Study sets matching "congestive heart failure"

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Study sets matching "congestive heart failure"

142 terms
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
What is CHF?
What is the primary cause of CHF
What is systolic heart failure
What is the primary cause of heart fai…
is the pathophysiologic state in which the heart is *unable t…
an impairment of the heart's ability to fill or empty the lef…
Contractile dysfunction... Left ventricular contractile dysfunc…
systolic heart failure
What is CHF?
is the pathophysiologic state in which the heart is *unable t…
What is the primary cause of CHF
an impairment of the heart's ability to fill or empty the lef…
31 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
What are the 2 types of Failure?
What are the 2 types of Dysfunctions?
what are the 2 main clinical findings…
How do we classify chronic heart failu…
What are the 2 types of Failure?
What are the 2 types of Dysfunctions?
Congestive Heart Failure
CHF
What's CHF?
What happens when ❤️ is too weak to fx?
Acute CHF =
Congestive Heart Failure
❤️ is too weak to fx properly or has failed to fx
Tissue nutrition and waste clearance suffers... O2 exchange is i…
Heart attack... Pulmonary embolism... Acute kidney failure
CHF
Congestive Heart Failure
What's CHF?
❤️ is too weak to fx properly or has failed to fx
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
What is CHF?
What is the primary cause of CHF
What is systolic heart failure
What is the primary cause of heart fai…
is the pathophysiologic state in which the heart is *unable t…
an impairment of the heart's ability to fill or empty the lef…
Contractile dysfunction... Left ventricular contractile dysfunc…
systolic heart failure
What is CHF?
is the pathophysiologic state in which the heart is *unable t…
What is the primary cause of CHF
an impairment of the heart's ability to fill or empty the lef…
Heart: Congestive Heart Failure
Nitrostat... (angina)
Lanoxin... (a fib)
Lasix ... (Edema)
Microzide... (Edema)
- Nitroglycerin... - Cardiovascular Agent... - .03 - 0.1 mg
- Digoxin... - Cardiovascular agent... - 0.125 - .250 mcg
- Furosemide... - Loop Diuretics... - 20 - 80 mg
- Hydrochlorothiazide HCTZ... - Thiozide & related diuretics... - 1…
Nitrostat... (angina)
- Nitroglycerin... - Cardiovascular Agent... - .03 - 0.1 mg
Lanoxin... (a fib)
- Digoxin... - Cardiovascular agent... - 0.125 - .250 mcg
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
congestive heart failure
left ventricle heart failure
right ventricle heart failure
autonomic nervous system, chemicals (h…
heart fails to pump enough blood to rest of body; causes incl…
blood backs up in lungs causing pulmonary edema, fluid accumu…
blood backs up in systemic veins & kidneys cause an increase…
3 factors that contribute to regulation of heart rate
congestive heart failure
heart fails to pump enough blood to rest of body; causes incl…
left ventricle heart failure
blood backs up in lungs causing pulmonary edema, fluid accumu…
14 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
Congestive Heart Failure
Left-sided failure and Right-sided hea…
History
Assessment
The heart is unable to pump enough blood
Left-Sided Heart Failure... 1. Pulmonary... 2. S&S: Activity intole…
a. Patient has atherosclerosis, hypertension, MI, cardiac con…
a. Heart enlargement due to hypertrophy, dilatation
Congestive Heart Failure
The heart is unable to pump enough blood
Left-sided failure and Right-sided hea…
Left-Sided Heart Failure... 1. Pulmonary... 2. S&S: Activity intole…
10 terms
Congestive Heart Failure Medications
Furosemide
Lisinopril
DopamineDobutamine
Dobutamine
Diuretics ... -(loop diuretic), thiazide diuretics... • Effects... o I…
ACE Inhibitors... • Mechanism ... o Inhibits angiotensin II and bra…
Beta Adrenergic Agonists... • B1 receptors in the heart affect H…
Beta Adrenergic Agonists... • B1 receptors in the heart affect H…
Furosemide
Diuretics ... -(loop diuretic), thiazide diuretics... • Effects... o I…
Lisinopril
ACE Inhibitors... • Mechanism ... o Inhibits angiotensin II and bra…
18 terms
congestive heart failure
class i
class ii
class iii
class iv
no symptoms and no limitations in ordinary physical activity
mild symptoms and slight limitation during ordinary activity
marked limitations activities due to symptoms, even during le…
severe limitations. experience symptoms even while at rest. m…
class i
no symptoms and no limitations in ordinary physical activity
class ii
mild symptoms and slight limitation during ordinary activity
Congestive heart failure
Pro-BNP is
SOB at rest
Weight gain
Edema
...
