... -Looking Time... -Imitation
Learning not to respond to a repeated stimulus... -evidence that…
Infants Spend more time looking at a new or confusing stimulu…
Ability to imitate an act performed by another person in the…
Methods of Assessing Infant Memory
-Habituation... -Looking Time... -Imitation
Habituation
Learning not to respond to a repeated stimulus... -evidence that…
Cognition - Memory Pt2
Automatic Encoding
Effortful Encoding
Chunking
Maintenance Rehearsal
Encoding is effortless - Usually information related to your…
Needed to store and retain complex types of information. ... Inv…
Process of breaking down information into small meaningful ch…
Rehearsal by repeating info over & over without adding meanin…
Automatic Encoding
Encoding is effortless - Usually information related to your…
Effortful Encoding
Needed to store and retain complex types of information. ... Inv…
74 terms
Cognition Unit 2: Memory
Retrieval
Encoding
Memory Trace
Storage
the process by which stored information is brought back to co…
the cognitive process(es) by which information is translated…
the mental representation of stored information
the mental "holding on" to information between the time it wa…
Retrieval
the process by which stored information is brought back to co…
Encoding
the cognitive process(es) by which information is translated…
46 terms
Memory & Cognition Exam 2
In a pioneering study, Shepard (1967,…
In a second experiment, Shepard (1967)…
In the final experiment of Shepard's s…
______________ words are recalled bett…
Overall, word recognition performance was very good.
Again, performance of the forced-choice recognition was very…
Visual recognition performance was excellent-basically 100% o…
high-frequency
In a pioneering study, Shepard (1967,…
Overall, word recognition performance was very good.
In a second experiment, Shepard (1967)…
Again, performance of the forced-choice recognition was very…
EXAM 2 Memory and Cognition
total time hypothesis
distributed practice
selective attention
dichotic listening task
the proposal that about learned is a simple function of the a…
breaking practice up into a number of shorter sessions; in co…
ability to focus on one piece/stream of information by filter…
an attempt to simulate a crowded room. One ear (shadow) recei…
total time hypothesis
the proposal that about learned is a simple function of the a…
distributed practice
breaking practice up into a number of shorter sessions; in co…
88 terms
Memory & Cognition Test 2
Ebbinghaus's contributions to the stud…
Decay theory of forgetting
Interference theory of forgetting
Role of displacement in forgetting
Forgetting curve - rapid forgetting of some information relat…
Loss of memory due simply to the passage of time. Memory trac…
Disruption of the memory trace by other traces where the degr…
If decay is the only answer, should forget more as more time…
Ebbinghaus's contributions to the stud…
Forgetting curve - rapid forgetting of some information relat…
Decay theory of forgetting
Loss of memory due simply to the passage of time. Memory trac…
18 terms
Memory & Cognition pt. 2
Sensory Memory
Iconic
Eidetic
Echoic
very short memories taken in by our senses
visual
photograph
auditory
Sensory Memory
very short memories taken in by our senses
Iconic
visual
11 terms
Memory and Cognition (2)
Positive Transfer
Negative Transfer
Meaningfulness
Massed Practice
Learning helping another learning.
Learning hurting another learning.
When something is meaningful, you remember it.
All at once studying without break
Positive Transfer
Learning helping another learning.
Negative Transfer
Learning hurting another learning.
