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Study sets matching "criminal procedure"

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Study sets matching "criminal procedure"

79 terms
Criminal Procedure
Exclusionary Rule
Bond v. United States
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
2-Pronged Test for "Search"
- Remedy under the 4th Amend.... - If search or seizure is found…
- Held the officer's physical manipulation of the exterior of…
- Created the Exclusionary Rule... - Held that "all evidence obt…
1) A person has exhibited an actual (subjective) expectation…
Exclusionary Rule
- Remedy under the 4th Amend.... - If search or seizure is found…
Bond v. United States
- Held the officer's physical manipulation of the exterior of…
102 terms
Criminal Procedure
Territorial jurisdiction
Age jurisdiction overview
Child offenders
Young person offenders
Poynter (2010) suggests must be in NZ unless otherwise expres…
Mostly governed by the children, young persons and their fami…
Aged under 14. Dealt with out of court apart under CYPTF Act…
Young persons (aged 14, 15 or 16) tried in Youth Court - no j…
Territorial jurisdiction
Poynter (2010) suggests must be in NZ unless otherwise expres…
Age jurisdiction overview
Mostly governed by the children, young persons and their fami…
79 terms
Criminal Procedure
The Exclusionary Rule
Bond v. United States
Ohio v. Mapp
2-Pronged Test for "Search"
- Remedy under the 4th Amend.... - If search or seizure is found…
- Held the officer's physical manipulation of the exterior of…
- Created the Exclusionary Rule... - Held that "all evidence obt…
1) A person has exhibited an actual (subjective) expectation…
The Exclusionary Rule
- Remedy under the 4th Amend.... - If search or seizure is found…
Bond v. United States
- Held the officer's physical manipulation of the exterior of…
Criminal Procedure
Stack v. Boyle
U.S. Salerno
U. S. v. Armstrong
Blackledge v. Perry
one; excessive bail
one
one, selective prosecution
one; prosecutor sought higher conviction
Stack v. Boyle
one; excessive bail
U.S. Salerno
one
98 terms
Criminal Procedure
4th amendment
SCOTUS
Indiana Surpreme Court
4th Amendment Check List
Right of the people to be secure in their person, houses, pap…
1. Chief Justice John Roberts... 2. Justice Antonin Scalia... 3. Ju…
1. Chief Justice Loretta Rush... 2. Justice Brent Dickson... 3. Jus…
1. Standing to raise claim... 2. Defendant among the people prot…
4th amendment
Right of the people to be secure in their person, houses, pap…
SCOTUS
1. Chief Justice John Roberts... 2. Justice Antonin Scalia... 3. Ju…
92 terms
Criminal Procedure
Duncan v. Louisiana
District Attorney's Office v. Osborne
Wolf v. Colorado
Mapp v. Ohio
incorporation doctrine- "selective incorporation" as a compro…
No constitutional right to post conviction to access to state…
The Fourteenth Amendment's Due Process Clause does not prohib…
Exclusionary rule made applicable to the states to further th…
Duncan v. Louisiana
incorporation doctrine- "selective incorporation" as a compro…
District Attorney's Office v. Osborne
No constitutional right to post conviction to access to state…
Criminal Procedure
Exclusionary Rule
Exclusionary Rule Exceptions
Fruit of Poisonous Tree
FPT Exceptions
Applies 1) illegally seized evidence 2) coerced confessions/M…
1) Grand Jury )(can be compelled to testify based on illegall…
The doctrine will NOT only exclude illegally seized evidence,…
1) Independent source... 2) Inevitable discovery... 3) Intervening…
Exclusionary Rule
Applies 1) illegally seized evidence 2) coerced confessions/M…
Exclusionary Rule Exceptions
1) Grand Jury )(can be compelled to testify based on illegall…
107 terms
Criminal Procedure
Fourth Amendment
Threshold Requirement
Katz v. United States (Expectation of…
United States v. White
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses…
Is it a government activity? No - 4th does not apply. ... Is it…
Issue: whether a conversation in a public telephone booth is…
Facts: Sent CI informant into D's home using a wire transmitt…
Fourth Amendment
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses…
Threshold Requirement
Is it a government activity? No - 4th does not apply. ... Is it…
19 terms
Criminal procedure
Prosecutor's duty to disclose Exculpat…
Right to Counsel
Effective counsel
6th Amendment
The government has a duty to disclose material, exculpatory e…
D has right to counsel under the 5th and 6th Amendments. ... 5th…
