Study sets matching "cognitive processes"

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Study sets matching "cognitive processes"

14 terms
Cognitive processes
trial and error
algorithms
insight
availability heuristic
Her first attempt failed, so she made modifications. The seco…
Desiree has discovered that when she reads the chapter first,…
When she woke up Desiree suddenly realized that she should be…
Since Desiree has never had an emergency which prevented her…
trial and error
Her first attempt failed, so she made modifications. The seco…
algorithms
Desiree has discovered that when she reads the chapter first,…
63 terms
Cognitive Processes
Noam Chomsky
Jean Piaget
What are the factors that contributed…
Informal processingModel
We have language acquisition devices and we come into this wo…
The Freud of Cognitive Psychology. Believed that cognition de…
Behaviorists, Chomsky's language acquisition, study of memory…
Intake, and output of information
Noam Chomsky
We have language acquisition devices and we come into this wo…
Jean Piaget
The Freud of Cognitive Psychology. Believed that cognition de…
118 terms
Cognitive Processes Midterm 2
Long Term Memory
Murdoch
Serial position curve
Primacy Effect
"archive" of info about past events and knowledge... -closely as…
studied the distinction between short term memory and long te…
shows recency and primacy effect
Rundus.... remembering words at beginning of the list due to reh…
Long Term Memory
"archive" of info about past events and knowledge... -closely as…
Murdoch
studied the distinction between short term memory and long te…
Cognitive Processes Chapter 1 - Cognition
empiricism
nativism
introspection
behaviorism
all knowledge comes from experience - British philosophers
children come into the world with a great deal of knowledge
a method of inquiry in which highly trained observers report…
held that psychology was to be entirely concerned with extern…
empiricism
all knowledge comes from experience - British philosophers
nativism
children come into the world with a great deal of knowledge
115 terms
Cognitive Processes Exam Two
Atkinson and Shiffrin Model of Memory
Sensory Memory
Perceptual Trail
Capacity and Duration(whole)- Sensory…
Atkinson and Shiffrin argued that the items in short term mem…
Brief retention of the effects of sensory stimulation
Seeing candle ring when moving sparkler in circles, your sens…
Show array of letters for 50 milliseconds, participants asked…
Atkinson and Shiffrin Model of Memory
Atkinson and Shiffrin argued that the items in short term mem…
Sensory Memory
Brief retention of the effects of sensory stimulation
19 terms
Cognitive Processes
1.1 Remember-recognizing
1.2 Remember-Recalling
2.1 Understand-Interpreting
2.2 Understand-Exemplifying
Identifying- locate knowledge in long-term memory that is con…
Retrieving- retrieving relevant knowledge from long-term memory
Clarify, paraphrase, prepresent, translate- change from one f…
Illustrate, instantiate-find a specific example or illustrati…
1.1 Remember-recognizing
Identifying- locate knowledge in long-term memory that is con…
1.2 Remember-Recalling
Retrieving- retrieving relevant knowledge from long-term memory
66 terms
Cognitive Processes
behavioral and cognitive focus and als…
by us in within
in fatigue
the outside and increases arousal
Attention involves:
arousal is controlled
a lack of arousal is
Attention is controlled by us from withing; how ever attentio…
behavioral and cognitive focus and als…
Attention involves:
by us in within
arousal is controlled
Cognitive Processes
Learning
Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned response
Unconditioned Stimulus
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due t…
Learning a link between one stimuli and another.
An instinctual response
A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without prev…
Learning
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due t…
Classical Conditioning
Learning a link between one stimuli and another.