23 terms
Psychology : Cognition (Memory 2)
Cognition
Prototype
Algorithm
Heuristic
Mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remember…
Mental image or best example that incorporates all the featur…
Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving…
Simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgeme…
Cognition
Mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remember…
Prototype
Mental image or best example that incorporates all the featur…
37 terms
Cognition Memory (2)
Iconic memory
Echoic memory
Long term potentiation
Flashbulb memory
momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; picture lasting n…
Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; able to recall…
Increase in a synapse firing potential after a brief, rapid s…
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Iconic memory
momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; picture lasting n…
Echoic memory
Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; able to recall…
63 terms
memory and cognition 2
hill-climbing approach
fixation
functional fixedness
stereotype threat
always choosing the option that appears to most directly lead…
inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective
thinking of things only in terms of their normal functions
making a negative stereotype more accessible may decrease per…
hill-climbing approach
always choosing the option that appears to most directly lead…
fixation
inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective
24 terms
cognition memory #2
repression
tip of the tongue phenomenon
anterograde amnesia
retrograde amnesia
- pushing bad thoughts to back of mind, forgetting example: t…
experience of knowing that we know something but being unable…
loss of memory for events that occur after the onset of the a…
inability to remember memories prior to accident example: THE…
repression
- pushing bad thoughts to back of mind, forgetting example: t…
tip of the tongue phenomenon
experience of knowing that we know something but being unable…
151 terms
Memory & Cognition Exam 2
Define Attention
What is Botton-Up Processing in the co…
What is Top-Down Processing in the con…
Define Divided Attention?
Concentration of mental activity that allows you to take in a…
Can concentrate because a specific detail has caught our atte…
Can concentrate because we want to pay attention to a specifi…
Trying to pay attention to two or more simultaneous messages…
Define Attention
Concentration of mental activity that allows you to take in a…
What is Botton-Up Processing in the co…
Can concentrate because a specific detail has caught our atte…
8 terms
Memory and Cognition review #2
Attention
Selective attention
Divided attention
Input attention... -Reflexive attention
the ability to focus on specific stimuli or locations in our…
the ability to attend to one thing while ignoring others... -we…
paying attention to more than one thing at a time (conscious…
the basic process of getting sensory info into the cognitive…
Attention
the ability to focus on specific stimuli or locations in our…
Selective attention
the ability to attend to one thing while ignoring others... -we…
162 terms
Advanced Memory & Cognition - Test 2
What is the structural view of memory?
What is the proceduralist view of memo…
What is the functionalist view of memo…
What is the cue overload principle?
Memory is a place in which memories are stored.
Emphasizes the processes that create and re-create the memory
Emphasizes discovering and enumerating general principles of…
The effectiveness of an environmental cue will decline when t…
What is the structural view of memory?
Memory is a place in which memories are stored.
What is the proceduralist view of memo…
Emphasizes the processes that create and re-create the memory
16 terms
Cognition 2 - Systems of Memory
sensory memory
short-term memory
long-term memory
working memory
an immediate initial recording of sensory information, formin…
activated memory, holds a few items briefly
permanent, limitless storage of memories
your brains "task list", processes and stores incoming inform…
sensory memory
an immediate initial recording of sensory information, formin…
short-term memory
activated memory, holds a few items briefly
37 terms
Memory and Cognition Exam 2
Keyword Method
Method of Loci
Peg-word Method
Narrative Chaining
Only effective in the short term; no better than rote rehears…
technique described by the ancient Greeks; can be used to rem…
one is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree, etc.
string together a series of words into a story or long sentence
Keyword Method
Only effective in the short term; no better than rote rehears…
Method of Loci
technique described by the ancient Greeks; can be used to rem…
180 terms
Memory and Cognition Exam 2
what is memory?
When is memory active?
Atkinson and Shiffrin
Three different types of memory
the process involved in retaining, retrieving, and using info…
Any time some past experience has an impact on how you think…
modal model of memory
sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
what is memory?
the process involved in retaining, retrieving, and using info…
When is memory active?
Any time some past experience has an impact on how you think…
97 terms
MEMORY AND COGNITION EXAM #2
cognitive neuroscience
neuron
frontal, parietal, occipital, and temp…
cerebral cortex
exploring substrates of cognitive process
basic building block of the nervous system; cell that carries…
Four lobes of the cerebral cortex
layered sheers of neurons forming complex networks and two no…
cognitive neuroscience
exploring substrates of cognitive process
neuron
basic building block of the nervous system; cell that carries…
9 terms
Memory and Cognition Test #2
picture superiority
recognition superiority
decay hypothesis
encoding-retreival match
Memory for pictures is superior for memory for words
recognition tests are easier than recall tests
memory traces degrade as time passes
better recall when the test context matched the study context
picture superiority
Memory for pictures is superior for memory for words
recognition superiority
recognition tests are easier than recall tests
Memory and Cognition Chapter 2
Mental representation
Studying the Mind
Cognitive Neuroscience
Levels of Analysis
Unobservable internal code for information. provides basis fo…
understanding complex behaviors.
study psychological basis of cognition. understanding the ner…
examines topics from multiple angles. each viewpoint can add…
Mental representation
Unobservable internal code for information. provides basis fo…
Studying the Mind
understanding complex behaviors.