Effective assistance of counsel is presumed unless the advers…
Requires effective assistance at all critical stages of prose…
Prosecutor's duty to disclose Exculpat…
The government has a duty to disclose material, exculpatory e…
Right to Counsel
D has right to counsel under the 5th and 6th Amendments. ... 5th…
Criminal Procedure
Due process. Under the Fourteenth Amen…
When taking a guilty plea, the judge m…
Exclusionary rule. Under the exclusion…
Which amendment refers to search and s…
True
- the nature of the charge and elements of the crime... - the ma…
- Reasonably apparent authority... - The scope of the consent
Fourth
Due process. Under the Fourteenth Amen…
True
When taking a guilty plea, the judge m…
- the nature of the charge and elements of the crime... - the ma…
34 terms
Criminal Procedure
Outline
Exclusion (Outline)
Fruit of the Poisonous Tree
Good Faith Defense
Exclusion... Fourth Amendment - Search and Seizure... Confessions... I…
Fruit of the Poisonous Tree... Good Faith Defense... Good Faith Neg…
Prohibits introduction of evidence obtained in violation of 4…
Reliance on:... 1.) judicial opinion... 2.) statute or ordinance... 3.…
Outline
Exclusion... Fourth Amendment - Search and Seizure... Confessions... I…
Exclusion (Outline)
Fruit of the Poisonous Tree... Good Faith Defense... Good Faith Neg…
64 terms
Criminal Procedure
Government Action
Exceptions to Government Action
Seizure
Test for Seizure
Constitutional protections apply only to government action
Private persons acting as agents. Defense counsel, both publi…
Occurs when: (1) an officer, (2) by means of physical force o…
Whether a reasonable person, in view of the totality of the c…
Government Action
Constitutional protections apply only to government action
Exceptions to Government Action
Private persons acting as agents. Defense counsel, both publi…
67 terms
Criminal Procedure
What is the dual court system?
What cases does the federal system hear?
What cases does the State system hear?
What part of the constitution creates…
The U.S. court system is divided into two separate systems, t…
Criminal and civil cases that involve constitutional and fede…
Criminal and civil cases related to state laws and state cons…
Article 3, section 1
What is the dual court system?
The U.S. court system is divided into two separate systems, t…
What cases does the federal system hear?
Criminal and civil cases that involve constitutional and fede…
77 terms
Criminal Procedure
Constitutional protections apply only to
Seizures
Seizure Test
Seizure Examples
... government actions. ... Two Exceptions:... - private person ac…
When an officer, by means of physical force or a show of auth…
If you are unsure, you question whether a reasonable person w…
Yes:... - shooting a suspect... - officer ramming a car... - tailing a…
Constitutional protections apply only to
... government actions. ... Two Exceptions:... - private person ac…
Seizures
When an officer, by means of physical force or a show of auth…
41 terms
Criminal Procedure
Exclusionary rule
Limitations to the exclusionary rule
Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine
Exceptions to fruit of the poisonous t…
...
...
...
...
Exclusionary rule
...
Limitations to the exclusionary rule
...
48 terms
Criminal Procedure
Where criminal law in the United State…
The three parts the criminal justice s…
Role of Correctional System
Jurisdiction
-Common law... -Constitution... -Statutes ... -Administrative or Regul…
-The police... - The Courts... -Corrections
To Punish, Protect, and Rehabilitation
It is the policy of this state to exercise its jurisdiction o…
Where criminal law in the United State…
-Common law... -Constitution... -Statutes ... -Administrative or Regul…
The three parts the criminal justice s…
-The police... - The Courts... -Corrections
167 terms
Criminal Procedure
2 Compelling/Policy Concerns
What is the USSC concern with when rul…
Teague v. Lang
The Harmless Error Doctrine
"Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely." ... 1.…
Accuracy... Fairness... Efficiency... Limiting government
Any new Constitutional rule announced by the USSC will apply…
USSC: D is entitled to a fair trial but not a perfect one. ... I…
2 Compelling/Policy Concerns
"Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely." ... 1.…
What is the USSC concern with when rul…
Accuracy... Fairness... Efficiency... Limiting government
105 terms
Criminal Procedure
Fourth Amendment Seizures
When does a seizure of property occur?