...
...
...
Pro-BNP is
...
SOB at rest
...
39 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
Types of heart Failure
Cardiac terminology... Preload... Afterload…
Cardiac output equation
Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (…
Low output (LV dysfunction)... Systolic (abnormal pump)... Diasto…
preload=volume... afterload=pressure... contractility=contractility…
CO=SV x HR
lower Cardiac output>lower renal perfusion>angiotensin induce…
Types of heart Failure
Low output (LV dysfunction)... Systolic (abnormal pump)... Diasto…
Cardiac terminology... Preload... Afterload…
preload=volume... afterload=pressure... contractility=contractility…
31 terms
Congestive heart failure:
Congestive heart failure:... contractility
Classification of severity-
Treatment options:
Congestive heart failure:... • inadequate contractility so that…
Classification of severity---I - no limitation of physical ac…
Treatment options: Diuretics---Loop diuretics, Thiazides, Spi…
Congestive heart failure:... contractility
Congestive heart failure:... • inadequate contractility so that…
Classification of severity-
Classification of severity---I - no limitation of physical ac…
36 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
What is Heart failure?
Compensating Mech. for increased deman…
Frank Starling Mech
Myocardial structural changes
Mech. failure of the heart to maintain systemic perfusion com…
Frank-Starling Mech.... Myocardial structural changes... Activation…
Increased preload of dilation (increased cross-bridges w/in t…
Augments muscle mass (hypertrophy) w/ or w/o dilation... -The co…
What is Heart failure?
Mech. failure of the heart to maintain systemic perfusion com…
Compensating Mech. for increased deman…
Frank-Starling Mech.... Myocardial structural changes... Activation…
6 terms
Congestive Heart Failure (III)
Cardiac Output
CHF Treatment
Cardiac Output
CHF Treatment
CO = HR x SV
BiPAP... Lasix 80 mg... Enalaprilat 0.625-1.25 mg q6... NTG 0.4 mg SL…
CO = HR x SV
BiPAP... Lasix 80 mg... Enalaprilat 0.625-1.25 mg q6... NTG 0.4 mg SL…
Cardiac Output
CO = HR x SV
CHF Treatment
BiPAP... Lasix 80 mg... Enalaprilat 0.625-1.25 mg q6... NTG 0.4 mg SL…
22 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
Underlying causes of CHF
Various forms of heart failure
Clinical manifestations of HF
Drug strategies for acute CHF Sx manag…
...
...
...
...
Underlying causes of CHF
...
Various forms of heart failure
...
