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Study sets matching "cortex"

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Study sets matching "cortex"

44 terms
Cortex
what is the cerebral cortex?
what functions does the cortex serve?
what do association areas of the corte…
Neocortex
a sheet of neural tissue that is the outermost layer of the c…
key roles in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought…
meaningful perceptual experience of the world
newer cortex. the visible cerebrum. has 6 layers. most of the…
what is the cerebral cortex?
a sheet of neural tissue that is the outermost layer of the c…
what functions does the cortex serve?
key roles in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought…
43 terms
Cortex
neocortex and heterogenetic cortex
paleocortex
archicortex
archicortex
what's the name of the two structures the cortex can be divid…
what cortex apart of the heterogenetic cortex and is associat…
what cortex apart of the heterogenetic cortex and is associat…
what part of heterogenetic cortex is thought to be oldest par…
neocortex and heterogenetic cortex
what's the name of the two structures the cortex can be divid…
paleocortex
what cortex apart of the heterogenetic cortex and is associat…
85 terms
Cortex
3 Types of Fiber Tracts of cerebral He…
Commissural fibers: function, structures
Association fibers: function, structures
Corpus Callosum: 4 parts & their funct…
1. Commissural fibers... 2. Association fibers ... 3. Projection fi…
Connect two hemispheres.... 1. Corpus callosum ... 2. Anterior comm…
Connections within the same hemisphere. (Short connect adjace…
1. Genu... 2. Rostrum... (Rostrum & Genu connect anterior part of f…
3 Types of Fiber Tracts of cerebral He…
1. Commissural fibers... 2. Association fibers ... 3. Projection fi…
Commissural fibers: function, structures
Connect two hemispheres.... 1. Corpus callosum ... 2. Anterior comm…
29 terms
Cortex
Cerebral Cortex
Neocortex
Allocortex
Juxtallocortex or Periallocortex
sheet of neurons, ≈ 2.5 sq feet, creates surface of cerebral…
6 layered cortex ... 95% of cerebral cortex in humans ... Granular…
3 Layered cortex ... Archicortex (hippocampus) ... Paleocortex (Olf…
4 - 5 layers... Entorhinal Cortex... Parahippocampal Gyrus... Cingulat…
Cerebral Cortex
sheet of neurons, ≈ 2.5 sq feet, creates surface of cerebral…
Neocortex
6 layered cortex ... 95% of cerebral cortex in humans ... Granular…
26 terms
Cortex
Neocortex
Allocortex
Juxtallocortex or Periallocortex (4-5…
Subcortical
6 layered cortex... 95% of cerebral cortex in humans
3 layered cortex... Archicortex (hippocampus)... Paleocortex (olfac…
Entorhinal cortex... Parahippocampal gyrus... Cingulate cortex... Orbi…
Amygldala... Basal Forebrain
Neocortex
6 layered cortex... 95% of cerebral cortex in humans
Allocortex
3 layered cortex... Archicortex (hippocampus)... Paleocortex (olfac…
39 terms
Cortex
Neocortex
Allocortex
Juxtallocortex or periallocortex
Subcortical
6 layered cortex... 95% of cerebral cortex in humans
3 layered... Archicortex (hippocampus)... Paleocortex (olfactory)
4-5 layers... Entohinal cortex... Parahippocampal gyrus... Cingulate c…
Amygdala ... Basal forebrain
Neocortex
6 layered cortex... 95% of cerebral cortex in humans
Allocortex
3 layered... Archicortex (hippocampus)... Paleocortex (olfactory)
38 terms
Cortex
Allocortex
Paleocortex
Archicortex
Neocortex
"old" subdivided into paleo and archi... 3 layers (axons, single…
Allocortex... olfaction and pyriform cortex (olfactory ctx)
Allocortex... hippocampus and amygdala
Isocortex = "New"... 6 layers (thus very developed)
Allocortex
"old" subdivided into paleo and archi... 3 layers (axons, single…
Paleocortex
Allocortex... olfaction and pyriform cortex (olfactory ctx)
47 terms
Cortex
Douglas et al. 1989
Fox 2008
Yoshimura & Callaway 2005
*Adesnik & Scanziani 2010
Canonical circuit suggestion... o very influential model... o based…
o Suggestion about somatosensory barrel cortex... o Suggestion t…
o Applied glutamate uncaging in a complicated experiment (how…
Mouse somatosensory cortex... Use forced gamma oscillations with…
Douglas et al. 1989
Canonical circuit suggestion... o very influential model... o based…
Fox 2008
o Suggestion about somatosensory barrel cortex... o Suggestion t…
40 terms
Cortex
heterogenetic cortex
archicortex
supramarginal gyrus
superior parietal module
The archicortex and paleocortex are referred to collectively…
hippocampal formation
heterogenetic cortex
The archicortex and paleocortex are referred to collectively…
archicortex
hippocampal formation
93 terms
Cortex
allocortex
neocortex
hippocampus, piriform cortex, cerebell…
angular gyrus
less than six layers
90%, six layers of cells
examples allocortex
allocortex
less than six layers
neocortex
90%, six layers of cells
36 terms
Cortex
Learning Objectives
What is the Cortex?