When does a seizure of the person occur?
What are the two bases for a seizure o…
Rule: Individuals have a right to be free of unreasonable sei…
When the government meaningfully interferes with a person's p…
When a reasonable person would not feel free to terminate the…
(1) Physical restraint; or... (2) Show of authority + submission
Fourth Amendment Seizures
Rule: Individuals have a right to be free of unreasonable sei…
When does a seizure of property occur?
When the government meaningfully interferes with a person's p…
12 terms
Criminal Procedure
What is criminal procedure?
List and describe the 2 categories of…
What 3 things do we need to have in or…
Significance of criminal procedure
The way in which peace officer's lawfully do their job to ens…
1. Substantive law (Tells us what a crime is)... 2. Procedural l…
1. Authority... 2. Burden of proof... 3. Duty
1. Protects the rights of all citizens... 2. Enhances ability to…
What is criminal procedure?
The way in which peace officer's lawfully do their job to ens…
List and describe the 2 categories of…
1. Substantive law (Tells us what a crime is)... 2. Procedural l…
Criminal Procedure
What are the ways a person may be seiz…
What is required for a valid arrest?
What is required for an in-home arrest?
What is required for an arrest in the…
1) Physical restraint... 2) Show of authority + Submission
Probable cause
Arrest warrant... Except if:... 1) Exigent circumstances... 2) Consent
1) Search warrant for the third party's home... 2) Consent from…
What are the ways a person may be seiz…
1) Physical restraint... 2) Show of authority + Submission
What is required for a valid arrest?
Probable cause
72 terms
Criminal Procedure
Miranda v. Search & Seizure
Arrest
Seizure
Step 1: Who is searching?
Miranda- suppression of statements (what suspect said)... Search…
Taking person into custody against her will for purposes of i…
Reasonable person would feel he was not free to decline the o…
Must be a government agent or acting at the direction of the…
Miranda v. Search & Seizure
Miranda- suppression of statements (what suspect said)... Search…
Arrest
Taking person into custody against her will for purposes of i…
57 terms
Criminal Procedure
What is the exclusionary rule?
When may illegally obtained evidence b…
How do the results of a search qualify…
What is the "fruit of the poisonous tr…
Under the exclusionary rule criminal defendant can have the r…
(1) Grand jury proceedings; (2) civil proceedings; (3) parole…
The search violated the constitution or federal statute.
Defendant may exclude all evidence obtained through police il…
What is the exclusionary rule?
Under the exclusionary rule criminal defendant can have the r…
When may illegally obtained evidence b…
(1) Grand jury proceedings; (2) civil proceedings; (3) parole…
21 terms
Criminal Procedure
exceptions to exclusionary rule
leon vs. US
purged taint doctrine
the law of arrests
inevitable discovery rule ... good faith exception- pro government
good faith rule, if the police didnt do anything wrong and it…
wong sun vs. us ... with unconstitutional conduct, all tainted e…
a seizure is not limited to property, you can seize a person
exceptions to exclusionary rule
inevitable discovery rule ... good faith exception- pro government
leon vs. US
good faith rule, if the police didnt do anything wrong and it…
9 terms
Criminal Procedure
Stop and Frisk... What must be shown unde…
Police Checkpoints
Requirement to search car without warr…
Major Exceptions to the warrant requir…
1. Under Terry, police must show: a. reasonable suspicion, an…
1. Cars are stopped on a neutral, articulable standard (every…
Probable cause that there are seizable items or contraband in…
1. Consent... 2. Automobile... 3. Plain view... 4. Exigent circumstanc…
Stop and Frisk... What must be shown unde…
1. Under Terry, police must show: a. reasonable suspicion, an…
Police Checkpoints
1. Cars are stopped on a neutral, articulable standard (every…
10 terms
Criminal Procedure
Katz vs United States
no expectation of privacy
Chimel vs California
United States vs Ross
protects people; search is an intrusion wheres there is a rea…
plain view, fields, abandoned property, airlines
cant search a home without a warrent
search containers in car
Katz vs United States
protects people; search is an intrusion wheres there is a rea…
no expectation of privacy
plain view, fields, abandoned property, airlines
8 terms
Criminal Procedure
When is exclusion not an available rem…
The Fruit of the Poisonous Tree doctri…
How can the gov't break the chain btwn…
What is the automobile exception?