62 terms
Cognitive Processes Exam 4
State-dependent learning
Encoding specificity
Recall
Recognition
A persons recall will be better if they are in the same state…
The context in which a word is heard in has an effect on the…
Remembering of information without any answers to select from
Remembering information with answers to select from, often ea…
State-dependent learning
A persons recall will be better if they are in the same state…
Encoding specificity
The context in which a word is heard in has an effect on the…
42 terms
Cognitive Processes, Exam 2
Top-down processing
Bottom-up processing
Recognition by the analysis of the whole
Recognition by analysis of features
Processing driven by knowledge, experiences, and expectancies
Processing driven by low-level sensory processes and/or the d…
Template matching
Interactive activation model (IAM), connectionism
Top-down processing
Processing driven by knowledge, experiences, and expectancies
Bottom-up processing
Processing driven by low-level sensory processes and/or the d…
47 terms
Cognitive Processes, Exam 3
Sensory Memory
iconic memory
echoic memory
Modality effect
Where sensory info is initially held and processed for less t…
visual sensory memory
auditory sensory memory
If the mode of retrieval matches the mode of input, memory wi…
Sensory Memory
Where sensory info is initially held and processed for less t…
iconic memory
visual sensory memory
Cognitive Processes: Quiz 3
Working Memory
Short-term Memory
Long-term Memory
A chunk
the brief, immediate memory for the limited amount go materia…
the older term, similar to working memory. Can only hold a li…
has large capacity and contains memory for experiences and in…
a memory unit that consists of several component s that are s…
Working Memory
the brief, immediate memory for the limited amount go materia…
Short-term Memory
the older term, similar to working memory. Can only hold a li…
Cognitive Processes
Landy & Farr (1980)
Ilgen et al. (1993)
Baltes et al. (2007)
Anseel et al. (2009)
Call for shift from rating formats towards cognitive/informat…
Call for shift from cognitive processes towards contextual va…
Used structured free recall to identify good and bad behavior…
Used a reflection strategy to have people reflect on feedback…
Landy & Farr (1980)
Call for shift from rating formats towards cognitive/informat…
Ilgen et al. (1993)
Call for shift from cognitive processes towards contextual va…
COGNITIVE PROCESSES
The Frontal Lobe
Working Memory
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
Consolidation & Reconsolidation
1. prefrontal cortex / anterior region - cognition, planning…
Coordinated, temporary storage of information in various site…
activated when working memory is used, coordinates working me…
postulated by Hebb to describe the shift of a memory from a r…
The Frontal Lobe
1. prefrontal cortex / anterior region - cognition, planning…
Working Memory
Coordinated, temporary storage of information in various site…
Cognitive Processes
anomia
aphasia
articulation
attention
Problems with word retrieval
Communication disorder that may affect speech, reading, and w…
Enunciation of words and sentences
Ability to concentrate on and take in specific sensory stimuli
anomia
Problems with word retrieval
aphasia
Communication disorder that may affect speech, reading, and w…
118 terms
COGNITIVE PROCESSES
INTROSPECTION... chapter 1
BEHAVIORIST THEORY... chapter 1
TRANSCENDENTAL METHOD... chapter 1
WORKING MEMORY... chapter 1
The process through which you "look within," to observe and r…
Broad principles concerned with how behaviour changes in resp…
A type of theorizing first proposed by the philosopher Immanu…
The storage system in which information is held while that in…
INTROSPECTION... chapter 1
The process through which you "look within," to observe and r…
BEHAVIORIST THEORY... chapter 1
Broad principles concerned with how behaviour changes in resp…
75 terms
cognitive processes
cognition
cognition purpose
Whilhem Wundt
introspection
awareness... mental processes related to acquisition storage and…
for survival
structuralism... introspection
conscious reporting from perception information to final inte…
cognition
awareness... mental processes related to acquisition storage and…
cognition purpose
for survival
18 terms
Cognitive Processes
Kant
Donders (1868)
Donder's Conclusion
Unconscious Interference
pointed out that mental processes take place in time, but the…
Mental chronometry; first cognitive experiment of pushing but…
Mental responses cannot be measured directly but must be INFE…
Helmholtz (1860s); some of our perceptions are the result of…
Kant
pointed out that mental processes take place in time, but the…
Donders (1868)
Mental chronometry; first cognitive experiment of pushing but…
6 terms
Cognitive Processes
aggregate field theory
cytoarchitectonics
brain lesions
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
the whole brain participated in behavior
how cells differ between brain regions
can result from tumors, a mass of tissue that grows abnormall…
offers a method to non invasively produce focal stimulation o…
aggregate field theory
the whole brain participated in behavior
cytoarchitectonics
how cells differ between brain regions
Cognitive Processes
Learning
Intelligence
Classical conditioning
Unconditioned response
the acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, st…
the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.
a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedl…
behavior that occurs naturally due to a given stimulus. Howev…
Learning
the acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, st…
Intelligence
the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.