Architecture of Cortex
The six layers have different inputs &…
Learning Objectives
What is the Cortex?
58 terms
Cortex
Number of Neurons, Interconecting axon…
How many layers are in the NeoCortex
What are the Layers of the NeoCortex
Name the specialized Cells in layer 5
100 billion Neurons, 100,00km of axons, and 100 trillion syna…
6 layers
Molecular... External Granular... External pyramidal... internal Granu…
Betz Cells, Transmit Information to lower motor neurons for o…
Number of Neurons, Interconecting axon…
100 billion Neurons, 100,00km of axons, and 100 trillion syna…
How many layers are in the NeoCortex
6 layers
44 terms
cortex
Describe the histological arrangement…
Understand the architecture of the cer…
neocortex
allocortex
The cerebral cortex is a sheet of neurons, about 2.5 square f…
cerebral cortex is not static in its architecture across regi…
6 layered cortex;... 95% of cerebral cortex in humans;... brodmann'…
3 layered cortex;... archicortex ( hippocampus);... paleocortex (ol…
Describe the histological arrangement…
The cerebral cortex is a sheet of neurons, about 2.5 square f…
Understand the architecture of the cer…
cerebral cortex is not static in its architecture across regi…
35 terms
Cortex
Each cortical neuron has its own recep…
Cell types in cortex
Pyramidal neurons - what do they do, w…
Stellate neurons - what do they do, wh…
Way smaller in cortex because of convergence, e.g. 1 neuron r…
Pyramidal neurons... Stellate neurons
Often: projection neurons, project to other cortex area or ev…
Often: interneurons... Elaborate dendritic... More local axons, ser…
Each cortical neuron has its own recep…
Way smaller in cortex because of convergence, e.g. 1 neuron r…
Cell types in cortex
Pyramidal neurons... Stellate neurons
67 terms
Cortex
True/False... The Cortex static in archit…
What are the 6 layers of the cortex?
Which layer/s of the cortex takes inpu…
Which layer/s of the cortex has output…
False
1. Molecular... 2. External Granular... 3. External Pyramidal... 4. In…
IV - Internal Granular
VI - Polymorphous
True/False... The Cortex static in archit…
False
What are the 6 layers of the cortex?
1. Molecular... 2. External Granular... 3. External Pyramidal... 4. In…
12 terms
cortex
what is a cortical column and what is…
what are the functional divisions of t…
what is topographic organization
what hemispheres dominate during certa…
cortical columns vary in different regions of teh cortex and…
homunculus (specific cortical columns are mapped to specific…
...
what is a cortical column and what is…
cortical columns vary in different regions of teh cortex and…
what are the functional divisions of t…
14 terms
The Cortex
Cortex
Medial
Lateral
Dorsal
-Frontal... -Parietal... -Temporal ... -Occipital Lobes
structures toward the brains midline (middle)
structures toward the sides (outside)
Structures atop the brain
Cortex
-Frontal... -Parietal... -Temporal ... -Occipital Lobes
Medial
structures toward the brains midline (middle)
74 terms
The Cortex
Gyri
Sulci
Fissure
Surface area
These are the convolution or bump - protruding rounded surfac…
These are the valley between gyri or enfolded regions that ap…
This is a very deep sulcus.
Sulci and gyri maximize what in the brain (about 3 times)
Gyri
These are the convolution or bump - protruding rounded surfac…
Sulci
These are the valley between gyri or enfolded regions that ap…
32 terms
The cortex
The neocortex is divided into 4 lobes:
The frontal lobe is the area of the br…
The frontal lobe is the primary .....