Grand jury proceedings, civil proceedings, parol revocation p…
Miranda violations unless police acted in bad faith when obta…
Independent source, inevitable discovery, intervening acts of…
Police can stop a car and search it in its entirety, if they…
When is exclusion not an available rem…
Grand jury proceedings, civil proceedings, parol revocation p…
The Fruit of the Poisonous Tree doctri…
Miranda violations unless police acted in bad faith when obta…
12 terms
Criminal Procedure
What are the three classifications of…
What did the Runciman Commission 1993…
What is a cracked trial?
What does the Criminal Procedure and I…
Summary- Assault, Battery... Triable either way- Theft, ABH... Indi…
Recommend removing the defendants right to choose trial by jury
Defendant pleads not guilty at the magistrates court to a TEW…
The procedure on where a TEW offence case will be tried
What are the three classifications of…
Summary- Assault, Battery... Triable either way- Theft, ABH... Indi…
What did the Runciman Commission 1993…
Recommend removing the defendants right to choose trial by jury
16 terms
Criminal Procedure
May a witness, who is not on trial, be…
What is necessary for a guilty plea wa…
When does the sixth amendment right to…
What is false pretenses?
Yes. However, she retains her 5A right against self-incrimina…
"Voluntary and intelligent choice." To ensure this, the (1) j…
Until the defendant has been arrested or charged.
It consists of obtaining title to property of another by an i…
May a witness, who is not on trial, be…
Yes. However, she retains her 5A right against self-incrimina…
What is necessary for a guilty plea wa…
"Voluntary and intelligent choice." To ensure this, the (1) j…
113 terms
Criminal Procedure
Is the search or seizure governed by t…
Was the search and seizure executed by…
Was there a reasonable expectation of…
Unprotected items (no reasonable expec…
1) Was the search and seizure executed by a government agent?…
1) Publicly apdi police both on and off duty... 2) Private citiz…
Protects unreasonable searches of:... 1) Persons... 2) Houses, incl…
1) Paint scrapings... 2) Account records from a bank... 3) Airspace…
Is the search or seizure governed by t…
1) Was the search and seizure executed by a government agent?…
Was the search and seizure executed by…
1) Publicly apdi police both on and off duty... 2) Private citiz…
57 terms
Criminal Procedure
What is the exclusionary rule?
When may illegally obtained evidence b…
How do the results of a search qualify…
What is the "fruit of the poisonous tr…
Under the exclusionary rule criminal defendant can have the r…
(1) Grand jury proceedings; (2) civil proceedings; (3) parole…
The search violated the constitution or federal statute.
Defendant may exclude all evidence obtained through police il…
What is the exclusionary rule?
Under the exclusionary rule criminal defendant can have the r…
When may illegally obtained evidence b…
(1) Grand jury proceedings; (2) civil proceedings; (3) parole…
39 terms
Criminal Procedure
4th Amendment Approach
4th Amendment Rule Statement
4th: Was there government conduct?
4th: Does the defendant have standing…
1. Was there government conduct... 2. Does the Defendant have st…
The Fourth Amendment protects citizens from unreasonable sear…
There must be some type of police or other government officia…
In order for the defendant to show they have standing they mu…
4th Amendment Approach
1. Was there government conduct... 2. Does the Defendant have st…
4th Amendment Rule Statement
The Fourth Amendment protects citizens from unreasonable sear…
102 terms
Criminal Procedure
5 things for which exclusionary rule i…
Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine
3 ways government can break the chain…
Even if evidence is admitted at trial…
1. Grand jury proceedings... 2. Civil proceedings... 3. Parole revo…
All evidence obtained or derived from police illegality will…
The 3 I's... 1. Independent source for the evidence... 2. Inevitabl…
Harmless error
5 things for which exclusionary rule i…
1. Grand jury proceedings... 2. Civil proceedings... 3. Parole revo…
Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine
All evidence obtained or derived from police illegality will…
12 terms
Criminal Procedure
examples of a summary offence...
Which court are summary offences tried…
which court are triable either way off…
examples of triable either way offence…
-driving offences ... -common assault
-Magistrates Court
-Magistrates Court or Crown Court
-theft... -assault causing actual bodily harm
examples of a summary offence...