5 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
Causes of Left sided Heart Failure
Causes of Right sided Heart Failure
Clinical Features of Left Sided Heart…
Treatment of Left Sided Heart Failure
Ischemia... Hypertension... Dilated Cardiomyopathy: dilation of a…
mainly due to left sided heart failure... also due to:... - Left…
leads to decreased forward perfusion and pulmonary congestion…
ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme)... These prevent…
Causes of Left sided Heart Failure
Ischemia... Hypertension... Dilated Cardiomyopathy: dilation of a…
Causes of Right sided Heart Failure
mainly due to left sided heart failure... also due to:... - Left…
Congestive Heart Failure
CHF
Left heart failure
Pulmonary edema
Complications of CHF
what happens to the heart with prolonged decreased blood supp…
Passive congestion of the lungs... due to failure of the left v…
Leads to right ventricle failure... caused by failure of the le…
lead to:... A. Pulmonary hypertension... B. Lower leg/peripheral e…
CHF
what happens to the heart with prolonged decreased blood supp…
Left heart failure
Passive congestion of the lungs... due to failure of the left v…
25 terms
Pharmacology: Congestive Heart Failure
Acute Decompensated HF
Chronic Management of HF
Warm + Dry
Warm + Wet
- + inotropes... - Vasodilators (adenosine, NO, etc.)... - Neseriti…
- diuretics... - ACE-I... - ARBs... - beta blockers... - Digoxin... - Aldost…
- normal... - oral supportive therapy
- pulm. congestion... - reduce preload
Acute Decompensated HF
- + inotropes... - Vasodilators (adenosine, NO, etc.)... - Neseriti…
Chronic Management of HF
- diuretics... - ACE-I... - ARBs... - beta blockers... - Digoxin... - Aldost…
59 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
Heart Failure is mechanical failure of…
Heart Failure: compensating mechanisms…
Frank-Starling Mechanism: increased pr…
Myocardial Structural Changes: augment…
systemic perfusion commensurate
1. Frank-Starling Mechanism... 2. Myocardial Structural Changes…
contractility ... **Can only compensate for so long -fibers bec…
dilatation
Heart Failure is mechanical failure of…
systemic perfusion commensurate
Heart Failure: compensating mechanisms…
1. Frank-Starling Mechanism... 2. Myocardial Structural Changes…
3962 Congestive Heart Failure
The nurse has attended morning report…
You are an emergency-department nurse…
You have a patient diagnosed with syst…
The cardiac monitor alarm alerts the c…
A. The patient admitted following a myocardial infarction (MI…
1. No one is to be touching the patient at the time shock is…
4. Beta-blockers... Several medications are routinely prescribe…
D. Asystole... Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart ceases to p…
The nurse has attended morning report…
A. The patient admitted following a myocardial infarction (MI…
You are an emergency-department nurse…
1. No one is to be touching the patient at the time shock is…
CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE
CHF definition
Pathophysiology of HF
Causes of CHF
Left-sided HF
Heart can't pump enough blood to provide what the body demand…
MI, HTN, atherosclerosis, infections, heart valve issues, CM,…
Left ventricle pumping is impaired and blood is backed up int…
CHF definition
Heart can't pump enough blood to provide what the body demand…
Pathophysiology of HF
31 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
Cardiogenic shock
Hypovolemic shock
Distributive Shock
Obstructive Shock
- pump stops... - ionotropic --> strength gone... - Chronotropic --…
- not enough fluid ... - hemmorahagic... - dehydration
- Venous reservoir has expanded volume ... - sepsis... - anaphylact…
- no flow... - valvular... - Pulm embolism... - Pulm HTN... - Tamponade
Cardiogenic shock
- pump stops... - ionotropic --> strength gone... - Chronotropic --…
Hypovolemic shock
- not enough fluid ... - hemmorahagic... - dehydration
95 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
The heart should cover no more than __…
Heart failure
Deaths attributable to disease of the…
Projected US prevalence of HF from 201…
1/3... ➢ Note that in the picture, it is covering well over half
❖ One of very few cardiovascular diseases with increasing pre…
❖ Cardiovascular deaths in thousands... ❖ In the last 30 years,…
Projects for the next 20 years, all increasing
The heart should cover no more than __…
1/3... ➢ Note that in the picture, it is covering well over half
Heart failure
❖ One of very few cardiovascular diseases with increasing pre…
77 terms
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
CHF
CHF demographic
CHF disparities
CHF_ etiology
a clinical syndrome resulting from a cardiac disease which co…
predominately a disease of aging... -most common cause of hospit…
AA are disproportionally affected by and hospitalized more th…
-injury to or disruption of heart structure or fx... -active REM…