56 terms
Memory and Cognition Exam 2
Information processing
working memory
three components of working memory
visuospatial buffer
incoming info-> sensory memory-> STM can go to LTM or be lost…
a dynamic form of STM; virtually all mental activities requir…
central executive, visuospatial buffer, articulatory rehersal…
visual material and imagery
Information processing
incoming info-> sensory memory-> STM can go to LTM or be lost…
working memory
a dynamic form of STM; virtually all mental activities requir…
Memory & Cognition exam #2
attention
concentrating our mental activity beca…
concentrating our mental activity beca…
divided-attention task; speed; accuracy
a concentration of mental activity that allows you to take in…
describe bottom-up processing in regard to attention
describe top-down processing in regard to attention
when you try to pay attention to two or more simultaneous mes…
attention
a concentration of mental activity that allows you to take in…
concentrating our mental activity beca…
describe bottom-up processing in regard to attention
Cognition and Memory Test #2
Define working memory
How is working memory different from s…
What did George Miller find out about…
What are chunks?
The brief, immediate memory for the material that you are cur…
Short-term memory denotes a temporary storehouse: we simply h…
He found that people typically hold 7 +/2 piece of informatio…
Memory units that consist of several components that are stro…
Define working memory
The brief, immediate memory for the material that you are cur…
How is working memory different from s…
Short-term memory denotes a temporary storehouse: we simply h…
10 terms
Cognition and Memory [Unit 3.2]
Historical View [3.2]... Visual Imagery
Epiphenomenon [3.2]... Zenon Pylyshyn (Ex…
Mental Scanning [3.2]... Stephen Kosslyn…
Size in Visual Field [3.2]... Stephen Kos…
-Aristotle... -Wilhelm Wundt... -Francis Galton... -John Watson... -Alan…
Visual imagery is epiphenomenon (secondary effect) ... You don't…
Show a map, some would see map others would get it for a shor…
Size in visual field ---size... Closer we get to things the les…
Historical View [3.2]... Visual Imagery
-Aristotle... -Wilhelm Wundt... -Francis Galton... -John Watson... -Alan…
Epiphenomenon [3.2]... Zenon Pylyshyn (Ex…
Visual imagery is epiphenomenon (secondary effect) ... You don't…
Memory and Cognition Exam #2
figure-ground segregation
what happens to the figure in figure-g…
who is associated with figure-ground s…
prosopagnosia
the perceptual organization of the visual field into a figure…
the figure is perceived as having a distinct form or shape wh…
Gestaltist
a condition mostly caused by brain damage in which there is a…
figure-ground segregation
the perceptual organization of the visual field into a figure…
what happens to the figure in figure-g…
the figure is perceived as having a distinct form or shape wh…
48 terms
Cognition exam 2 - memory
Encoding
Storage
Retrieval
Multistore model
the transformation of sensory information into a mental repre…
Retention of encoded information in memory - "save"
Accessing / outputting information from memory - "select"
Proposes multiple storage areas in the brain for different ty…
Encoding
the transformation of sensory information into a mental repre…
Storage
Retention of encoded information in memory - "save"
36 terms
Unit 2-Memory & Cognition
Encoding
External Stimuli
Sensory registers
Selective attention
convert into coded form
something from outside influences you
takes sensory info from 5 senses
purposefully focusing conscious awareness on specific stimuli
Encoding
convert into coded form
External Stimuli
something from outside influences you
33 terms
Memory and Cognition Chapter 2
initial physical event
interpretation of event
data driven processing, based on info…
concept driven processing, based on kn…
sensation
perception
bottom up
top down
initial physical event
sensation
interpretation of event
perception
119 terms
Memory & Cognition - Exam 2
Attention
Bottom-Up
Top-Down
divided attention
concentration of mental activity that allows you to take in a…
can concentrate because a specific detail has caught our atte…
can concentrate because we want to pay attention to a specifi…
trying to pay attention to two or more simultaneous messages…
Attention
concentration of mental activity that allows you to take in a…
Bottom-Up