-driving offences ... -common assault
Which court are summary offences tried…
-Magistrates Court
38 terms
Criminal Procedure
What are the exceptions to the exclusi…
What are the exceptions to when police…
When may evidence excluded under the e…
What is the fruit of the poisonous tre…
(1) grand jury proceedings; (2) civil proceedings; (3) when a…
(1) when the issuing magistrate was misled by information in…
(1) An otherwise voluntary confession that violates Miranda c…
A court will excluded not only illegally seized items but als…
What are the exceptions to the exclusi…
(1) grand jury proceedings; (2) civil proceedings; (3) when a…
What are the exceptions to when police…
(1) when the issuing magistrate was misled by information in…
59 terms
Criminal Procedure
Probable Cause to Arrest Standard
What is the correct rule regarding a p…
When may the police conduct a search i…
What are the requirements for the poli…
(i) The officer must have KNOWLEDGE (but NOT necessarily pers…
The police may stop automobiles for investigatory purposes
AFTER a CONSTITUTIONAL arrest
To make a warrantless seizure, the police: ... (i) must be leg…
Probable Cause to Arrest Standard
(i) The officer must have KNOWLEDGE (but NOT necessarily pers…
What is the correct rule regarding a p…
The police may stop automobiles for investigatory purposes
39 terms
Criminal Procedure
What part of the Washington Constituti…
Is the Washington constitution more or…
Are random DUI checkpoints allowed und…
Can a person consent to a warrantless…
Article 1 section 7.
More protective, and state courts engage in independent analy…
No.
Yes, but the police must inform the person that consent is op…
What part of the Washington Constituti…
Article 1 section 7.
Is the Washington constitution more or…
More protective, and state courts engage in independent analy…
38 terms
Criminal Procedure
What are the exceptions to the exclusi…
What are the exceptions to when police…
When may evidence excluded under the e…
What is the fruit of the poisonous tre…
(1) grand jury proceedings; (2) civil proceedings; (3) when a…
(1) when the issuing magistrate was misled by information in…
(1) An otherwise voluntary confession that violates Miranda c…
A court will excluded not only illegally seized items but als…
What are the exceptions to the exclusi…
(1) grand jury proceedings; (2) civil proceedings; (3) when a…
What are the exceptions to when police…
(1) when the issuing magistrate was misled by information in…
152 terms
Criminal Procedure
Search and Seizure Issues overall
Is the search or seizure governed by t…
Was the search or seizure executed by…
Was the search or seizure of an area o…
1. Was the search or seizure governed by 4A?... 2. Was a search…
1. Was the search or seizure executed by a government agent?…
Who is a gov agent for 4A purposes?... 1. Publicly paid police…
1. The Fourth Amendment expressly protects individuals from u…
Search and Seizure Issues overall
1. Was the search or seizure governed by 4A?... 2. Was a search…
Is the search or seizure governed by t…
1. Was the search or seizure executed by a government agent?…
25 terms
Criminal Procedure
4th Amendment Seizures
4th Amendment: Terry Stops
4th Amendment: Automotive Stops
4th Amendment: Other Stops
Gov't interferes w/ person's possessory interest in property…
Police can detain person/seize property if they have reasonab…
Must have reasonable suspicion or probable cause... Driver & pas…
Must have probable cause (not reasonable suspicion) to bring…
4th Amendment Seizures
Gov't interferes w/ person's possessory interest in property…
4th Amendment: Terry Stops
Police can detain person/seize property if they have reasonab…
27 terms
Criminal Procedure
Probable Cause
Probable Cause to ARREST
Probable Cause for Search
An arrest without probable cause is...
Fact or circumstances that would make a reasonable or prudent…
Refers to the facts or circumstances that make a person belie…
Refers to the facts or circumstances that make an OFFICER bel…
ILLEGAL
Probable Cause
Fact or circumstances that would make a reasonable or prudent…
Probable Cause to ARREST
Refers to the facts or circumstances that make a person belie…
102 terms
Criminal Procedure
5 things for which exclusionary rule i…
Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine
3 ways government can break the chain…
Even if evidence is admitted at trial…
1. Grand jury proceedings... 2. Civil proceedings... 3. Parole revo…
All evidence obtained or derived from police illegality will…
The 3 I's... 1. Independent source for the evidence... 2. Inevitabl…
Harmless error
5 things for which exclusionary rule i…
1. Grand jury proceedings... 2. Civil proceedings... 3. Parole revo…
Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine
All evidence obtained or derived from police illegality will…
115 terms
Criminal Procedure
When do constitutional protections app…
Constitutional protections exceptions
When can police approach people in a p…
What is a seizure?