The prefrontal section of the frontal…
- Frontal ... - Parietal... - Temporal ... - Occipital
higher cognitive functions (problem solving, labnguage & judg…
motor area
intellect, complex learning and personality
The neocortex is divided into 4 lobes:
- Frontal ... - Parietal... - Temporal ... - Occipital
The frontal lobe is the area of the br…
higher cognitive functions (problem solving, labnguage & judg…
50 terms
Cortex
Pyramidal Cells
Non-pyramidal Cells
Cortex Layers
Central Sulcus
Sends motor information ... 2, 3, 5 and 6 layers are the thickes…
Receive sensory information. ... Layer 4 is the thickest. ... Short…
6 layers ... Main layers Primary sensory cortex, association cor…
Separates the frontal from the parietal lobe
Pyramidal Cells
Sends motor information ... 2, 3, 5 and 6 layers are the thickes…
Non-pyramidal Cells
Receive sensory information. ... Layer 4 is the thickest. ... Short…
cortex
broca's area
frontal lobe
optical lobe
parietal lobe
language prcessing; associated with language impairments in a…
part of cerebral cortex; panning, solving, thinking, comprehe…
receives projections from brain; different neurons encoded di…
integrates info from different senses to build coherent pictu…
broca's area
language prcessing; associated with language impairments in a…
frontal lobe
part of cerebral cortex; panning, solving, thinking, comprehe…
12 terms
cortex
gyri
sulci
neocortex (cortical layer)
mesocortex
raised folds of cortex
narrow grooves separating gyri
outermost layer, newest, associated with sights and hearing
2nd oldest, middle layer
gyri
raised folds of cortex
sulci
narrow grooves separating gyri
8 terms
Cortex
Primary Visual Area
Visual Association Area
Primary Auditory Area
Auditory - Secondary Association Area
-Calcarine Fissure
-Occipital Lobe... -Synthesis and integration of visual informa…
-Superior Temporal gyrus... -Auditory reception
-Wernicke's Area... -Language comprehension... -Perception of music
Primary Visual Area
-Calcarine Fissure
Visual Association Area
-Occipital Lobe... -Synthesis and integration of visual informa…
30 terms
Cortex
Cortex
Gyri
Sulci
Fissure
Outer covering of cerebral hemispheres, thin layer of gray ma…
Hills of the cortex
Valleys of the cortex
Particularly large sulcus
Cortex
Outer covering of cerebral hemispheres, thin layer of gray ma…
Gyri
Hills of the cortex
8 terms
Cortex
Insula
Cingulate cortex
Corpus callosum
Primary somatosensory cortex
involved in consciousness and play a role in emotion and home…
as a part of limbic system, it is involved with emotion forma…
band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain…
main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch; contains…
Insula
involved in consciousness and play a role in emotion and home…
Cingulate cortex
as a part of limbic system, it is involved with emotion forma…
104 terms
Cortex
Corpus callosotomy: Benefits
Cingulotomy: Benefits
How many layers in the Neo-, Archi- an…
Stellate Cells
relieves seizures
pain relief
1) 6... 2) 3... 3) 3-5
1) GABA interneurons in Layer 4... 2) project to Layer 1-4 dendr…
Corpus callosotomy: Benefits
relieves seizures
Cingulotomy: Benefits
pain relief
30 terms
Cortex
Pyramidal cells
Pyramidal cells
Granule cells
Smooth stellate (starshape), spiny ste…
75-85% in cortex, soma is 10 to 15 micrometer, glatamatergic
also found in hippocampus and amygdala
also found in hippocampus and cerebellum, soma is smaller tha…
Granule cells
Pyramidal cells
75-85% in cortex, soma is 10 to 15 micrometer, glatamatergic
Pyramidal cells
also found in hippocampus and amygdala
35 terms
Cortex
pyramidal neurons
Agranular Layers
Granular Layer
Non-pyramidal neurons
predominant cell of neocortex- layers II,III,V, VI... predominan…
No Layer 4... Primary Motor (4) and Premotor Cortex (6)
Prominent Layer 4... Somatosensory Cortex... Auditory Cortex... Visual…
interneurons... most are GABAergic
pyramidal neurons
predominant cell of neocortex- layers II,III,V, VI... predominan…
Agranular Layers
No Layer 4... Primary Motor (4) and Premotor Cortex (6)
58 terms
Cortex
Allocortex
Neocortex
Subcortical structures
Inferior Parietal Lobule
less than 6 layers... hippocampus... piriform cortex ... cerebellar co…
6 layers or more
regions without distinct cell cortical layers... Diencephalon... Ba…
Integrative language (L hemisphere) ... Integrative spatial atte…
Allocortex
less than 6 layers... hippocampus... piriform cortex ... cerebellar co…
Neocortex
6 layers or more
34 terms
Cortex
frontal lobe location and function
prefrontal cortex
premotor cortex
primary motor cortex
anterior to central sulcus... motor
involved in social judgement, inhibiting impulsive thoughts,…
planning movement; elaboration of the associated primary moto…
execution of movements... areas of motor cortex correspond geog…
frontal lobe location and function
anterior to central sulcus... motor
prefrontal cortex
involved in social judgement, inhibiting impulsive thoughts,…
31 terms
Cortex
Architecture of Cortex
Layers 1-3
Layer 4
Layer 5
Neocortex, Allocortex, Juxtallocortex and Subcortical.