CHF
a clinical syndrome resulting from a cardiac disease which co…
CHF demographic
predominately a disease of aging... -most common cause of hospit…
24 terms
Congestive heart failure-Aben
Routine views in cardiac radiography {…
What is normal cardiac size {1293}
What is caution when measuring cardiac…
LA and RV enlargement with signs of pu…
Frontal (AP or PA), lateral
50% or less of the trans-thoracic diameter
Poor inspiration false increase in cardiac size
Mitral valve stenosis
Routine views in cardiac radiography {…
Frontal (AP or PA), lateral
What is normal cardiac size {1293}
50% or less of the trans-thoracic diameter
Congestive Heart Failure
The client is admitted to the telemetr…
The nurse is developing a nursing care…
The nurse is developing a discharge-te…
The nurse enters the room of the clien…
1. Apical pulse rate of 110 and 4+ pitting edema of feet.
2. Have an audible S1 and S2 with no S3 heard by end of shift.
2. Teach client how to count the radial pulse when taking dig…
4. Assist the client to a sitting position.
The client is admitted to the telemetr…
1. Apical pulse rate of 110 and 4+ pitting edema of feet.
The nurse is developing a nursing care…
2. Have an audible S1 and S2 with no S3 heard by end of shift.
32 terms
6.) Congestive Heart Failure
Sytolic failure
Diastolic failure
AHA Classification of Heart Failure
NYHA Classification of Heart Failure
Acute (MI)... Reduced contractility, ejection fraction
Abnormal ventricular filling... Stiffening, loss of adequate rel…
Stage... A: high risk for developing HF (HTN, DM, CAD, family hx…
Class... I: no sx with physical activity... II: somewhat limited by…
Sytolic failure
Acute (MI)... Reduced contractility, ejection fraction
Diastolic failure
Abnormal ventricular filling... Stiffening, loss of adequate rel…
40 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
Furosemide
Bumetanide
Torsemide
Ethacrynic Acid
- Loop Diuretic... - Lasix (R)... - Admin: Usually PO, can be used…
- Loop Diuretic... - Admin: Usually PO, can be used IV... - MOA: Re…
- Loop Diuretic... - Admin: Usually PO, can be used IV... - MOA: Re…
- Loop Diuretic... - Admin: Usually PO, can be used IV... - MOA: Re…
Furosemide
- Loop Diuretic... - Lasix (R)... - Admin: Usually PO, can be used…
Bumetanide
- Loop Diuretic... - Admin: Usually PO, can be used IV... - MOA: Re…
37 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
What is the definition of HF?
What are the risk factors for HF?
What are precipitating causes of HF?
What are the different forms of HF?
A clinical syndrome in which an abnormality of cardiac struct…
CAD... HTN... previous MI... Cardiac arrhythmias... DM... Some diabetic medi…
Infection... Arrhythmias... Physical, Dietary, Fluid, Environmental…
1. Systolic HF... 2. Diastolic HF... 3. Low-output HF... 4. High-outpu…
What is the definition of HF?
A clinical syndrome in which an abnormality of cardiac struct…
What are the risk factors for HF?
CAD... HTN... previous MI... Cardiac arrhythmias... DM... Some diabetic medi…
12 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
The client is admitted to the telemetr…
The nurse is developing a nursing care…
The nurse is developing a discharge-te…
The nurse enters the room of the clien…
1. Apical pulse rate of 110 and 4+ pitting edema of feet.
2. Have an audible S1 and S2 with no S3 heard by end of shift.
2. Teach client how to count the radial pulse when taking dig…
4. Assist the client to a sitting position.
The client is admitted to the telemetr…
1. Apical pulse rate of 110 and 4+ pitting edema of feet.
The nurse is developing a nursing care…
2. Have an audible S1 and S2 with no S3 heard by end of shift.
Congestive heart failure
what is the big deal about managing CH…
is CHF a disease or syndrome
main goal in person who has CHF (syndr…
what is used to diagnose CHF
RE-Hospitalization rates in first 30 days reach 20%
syndrome --> heart failure is a final common pathway
control the causes/ maximize treatment of underlying conditio…
primarily a clinical diagnosis ... labs-> BNP and echocardiogram…
what is the big deal about managing CH…
RE-Hospitalization rates in first 30 days reach 20%
is CHF a disease or syndrome
syndrome --> heart failure is a final common pathway
46 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
Which medications used for HF decrease…
HF indication for ACEI
HF indication for ARB
ACEI/ARB activity in HF
ACEI/ARB, Beta blockers, Aldosterone antagonists
First line for all patients
First line; typically used as alternative to ACEI
Prolongs life; decreases peripheral resistance, salt and wate…
Which medications used for HF decrease…
ACEI/ARB, Beta blockers, Aldosterone antagonists
HF indication for ACEI
First line for all patients
68 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
Inability of the heart to pump blood a…
Neural and Humoral Input Increase?