Cognitive Processes
Learning
Classic Conditioning
Unconditioned response
Unconditioned Stimulus
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due t…
learning by association
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring…
A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without prev…
Learning
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due t…
Classic Conditioning
learning by association
21 terms
Cognitive processes
Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive neuroscience
Cognition
Mental representations
Structure and functions of the mind.
Combines knowledge about the brain with knowledge about cogni…
Processes including perception, thinking, problem solving, me…
Images, words, and concepts.
Cognitive Psychology
Structure and functions of the mind.
Cognitive neuroscience
Combines knowledge about the brain with knowledge about cogni…
Cognitive Processes
cognition
concept
prototype
algorithm
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, reme…
a mental grouping of similar objects, ideas, events, or people
a mental image or best example of a concept/category
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees us to…
cognition
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, reme…
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, ideas, events, or people
29 terms
Cognitive Processes
parallel processing
serial processing
sensory memory
social cognitive neuroscience
a type of cognitive processing in which a person performs man…
a type of cognitive processing in which a person performs ope…
the large-capacity storage system that records information fr…
a new discipline that uses neuroscience techniques to explore…
parallel processing
a type of cognitive processing in which a person performs man…
serial processing
a type of cognitive processing in which a person performs ope…
35 terms
Cognitive Processes
Cognition
Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Science
Cognitive Model
Process of knowing, including; attending, remembering, and re…
The Scientific study of mental processes and mental structures
An interdisciplinary field that studies the variety of system…
An explanatory metaphor that describes how information is det…
Cognition
Process of knowing, including; attending, remembering, and re…
Cognitive Psychology
The Scientific study of mental processes and mental structures
cognitive processes
alertness and arrousal
orienting reflex and attention capture
spotlight attention and search
selective attention
refers to alertness and arousal as a necessary state of the n…
caused by a reflexive response in the nervous system
related to perceptual space, that is the spatial arrangement…
The mental process of elimination distractions
alertness and arrousal
refers to alertness and arousal as a necessary state of the n…
orienting reflex and attention capture
caused by a reflexive response in the nervous system
20 terms
Cognitive processes
stimulus response
Independent variables - intervening va…
mental chronometry
Parallel recall
How Skinner explained that language was not the result of cog…
The elements of a cognitive map that lead to behaviour
Methods for measuring the speed and organisation of mental pr…
Recalling all information from a set at the same time
stimulus response
How Skinner explained that language was not the result of cog…
Independent variables - intervening va…
The elements of a cognitive map that lead to behaviour
35 terms
Cognitive Processes
Cognitive processes
Cognition
Serial processes
Parallel Processes
higher mental process, includes perception, memory, language,…
all forms of knowing
two or more mental processes carried out in order, one after…
Two or more mental processes that are carried out simultaneou…
Cognitive processes
higher mental process, includes perception, memory, language,…
Cognition
all forms of knowing
24 terms
Cognitive Processes
Behaviourism
Tolman
Mental Chronometry
Sternberg paradigm of memory scanning
All behaviours as complex Stimulus-Response associations. Pur…
Stimuli are connected in a cognitive-map of the environment.…
Measuring speed and organisation of cognition.