can concentrate because a specific detail has caught our atte…
75 terms
Memory & Cognition Exam 2
Attention
Bottom-up Processing
Top-down Processing
Divided Attention
concentration of mental activity that allows you to take in a…
can concentrate because a specific detail has caught our atte…
can concentrate because we want to pay attention to a specifi…
trying to pay attention to 2 or more simultaneous messages wh…
Attention
concentration of mental activity that allows you to take in a…
Bottom-up Processing
can concentrate because a specific detail has caught our atte…
31 terms
Memory&Cognition Exam 2
Encoding
Rehearsal
Retrieval
Modal Model
learning stage, putting things inside your head
practice
recalling info, getting it out of your head
environmental input--> sensory memory--> short term memory-->…
Encoding
learning stage, putting things inside your head
Rehearsal
practice
Exam 2 Memory & Cognition
What is learning?
What is memory?
What is Hebbian Learning?
What are distributed representations?
Learning is a process by which relatively long-lasting change…
Memory is the product of learning
strength of the connection between two neurons is increased i…
each item (object,episode, concept) is represented as a patte…
What is learning?
Learning is a process by which relatively long-lasting change…
What is memory?
Memory is the product of learning
153 terms
Memory & Cognition exam 2
what is attention?
T/F... we have limited attentional abi…
what is the spotlight metaphor?
what kind of control is the spotlight…
mental activity that allows you to actively process informati…
TRUE
if we think of our attention as a spotlight, we can choose wh…
voluntary control
what is attention?
mental activity that allows you to actively process informati…
T/F... we have limited attentional abi…
TRUE
Exam 2 Memory & Cognition
What is the memory term for learning i…
What is the memory term for practicing…
What is the memory term for recalling…
What is the capacity and duration of s…
Encoding
Rehearsal
Retrieval
Capacity= Large, unknown.... Duration= half a second or less
What is the memory term for learning i…
Encoding
What is the memory term for practicing…
Rehearsal
Memory and Cognition test 2
define attention
selective attention
what does the bottleneck theory suggest
what are the 3 bottleneck theories
refers to how we actively process specific information presen…
we usually focus our attention on one or a few tasks or event…
suggests that individuals have a limited amount of attentiona…
1. broad bent's filter model... 2. the cocktail party effect... 3.…
define attention
refers to how we actively process specific information presen…
selective attention
we usually focus our attention on one or a few tasks or event…
Cognition and memory test 2
Proactive Interference
release from proactive interference
4 parts of working memory
brown/peterson and peterson experiment
Stuff you already know gets in the way of new stuff
change the semantic category of the new information
central executive... episodic buffer... phonological loop... visuospat…
information held for less then one minute is easily forgotten
Proactive Interference
Stuff you already know gets in the way of new stuff
release from proactive interference
change the semantic category of the new information
97 terms
exam 2 memory and cognition
neural mind reading
partial report method
perseveration
persistence of vision
refers to using a neural response to determine what a person…
report the letters in a single 4 letter row; present row that…
repeatedly performing the same action or thought even if it i…
continued perception of a visual stimulus even after it is no…
neural mind reading
refers to using a neural response to determine what a person…
partial report method
report the letters in a single 4 letter row; present row that…
20 terms
Cognition & Memory part 2
Modeling
Discrimination
Delayed reinforcement
Serial position effect
Process or observing and imitating a specific behavior
Learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus…
Time delay between desired response open organism and deliver…
Or tendency to recall best the last and first items on the li…
Modeling
Process or observing and imitating a specific behavior
Discrimination
Learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus…
79 terms
Memory and Cognition exam 2
What can memory be explained as?