Receives inputs from cortex and outputs to other areas of cor…
Receives inputs from the thalamus
Outputs to the striatum, brainstem, and spinal cord.
Architecture of Cortex
Neocortex, Allocortex, Juxtallocortex and Subcortical.
Layers 1-3
Receives inputs from cortex and outputs to other areas of cor…
58 terms
Cortex
This region of the cortex includes hip…
This regions, which is unique to mamma…
Regions without distinct cortical laye…
The sulcus between the inferior and mi…
allocortex (<6 layers)
Neocortex
Subcortical structures
inferior frontal sulcus
This region of the cortex includes hip…
allocortex (<6 layers)
This regions, which is unique to mamma…
Neocortex
14 terms
Cortex
Cerebrum=
the 4 cortical lobes of the cortex are…
cortex=
grey matter=
cortex
frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
outer covering
cell body
Cerebrum=
cortex
the 4 cortical lobes of the cortex are…
frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
44 terms
Cortex
Association areas
Neocortex/Homogeneity
Cerebral Cortex
Allocortex/Heterogentic
Overall perception , abstract thinking, and language
6 layers
tissue that is the most outer-layer of the cerebrum... --> consi…
Paleocortex & Archicortex... 3 layer type
Association areas
Overall perception , abstract thinking, and language
Neocortex/Homogeneity
6 layers
45 terms
Cortex
Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus
Arcuate Fasciculus
Cingulum
Arcuate Fibers
Connects frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes
Connects Wernicke's and Broca's
Connects cingulate gyrus to other limbic structures
connect nearby gyri
Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus
Connects frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes
Arcuate Fasciculus
Connects Wernicke's and Broca's
76 terms
CORTEX
allocortex
neocortex
subcortical structures
white matter
less than six layers
six layers
without distinct layers
heavily myelinated axons, connect cortical regions and subcor…
allocortex
less than six layers
neocortex
six layers
19 terms
Cortex
Lobes of the brain
Fissure, Sulcus, Gyrus
White matter vs grey matter
Internal capsule
Frontal- attention, judgement, short term memory... Parietal- re…
A deep groove separating parts of the brain, A shallow grove…
mylinated nueronal axons, unmylinated cell bodies.
large white matter pathway from subcortical areas to cortex.…
Lobes of the brain
Frontal- attention, judgement, short term memory... Parietal- re…
Fissure, Sulcus, Gyrus
A deep groove separating parts of the brain, A shallow grove…
53 terms
Cortex
commissural fibers
examples of commissural fibers
corpus callosum
rostrum and genu of corpus callosum
connect left and right hemispheres
corpus callosum, anterior commissure, posterior commissure, f…
rostrum, genu, trunk, splenium
connect anterior part of frontal lobe
commissural fibers
connect left and right hemispheres
examples of commissural fibers
corpus callosum, anterior commissure, posterior commissure, f…
10 terms
Cortex
Cortex
Cerebral hemispheres
Corpus callosum
Occipital Lobe
The outer covering, visible, tightly packed neurons.
The two hemispheres the cortex is divided into. It is connect…
The hard strand of neurons connecting the hemispheres so they…
The visual cortex, helps make sense of what visually is happe…
Cortex
The outer covering, visible, tightly packed neurons.