Catecholamines and autonomic input inc…
What chamber of the heart is almost al…
Heart Failure
Heart Rate
Ventricle Contractility
LV
Inability of the heart to pump blood a…
Heart Failure
Neural and Humoral Input Increase?
Heart Rate
congestive heart failure
Central problems leading to CHF
impact of decreased stroke volume on l…
pulmonary venous hypertension caused by?
natural response of the pulmonary arte…
decreased stroke volume due to Depression of myocardial contr…
increased left ventricular pressure during diastole
increased left ventricular pressure during diastole that is t…
vasoconstriction; this increases the vascular resistance and…
Central problems leading to CHF
decreased stroke volume due to Depression of myocardial contr…
impact of decreased stroke volume on l…
increased left ventricular pressure during diastole
Congestive Heart Failure
CHF
What's CHF?
What happens when ❤️ is too weak to fx?
Acute CHF =
Congestive Heart Failure
❤️ is too weak to fx properly or has failed to fx
Tissue nutrition and waste clearance suffers... O2 exchange is i…
Heart attack... Pulmonary embolism... Acute kidney failure
CHF
Congestive Heart Failure
What's CHF?
❤️ is too weak to fx properly or has failed to fx
16 terms
Congestive Heart Failure (Lab)
left ventricle
Congestive Heart Failure
left ventricle force
reduced
Heart failure occurs when the (what structure?) is dilated, b…
CHF stands for what?
CHF is characterized by loss of (what?), which causes reduced…
CHF is characterized by loss of left ventricle force, which c…
left ventricle
Heart failure occurs when the (what structure?) is dilated, b…
Congestive Heart Failure
CHF stands for what?
105 terms
Congestive Heart Failure Summary
A 65-year old female presents complain…
Which of the following is most likely…
Which type of heart failure will pulmo…
What is the definition of heart failure?
Decompensated right ventricle heart failure is most likely, l…
Myocardial infarction, none of the other options will not imm…
Right heart failure.
Heart failure is the inability of the heart to pump blood for…
A 65-year old female presents complain…
Decompensated right ventricle heart failure is most likely, l…
Which of the following is most likely…
Myocardial infarction, none of the other options will not imm…
32 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
Which pathologic heart sound is classi…
Left Congestive Heart Failure
Systolic Heart Failure
Diastolic Heart Failure
Systolic: S3 "Kentucky" gallop... Diastolic: S4 "Tennessee" gallop
*... *... *... *... *... *... *... *... *
*... *... *... *... *Decreased Ejection Fraction... *Increased End Diastolic…
*Due to decreased ventricular compliance (increased stiffness…
Which pathologic heart sound is classi…
Systolic: S3 "Kentucky" gallop... Diastolic: S4 "Tennessee" gallop
Left Congestive Heart Failure
*... *... *... *... *... *... *... *... *
46 terms
Path- Congestive heart failure
congestive heart failure definition
what is systolic failure
what is diastolic failure
heart failure results from
heart is no longer effective as a pump ... which causes problems…
can't contract properly
can't relax to let the proper filling happen
any structural or functional abnormality that impairs that ab…
congestive heart failure definition
heart is no longer effective as a pump ... which causes problems…
what is systolic failure
can't contract properly
142 terms
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
What is CHF?
What is the primary cause of CHF
What is systolic heart failure
What is the primary cause of heart fai…
is the pathophysiologic state in which the heart is *unable t…
an impairment of the heart's ability to fill or empty the lef…
Contractile dysfunction... Left ventricular contractile dysfunc…
systolic heart failure
What is CHF?
is the pathophysiologic state in which the heart is *unable t…
What is the primary cause of CHF
an impairment of the heart's ability to fill or empty the lef…
56 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
1. Stage A.... 2. Stage D.... 3. Stage C.... 4.…
Stage C - structural heart disease wit…
1. Class III.... 2. Class II.
1. Class I.... 2. Class IV.
According to the AHA, what category/stage of HF do the follow…
During which stage do the majority of patients start pharmaco…
According to the NYHA heart failure symptom classification sy…
According to the NYHA heart failure symptom classification sy…
1. Stage A.... 2. Stage D.... 3. Stage C.... 4.…
According to the AHA, what category/stage of HF do the follow…
Stage C - structural heart disease wit…
During which stage do the majority of patients start pharmaco…
20 terms
Congestive heart failure
What kind of history do you want to ob…
Where the signs and symptoms of a pati…
What is a differential diagnosis of CHF?