Parallel - search for items at the same time... Serial - search…
Behaviourism
All behaviours as complex Stimulus-Response associations. Pur…
Tolman
Stimuli are connected in a cognitive-map of the environment.…
18 terms
cognitive processes
prototype
exemplar
schemas
scripts
the best example of a concept
actual examples of the concept you have experienced- often us…
include info about common situations and roles, eg farmers ma…
carry info about appropriate sequences of behavior
prototype
the best example of a concept
exemplar
actual examples of the concept you have experienced- often us…
28 terms
Cognitive Processes
Learning
Classical conditioning
Unconditioned response
Unconditioned stimulus
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due t…
Conditioning process in which an originally neutral stimulus,…
Unlearned or involuntary response to an unconditioned stimulus
A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without prev…
Learning
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due t…
Classical conditioning
Conditioning process in which an originally neutral stimulus,…
14 terms
Cognitive Processes
Priming
Positive priming
Negative priming
Repetition priming
Occurs when the presentation of one stimulus changes the resp…
When the presentation of a stimulus causes an increase in spe…
When the presentation of a stimulus causes a decrease in spee…
A form of positive priming, that occurs when the test stimulu…
Priming
Occurs when the presentation of one stimulus changes the resp…
Positive priming
When the presentation of a stimulus causes an increase in spe…
Cognitive Processes
Congnition
Concepts
Prototypes
Algorithm
the mental activitws associated with thinking, knowing, remem…
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new it…
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solvi…
Congnition
the mental activitws associated with thinking, knowing, remem…
Concepts
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
Cognitive Processes - Chapter 4
Types of Attention
Shadowing task
Dichotic Listening Task
Attended and Unattended Channels
- Selective attention: focus on some stimuli, ignore others.…
people do not recall the shadowed message well, suggesting th…
The different stimuli are directed into different ears over h…
- get little information about semantic content of unattended…
Types of Attention
- Selective attention: focus on some stimuli, ignore others.…
Shadowing task
people do not recall the shadowed message well, suggesting th…
68 terms
Cognitive Processes
What is cognitive psychology
What kind of cognitive processes are t…
What is fMRI?
What are the benefits of the effects f…
Internal processes of making sense of our environment, decidi…
Attention, perception, learning, memory, language, problem so…
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Allows us to understand normal brain cognition through impair…
What is cognitive psychology
Internal processes of making sense of our environment, decidi…
What kind of cognitive processes are t…
Attention, perception, learning, memory, language, problem so…
22 terms
cognitive processes
Donders Subtractive Method
Donders logic (reaction time)
serial processing
parallel processing
studies speed of mental processes, (stimulus categorization a…
amount of time it takes experimental participants to perform…
mental processes are separate and one after another
mental processes carried out simultaneously
Donders Subtractive Method
studies speed of mental processes, (stimulus categorization a…
Donders logic (reaction time)
amount of time it takes experimental participants to perform…
Cognitive processes
Conditioning
Classical conditioning
Stimulus
Response
Making an association between two events by repeated exposure
Ivan pavlov's method of conditioning in which associations ar…
Anything that elicites a response
A reaction to a stimulus
Conditioning
Making an association between two events by repeated exposure
Classical conditioning
Ivan pavlov's method of conditioning in which associations ar…
59 terms
Cognitive Processes
Categorical perception
change blindness
consonantal feature
feature analysis
The perception of stimuli being in distinct categories withou…
The inability to detect a change in a scene when the change m…
a consonant like quality in a phoneme
A theory of pattern recognition that claims that we extract p…
Categorical perception
The perception of stimuli being in distinct categories withou…
change blindness
The inability to detect a change in a scene when the change m…
Cognitive Processes - Ch 3
Sensory Memory
Visual Persistence Effect
Visual Sensory Store
Iconic Memory
An extremely brief, temporary store for information coming in…
refers to the optical illusion whereby multiple discrete imag…
-Sperling's partial report technique... -When information briefl…
the visual sensory memory (SM) register pertaining to the vis…
Sensory Memory
An extremely brief, temporary store for information coming in…
Visual Persistence Effect
refers to the optical illusion whereby multiple discrete imag…
28 terms
Cognitive processes
Learning
Classical conditioning
unconditioned response
unconditioned stimulus
The modification of behavior based on specific experiences.
Learning by association
A behavior that occurs naturally due to a given stimulus (foo…
A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without prev…
Learning
The modification of behavior based on specific experiences.