3 processes of memory
encoding
storage
-a wax tablet that can be molded (aristotle)... -a filing system…
-encoding... -storage... -retrieval
the process of inputting info into memory
the process of storing info into memory
What can memory be explained as?
-a wax tablet that can be molded (aristotle)... -a filing system…
3 processes of memory
-encoding... -storage... -retrieval
memory and cognition exam 2
Stevens and Coup Map distortions study
functions of perceptual knowledge
Labou bowl, cup, or glass study
prototype theory
relative relations of regions represented at a higher level a…
classification, prediction, reasoning, economy in communication
found that cup category does not have clear boundaries
central features of object get more weight, we create a proto…
Stevens and Coup Map distortions study
relative relations of regions represented at a higher level a…
functions of perceptual knowledge
classification, prediction, reasoning, economy in communication
memory and cognition exam 2
individual differences
why study individual differences
what are the ID's important for the st…
how are ID's different from other vari…
are categorical or continuous, similar to manipulated variabl…
to understand norms and or full range of behavior
age and working memory capacity
they are based on inherent trait not manipulated variables
individual differences
are categorical or continuous, similar to manipulated variabl…
why study individual differences
to understand norms and or full range of behavior
Cognition and Memory Exam 2
*cognition (1)
*memory (1)
*learning (1)
*materialism (1)
the processing of info
the storage of info
the encoding of new info
what matters is the arrangement of matter
*cognition (1)
the processing of info
*memory (1)
the storage of info
126 terms
Memory and Cognition Midterm 2
The Forgetting Curve
Recognition Memory
The Word Frequency Effect
Picture Superiority Effect
Ebbinghaus plotted memory savings as a function of the retent…
tests yield above-chance performance of large amount of infor…
word recognition as a function of target and foil; high-frequ…
memory for pictures is uproar to memory for words. all else b…
The Forgetting Curve
Ebbinghaus plotted memory savings as a function of the retent…
Recognition Memory
tests yield above-chance performance of large amount of infor…
92 terms
memory and cognition exam 2
7 sins of memory
transience
absent-mindedness
blocking
transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, sugg…
forgetting over time (it can be long term or short term) ... -pr…
forgetting that occurs when not enough attention is paid to t…
occurs when memories are temporarily inaccessible even after…
7 sins of memory
transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, sugg…
transience
forgetting over time (it can be long term or short term) ... -pr…
Memory and Cognition Test 2
Broadbent's filter theory
cocktail party effect
triesman's attenuation model
late selection filter models
you remember everything up to the bottle neck, selection is b…
if your name is presented in the unattended ear you will reme…
the theory that you can "turn down" the intensity of the unat…
attention operates after meaning is given to the stimuli
Broadbent's filter theory
you remember everything up to the bottle neck, selection is b…
cocktail party effect
if your name is presented in the unattended ear you will reme…
140 terms
Memory and Cognition Test #2
Attention
Subitizing
Goal- Driven Attention
Stimulus - Driven Attention
Need to monitor events that are occurring in our external and…
Quick and effortless enumeration of a small number of objects…
Active mode of attention, the observer had a goal in mind, an…
Passive mode of attention, the observers simply take in the e…
Attention
Need to monitor events that are occurring in our external and…
Subitizing
Quick and effortless enumeration of a small number of objects…
44 terms
Memory and Cognition Exam 2
Feeling-of-knowing judgment:
Meta-memory:
Meta-cognition:
Visual imagery mnemonics:
Rate your confidence whether you could recognize the correct…
Our knowledge about the functioning of our own memory.... Childr…
Our knowledge about the functioning of our cognitive processe…
-Keyword method... -Bizarre imagery... -Method of loci... -Peg-word me…
Feeling-of-knowing judgment:
Rate your confidence whether you could recognize the correct…
Meta-memory:
Our knowledge about the functioning of our own memory.... Childr…
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