Only apply to government action
Private persons acting as government agents ... Ex. The governme…
Police can approach anyone in a public place, and unless the…
Occurs when an officer, but physical force or a show of autho…
When do constitutional protections app…
Only apply to government action
Constitutional protections exceptions
Private persons acting as government agents ... Ex. The governme…
68 terms
criminal procedure
one or more charges is a misdemeanor f…
case in which only offense charged are…
how many counties in PA and which dist…
population and geographic. within this…
court case
summary case
67 and judicial
magisterial district
one or more charges is a misdemeanor f…
court case
case in which only offense charged are…
summary case
9 terms
Criminal procedure
Adversial system
Investigation and arrest
First Court Appearance
Probable cause hearing
Contest between opposing sides
Take someone into custody to charge suspect with crime
Judges inform arrestee of charge against him and determine bail
Determine if theres enough evidence to believe crime committe…
Adversial system
Contest between opposing sides
Investigation and arrest
Take someone into custody to charge suspect with crime
38 terms
Criminal Procedure
overview
four global issues of search and seizure
Threshold question: Is the search or s…
was the search or seizure executed by…
most important topic: 4th amendment search and seizure... secon…
1. did goverment search or seizure you?... 2. if so, was it reas…
1. was the search or seizure executed by a government agent?…
most important category: public paid police... additional categ…
overview
most important topic: 4th amendment search and seizure... secon…
four global issues of search and seizure
1. did goverment search or seizure you?... 2. if so, was it reas…
23 terms
Criminal Procedure
Magistrate
Gerstein hearing
Information
Discovery
A lawyer appointed by a district court judge for an 8 year term
First appearance in a warrantless arrest, determines whether…
Determination of probable cause to support the charge
Court order to obtain information
Magistrate
A lawyer appointed by a district court judge for an 8 year term
Gerstein hearing
First appearance in a warrantless arrest, determines whether…
Criminal Procedure
Fourth Amendment
Trespass based test for Fourth Amendme…
privacy based test for fourth amendmen…
4 questions to ask for a valid warrant
protects individuals from unreasonable searches and seizures…
the agent physically intruded on a constitutionally protected…
the agents search or seizure of a constitutionally protected…
1. was the warrant issued by a neutral and detached magistrat…
Fourth Amendment
protects individuals from unreasonable searches and seizures…
Trespass based test for Fourth Amendme…
the agent physically intruded on a constitutionally protected…
28 terms
Criminal Procedure
Fourth Amendment Applicability
Requirements for a Warrant Search to b…
Acceptable Warrantless Searaches
Terry Stop and Terry Frisk
Applies to searches and seizures executed by a government age…
Valid if either... 1) Warrant was supported by probable cause an…
Eight exceptions to warrant requirement (ESCAPIST)... 1) Exigent…
A Terry stop occurs when a person is briefly seized for purpo…
Fourth Amendment Applicability
Applies to searches and seizures executed by a government age…
Requirements for a Warrant Search to b…
Valid if either... 1) Warrant was supported by probable cause an…
10 terms
Criminal Procedure
Due Process Amendment for Federal
Due Process Amendment for States
Palko v. Connecticut Facts
Palko v. Connecticut Rule of Law
5th Amendment
14th Amendment
D was indicted for 1st murder. Jury returned murder for 2nd d…
The double jeopardy prohibition provision included in the 5th…
Due Process Amendment for Federal
5th Amendment
Due Process Amendment for States
14th Amendment
110 terms
Criminal Procedure
Search and seizure roadmap
Step 1: Whether the rights are protect…
Step 1: Government agent (4th amend se…
Step 1: Area or item protected (4th am…
1. Whether rights are protected under 4th amend.?... 2a. With a…
1. Governmental agent?... 2. Area or item protected?... 3. Physical…
Publicly paid police (on and off duty)... Private citizens actin…
Persons... Houses (including hotel rooms and curtilage (front po…
Search and seizure roadmap
1. Whether rights are protected under 4th amend.?... 2a. With a…
Step 1: Whether the rights are protect…
1. Governmental agent?... 2. Area or item protected?... 3. Physical…
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