Classical conditioning
Learning by association
Cognitive Processes
Functionalism
In functionalism, both _______ and ___…
Tenets of Behavioral Pardigm (1)
Tenets of Behavioral Pardigm (2)
WIlliam James... Based on Darwin's theory of evolution... "What ada…
Behavior,... Consciousness
Defined psychology as the study of observable behavior
It is unnecessary and unscientific to look at intermediate st…
Functionalism
WIlliam James... Based on Darwin's theory of evolution... "What ada…
In functionalism, both _______ and ___…
Behavior,... Consciousness
Cognitive Processes
information processing model
automaticity
metacognition
short term memory
a set of theoretical perspectives that address how human bein…
an increase in processing speed; the ability to process infor…
cognition about cognition, or "thinking about thinking"
limited-capacity memory system in which information is usuall…
information processing model
a set of theoretical perspectives that address how human bein…
automaticity
an increase in processing speed; the ability to process infor…
15 terms
Cognitive Processes
Cognitive Process
Cognition
6 Domains of Cognitive Psychology
5 Domains of Cognitive Science
Higher mental processes, such as perception, memory, language…
Processes of knowing, - the study of mental life. It includes…
human intelligence, language, thinking and problem solving, m…
Intersection of Philosophy, Neurosciences, linguistics, Cogni…
Cognitive Process
Higher mental processes, such as perception, memory, language…
Cognition
Processes of knowing, - the study of mental life. It includes…
16 terms
Cognitive processes
Conditioning
Classical conditioning
Stimulus
Response
Making an association between two events by repeated exposure
Ivan Pavlov's method of conditioning in which associations ar…
Anything that elicits a response
A reaction to a stimulus
Conditioning
Making an association between two events by repeated exposure
Classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov's method of conditioning in which associations ar…
Cognitive Processes - Chapter 5
H.M.
K.C.
Basic 3 Aspects to Memory
Modal Model of Memory
Henry Mullison had severe epilepsy, making it difficult to fu…
Kent Cochrane: Highlights different parts of our memory syste…
Encoding, Storage & Retrieval
Sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory.... Informat…
H.M.
Henry Mullison had severe epilepsy, making it difficult to fu…
K.C.
Kent Cochrane: Highlights different parts of our memory syste…
28 terms
Cognitive Processes
cognition
how is info coded?
analog/sensory
propositional/symbolic
mental content and processes... -learning and memory... -representa…
-analog/sensory... -propositional/symbolic... -in both types, possi…
corresponds to features of the stimulus ... (ex: Kosslyn's maps-…
non-sensory but meaningful... -usually verbal concepts and knowl…
cognition
mental content and processes... -learning and memory... -representa…
how is info coded?
-analog/sensory... -propositional/symbolic... -in both types, possi…
Cognitive Processes
Johnson-Laird and Byrne
Formal rules
Content-specific rules
Mental models
• People are rational in principle but fallible in practice... •…
Psychologically implausible because people are affected by th…
Ignores the fact that people are able to make valid deduction…
A structure that stands for something in the world which is u…
Johnson-Laird and Byrne
• People are rational in principle but fallible in practice... •…
Formal rules
Psychologically implausible because people are affected by th…
Cognitive Processes
Landy & Farr (1980)
Ilgen et al. (1993)
Heslin et al. (2005)
Anseel et al. (2009)
Perfect rating scales < understanding cog. biases... Perf. ratin…
Rater expectations/purpose affect ratings... Halo (correlation a…
Incrimentalist sup.'s recognize improvements & drops in perf.…
Reflection intervention + FB improved task perf. compared to…
Landy & Farr (1980)
Perfect rating scales < understanding cog. biases... Perf. ratin…
Ilgen et al. (1993)
Rater expectations/purpose affect ratings... Halo (correlation a…
Cognitive Processes
Outline principles that define the cog…
Explain how principles that define the…
Discuss how and why particular researc…
Discuss ethical considerations related…
1. Mental representations and processes guide our behavior.... 2…
(1. Mental representations and processes got our behavior.)…
STUDY: Loftus and Palmer - automobile reconstructive (1974)
STUDY: Curtis "genie" (1981)
Outline principles that define the cog…
1. Mental representations and processes guide our behavior.... 2…
Explain how principles that define the…
(1. Mental representations and processes got our behavior.)…
Cognitive Processes
cognitive science
bias
functionalism
functionalism is the next step outcome…
oldest form of psychology other than abnormal
better safe than sorry
all psychologists are functionalists
natural selection
cognitive science
oldest form of psychology other than abnormal
bias
better safe than sorry
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