What is the EMT treatment for a patien…
Medical Supportive Care Guidelines... o Continuous SpO2, EtCO2,…
What kind of history do you want to ob…
Where the signs and symptoms of a pati…
Congestive Heart Failure
occurs as a result of impaired pumping…
What does CHF result from?
Edema
one cause of CHF where the contraction…
Congestive Heart Failure
Inadequate or decreased cardiac output which causes an increa…
abnormal accumulation of fluid in intercellular spaces of the…
Ventricular fibrillation
occurs as a result of impaired pumping…
Congestive Heart Failure
What does CHF result from?
Inadequate or decreased cardiac output which causes an increa…
28 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
Define forward failure and backward fa…
Forward and backward failure tend to e…
T/F: Most people with longstanding hyp…
*SOB, orthopnea, and paroxysmal noctur…
Backward failure: ability to meet the body's demands, at the…
Systolic dysfunction: decreased stroke volume, decreased fo…
TRUE
HEART FAILURE. Elevated PCW pressure leads to fluid in the…
Define forward failure and backward fa…
Backward failure: ability to meet the body's demands, at the…
Forward and backward failure tend to e…
Systolic dysfunction: decreased stroke volume, decreased fo…
Congestive Heart Failure
what is heart failure defined as?
what is the function of angiotensin II?
what is the function of renin?
what is the function of ACE?
the inability of the heart to pump blood forward at sufficien…
vasoconstrict
to cleave angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I
to convert angiotensin I to II
what is heart failure defined as?
the inability of the heart to pump blood forward at sufficien…
what is the function of angiotensin II?
vasoconstrict
13 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
Congestive Heart Failure
Left sided congestive heart failure ca…
Hypertension may lead to CHF by?
What is a significant symptom of CHF?
Can be either right or left sided. ... CHF defines a problem pum…
1. Ischemia --> damage myocardium and lead to damaged ineffic…
HTN can leas to concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. The…
Pulmonary congestion- because the heart cannot pump blood for…
Congestive Heart Failure
Can be either right or left sided. ... CHF defines a problem pum…
Left sided congestive heart failure ca…
1. Ischemia --> damage myocardium and lead to damaged ineffic…
40 Congestive Heart Failure
heart being unable to meet metabolic d…
T/F heart failure continues to grow in…
only cardiac disease whose incidences…
number one common diagnosis to medicar…
heart failure
T
CHF
HF
heart being unable to meet metabolic d…
heart failure
T/F heart failure continues to grow in…
T
50 terms
Congestive Heart Failure Drugs
Digitalis glycosides
Diuretics
Aldosterone Antagonists (K sparing diu…
Direct Arterial Vasodilators
digoxin
furosemide... metolazone
Spironolactone... Eplerenone
Hydralazine
Digitalis glycosides
digoxin
Diuretics
furosemide... metolazone
45 terms
Congestive Heart Failure
What is Congestive Heart Failure?
What is the 2 most important actions o…
How does Digoxin increase myocardial c…
What is the result of the positive ino…
The Heart is not pumping adequately resulting in a decreased…
Primary: Increase Myocardial Contraction.... &... Decrease Heart…
Digoxin inhibits the Na/K ATPase Pump. This causes an incre…
1. immediate increase in Cardiac Output.... 2. Eventually so…
What is Congestive Heart Failure?
The Heart is not pumping adequately resulting in a decreased…
What is the 2 most important actions o…
Primary: Increase Myocardial Contraction.... &... Decrease Heart…
50 terms
Congestive Heart Failure: Gant
What is heart failure?
What are the 3 primary symptoms of HF?
What causes Low output HF?
What causes high output HF?
A state in which the heart is unable to pump blood at a rate…
Fatigue, Dyspnea, and Edema
MI, Hemochromatosis, drugs.
Hyperthyroidism, arteriovenous fistulae, paget's disease of t…
What is heart failure?
A state in which the heart is unable to pump blood at a rate…
What are the 3 primary symptoms of HF?
Fatigue, Dyspnea, and Edema
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