Cerebral hemispheres
The two hemispheres the cortex is divided into. It is connect…
18 terms
Cortex
Cortex
FRONTAL LOBE
Motor Cortex & its organization
Anencephaly
-in charge of planning, thinking, reasoning, and sensory proc…
-right behind the forehead... -specialized areas for movement, a…
where the nerve impulses originate that initiate voluntary mu…
the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp…
Cortex
-in charge of planning, thinking, reasoning, and sensory proc…
FRONTAL LOBE
-right behind the forehead... -specialized areas for movement, a…
8 terms
Cortex
Cerebral Cortex
Corpus Callosum
Occipital Lobe
Parietal Lobe
The surface of the brain
Band of axon fibers connecting the two brain hemisphere
Processes information from the eyes
Somatosensory cortex, sensation of touch
Cerebral Cortex
The surface of the brain
Corpus Callosum
Band of axon fibers connecting the two brain hemisphere
34 terms
cortex
infragran layer input and output
supragran layer input and output
granular layer (between) input and out…
primary motor cortex stim
input from supragran, output to bs, sc etc
from and to other cortical layers
input from principal thalamic nuclei, output to cortex
twitch
infragran layer input and output
input from supragran, output to bs, sc etc
supragran layer input and output
from and to other cortical layers
18 terms
cortex
cells in deep layers project to _ targ…
Layer 6 cells project to _
layer 5 cells project to _ structures
cells in superficial layers project to…
subcortical
thalamus
non-thalamic
cortical
cells in deep layers project to _ targ…
subcortical
Layer 6 cells project to _
thalamus
10 terms
Cortex
Precentral Gyrus
Postcentral Gyrus
Primary Areas
Association Areas-Unimodal
primary motor cortex
primary somatosensory cortex
motor/sensory/auditory/visual
unimodal-association areas contribute to processing of a spec…
Precentral Gyrus
primary motor cortex
Postcentral Gyrus
primary somatosensory cortex
45 terms
Cortex
Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus
Arcuate Fasciculus
Cingulum
Arcuate Fibers
Connects frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes
Connects Wernicke's and Broca's
Connects cingulate gyrus to other limbic structures
connect nearby gyri
Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus
Connects frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes
Arcuate Fasciculus
Connects Wernicke's and Broca's
43 terms
Cortex
Layers of Cortex
Allocortex
Juxtallocortex or Periallocortex
Subcortical
1) Neocortex... 2) Allocortex... 3) Juxtallocortex or Periallocorte…
3 layered... Archicortex (hippocampus)... Paleocortex (olfactory)
Entorhinal cortex... Parahippocampal gyrus ... Cingulate cortex... Orb…
Amygdala... Basal Forebrain
Layers of Cortex
1) Neocortex... 2) Allocortex... 3) Juxtallocortex or Periallocorte…
Allocortex
3 layered... Archicortex (hippocampus)... Paleocortex (olfactory)
54 terms
Cortex
prefrontal cortex
lesion of ventromedial prefrontal cortex
lesion of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
Brocas area
9, 10, 11, 12, 46, 47 ... executive functions, working memory ... d…
impulsive, disinhibited behavior and poor judgement
apathetic lifeless abulic state
dominant: produce written and spoken language ... non dominant:…
prefrontal cortex
9, 10, 11, 12, 46, 47 ... executive functions, working memory ... d…
lesion of ventromedial prefrontal cortex
impulsive, disinhibited behavior and poor judgement
56 terms
Cortex
How much of the brain weight is the co…
How many neurons and synaptic connecti…
How much of the brain is buried in sulci
Neocortex
50%
25 billion neurons, 10^14 synaptic connections
2/3
newer cortex, 6 layered structure
How much of the brain weight is the co…
50%
How many neurons and synaptic connecti…
25 billion neurons, 10^14 synaptic connections
84 terms
Cortex
The __________________ is less than si…
The __________________ is 6 layers and…
The ___________________ are regions wi…
___________________ consists of heavil…
Allocortex ('old bark')
Neocortex ('new bark')... Neocortex - allocortex ratio: highest…
subcortical structures
White matter
The __________________ is less than si…
Allocortex ('old bark')
The __________________ is 6 layers and…
Neocortex ('new bark')... Neocortex - allocortex ratio: highest…
17 terms
Cortex
Describe types of cortex:
Describe Archicortex
Describe paleocortex
Describe the association fibers
- Neocortex - 6... - Allocortex: - 3... 1. Archicortex... 2. Paleocort…
- 3 layers... Includes:... - Hippocampal formation
- 3 layers (3-5)... - Rhinencephalon ... Includes:... - Parahippocamp…
- Run between gyri within the same hemisphere... 1. Fasiculus o…
Describe types of cortex:
- Neocortex - 6... - Allocortex: - 3... 1. Archicortex... 2. Paleocort…
Describe Archicortex
- 3 layers... Includes:... - Hippocampal formation
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